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  • 1. Comas-Bru, Laia
    et al.
    Harrison, Sandy P.
    Werner, Martin
    Rehfeld, Kira
    Scroxton, Nick
    Veiga-Pires, Cristina
    Ahmad, Syed Masood
    Brahim, Yassine Ait
    Mozhdehi, Sahar Amirnezhad
    Arienzo, Monica
    Atsawawaranunt, Kamolphat
    Baker, Andy
    Braun, Kerstin
    Breitenbach, Sebastian
    Burstyn, Yuval
    Chawchai, Sakonvan
    Columbu, Andrea
    Deininger, Michael
    Demeny, Attila
    Dixon, Bronwyn
    Hatvani, Istvan Gabor
    Hu, Jun
    Kaushal, Nikita
    Kern, Zoltan
    Labuhn, Inga
    Lachniet, Matthew S.
    Lechleitner, Franziska A.
    Lorrey, Andrew
    Markowska, Monika
    Nehme, Carole
    Novello, Valdir F.
    Oster, Jessica
    Perez-Mejias, Carlos
    Pickering, Robyn
    Sekhon, Natasha
    Wang, Xianfeng
    Warken, Sophie
    Atkinson, Tim
    Ayalon, Avner
    Baldini, James
    Bar-Matthews, Miryam
    Bernal, Juan Pablo
    Boch, Ronny
    Borsato, Andrea
    Boyd, Meighan
    Brierley, Chris
    Cai, Yanjun
    Carolin, Stacy
    Cheng, Hai
    Constantin, Silviu
    Couchoud, Isabelle
    Cruz, Francisco
    Denniston, Rhawn
    Dragusin, Virgil
    Duan, Wuhui
    Ersek, Vasile
    Finne, Martin
    Fleitmann, Dominik
    Fohlmeister, Jens
    Frappier, Amy
    Genty, Dominique
    Holzkämper, Steffen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Hopley, Philip
    Johnston, Vanessa
    Kathayat, Gayatri
    Keenan-Jones, Duncan
    Koltai, Gabriella
    Li, Ting-Yong
    Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad
    Luetscher, Marc
    Mattey, Dave
    Moreno, Ana
    Moseley, Gina
    Psomiadis, David
    Ruan, Jiaoyang
    Scholz, Denis
    Sha, Lijuan
    Smith, Andrew Christopher
    Strikis, Nicolas
    Treble, Pauline
    Unal-Imer, Ezgi
    Vaks, Anton
    Vansteenberge, Stef
    Voarintsoa, Ny Riavo G.
    Wong, Corinne
    Wortham, Barbara
    Wurtzel, Jennifer
    Zhang, Haiwei
    Evaluating model outputs using integrated global speleothem records of climate change since the last glacial2019In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 1557-1579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although quantitative isotope data from speleothems has been used to evaluate isotope-enabled model simulations, currently no consensus exists regarding the most appropriate methodology through which to achieve this. A number of modelling groups will be running isotope-enabled palaeoclimate simulations in the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6, so it is timely to evaluate different approaches to using the speleothem data for data-model comparisons. Here, we illustrate this using 456 globally distributed speleothem delta O-18 records from an updated version of the Speleothem Isotopes Synthesis and Analysis (SISAL) database and palaeoclimate simulations generated using the ECHAM5-wiso isotope-enabled atmospheric circulation model. We show that the SISAL records reproduce the first-order spatial patterns of isotopic variability in the modern day, strongly supporting the application of this dataset for evaluating model-derived isotope variability into the past. However, the discontinuous nature of many speleothem records complicates the process of procuring large numbers of records if data-model comparisons are made using the traditional approach of comparing anomalies between a control period and a given palaeoclimate experiment. To circumvent this issue, we illustrate techniques through which the absolute isotope values during any time period could be used for model evaluation. Specifically, we show that speleothem isotope records allow an assessment of a model's ability to simulate spatial isotopic trends. Our analyses provide a protocol for using speleothem isotope data for model evaluation, including screening the observations to take into account the impact of speleothem mineralogy on delta O-18 values, the optimum period for the modern observational baseline and the selection of an appropriate time window for creating means of the isotope data for palaeo-time-slices.

  • 2. Goni, Maria Fernanda Sanchez
    et al.
    Desprat, Stephanie
    Daniau, Anne-Laure
    Bassinot, Frank C.
    Polanco-Martinez, Josue M.
    Harrison, Sandy P.
    Allen, Judy R. M.
    Anderson, R. Scott
    Behling, Hermann
    Bonnefille, Raymonde
    Burjachs, Francesc
    Carrion, Jose S.
    Cheddadi, Rachid
    Clark, James S.
    Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie
    Mustaphi, Colin. J. Courtney
    Debusk, Georg H.
    Dupont, Lydie M.
    Finch, Jemma M.
    Fletcher, William J.
    Giardini, Marco
    Gonzalez, Catalina
    Gosling, William D.
    Grigg, Laurie D.
    Grimm, Eric C.
    Hayashi, Ryoma
    Helmens, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Heusser, Linda E.
    Hill, Trevor
    Hope, Geoffrey
    Huntley, Brian
    Igarashi, Yaeko
    Irino, Tomohisa
    Jacobs, Bonnie
    Jimenez-Moreno, Gonzalo
    Kawai, Sayuri
    Kershaw, A. Peter
    Kumon, Fujio
    Lawson, Ian T.
    Ledru, Marie-Pierre
    Lezine, Anne-Marie
    Liew, Ping Mei
    Magri, Donatella
    Marchant, Robert
    Margari, Vasiliki
    Mayle, Francis E.
    McKenzie, G. Merna
    Moss, Patrick
    Mueller, Stefanie
    Mueller, Ulrich C.
    Naughton, Filipa
    Newnham, Rewi M.
    Oba, Tadamichi
    Perez-Obiol, Ramon
    Pini, Roberta
    Ravazzi, Cesare
    Roucoux, Katy H.
    Rucina, Stephen M.
    Scott, Louis
    Takahara, Hikaru
    Tzedakis, Polichronis C.
    Urrego, Dunia H.
    van Geel, Bas
    Valencia, B. Guido
    Vandergoes, Marcus J.
    Vincens, Annie
    Whitlock, Cathy L.
    Willard, Debra A.
    Yamamoto, Masanobu
    The ACER pollen and charcoal database: a global resource to document vegetation and fire response to abrupt climate changes during the last glacial period2017In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 679-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quaternary records provide an opportunity to examine the nature of the vegetation and fire responses to rapid past climate changes comparable in velocity and magnitude to those expected in the 21st-century. The best documented examples of rapid climate change in the past are the warming events associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles during the last glacial period, which were sufficiently large to have had a potential feedback through changes in albedo and greenhouse gas emissions on climate. Previous reconstructions of vegetation and fire changes during the D-O cycles used independently constructed age models, making it difficult to compare the changes between different sites and regions. Here, we present the ACER (Abrupt Climate Changes and Environmental Responses) global database, which includes 93 pollen records from the last glacial period (73-15 ka) with a temporal resolution better than 1000 years, 32 of which also provide charcoal records. A harmonized and consistent chronology based on radiometric dating (C-14, U-234/Th-230, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), Ar-40/Ar-39-dated tephra layers) has been constructed for 86 of these records, although in some cases additional information was derived using common control points based on event stratigraphy. The ACER database compiles metadata including geospatial and dating information, pollen and charcoal counts, and pollen percentages of the characteristic biomes and is archived in Microsoft Access (TM) at https://doi. org/10.1594/PANGAEA. 870867.

  • 3. Kageyama, Masa
    et al.
    Albani, Samuel
    Braconnot, Pascale
    Harrison, Sandy P.
    Hopcroft, Peter O.
    Ivanovic, Ruza F.
    Lambert, Fabrice
    Marti, Olivier
    Peltier, W. Richard
    Peterschmitt, Jean-Yves
    Roche, Didier M.
    Tarasov, Lev
    Zhang, Xu
    Brady, Esther C.
    Haywood, Alan M.
    LeGrande, Allegra N.
    Lunt, Daniel J.
    Mahowald, Natalie M.
    Mikolajewicz, Uwe
    Nisancioglu, Kerim H.
    Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.
    Renssen, Hans
    Tomas, Robert A.
    Zhang, Qiong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Abe-Ouchi, Ayako
    Bartlein, Patrick J.
    Cao, Jian
    Li, Qiang
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lohmann, Gerrit
    Ohgaito, Rumi
    Shi, Xiaoxu
    Volodin, Evgeny
    Yoshida, Kohei
    Zhang, Xiao
    Zheng, Weipeng
    The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6-Part 4: Scientific objectives and experimental design of the PMIP4-CMIP6 Last Glacial Maximum experiments and PMIP4 sensitivity experiments2017In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 4035-4055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 000 years ago) is one of the suite of paleoclimate simulations included in the current phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). It is an interval when insolation was similar to the present, but global ice volume was at a maximum, eustatic sea level was at or close to a minimum, greenhouse gas concentrations were lower, atmospheric aerosol loadings were higher than today, and vegetation and land-surface characteristics were different from today. The LGM has been a focus for the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) since its inception, and thus many of the problems that might be associated with simulating such a radically different climate are well documented. The LGM state provides an ideal case study for evaluating climate model performance because the changes in forcing and temperature between the LGM and pre-industrial are of the same order of magnitude as those projected for the end of the 21st century. Thus, the CMIP6 LGM experiment could provide additional information that can be used to constrain estimates of climate sensitivity. The design of the Tier 1 LGM experiment (lgm) includes an assessment of uncertainties in boundary conditions, in particular through the use of different reconstructions of the ice sheets and of the change in dust forcing. Additional (Tier 2) sensitivity experiments have been designed to quantify feedbacks associated with land-surface changes and aerosol loadings, and to isolate the role of individual forcings. Model analysis and evaluation will capitalize on the relative abundance of paleoenvironmental observations and quantitative climate reconstructions already available for the LGM.

  • 4. Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.
    et al.
    Braconnot, Pascale
    Harrison, Sandy P.
    Lunt, Daniel J.
    Abe-Ouchi, Ayako
    Albani, Samuel
    Bartlein, Patrick J.
    Capron, Emilie
    Carlson, Anders E.
    Dutton, Andrea
    Fischer, Hubertus
    Goelzer, Heiko
    Govin, Aline
    Haywood, Alan
    Joos, Fortunat
    LeGrande, Allegra N.
    Lipscomb, William H.
    Lohmann, Gerrit
    Mahowald, Natalie
    Nehrbass-Ahles, Christoph
    Pausata, Francesco S. R.
    Peterschmitt, Jean-Yves
    Phipps, Steven J.
    Renssen, Hans
    Zhang, Qiong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6-Part 2: Two interglacials, scientific objective and experimental design for Holocene and Last Interglacial simulations2017In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 3979-4003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two interglacial epochs are included in the suite of Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP4) simulations in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). The experimental protocols for simulations of the mid-Holocene (midHolocene, 6000 years before present) and the Last Interglacial (lig127k, 127 000 years before present) are described here. These equilibrium simulations are designed to examine the impact of changes in orbital forcing at times when atmospheric greenhouse gas levels were similar to those of the preindustrial period and the continental configurations were almost identical to modern ones. These simulations test our understanding of the interplay between radiative forcing and atmospheric circulation, and the connections among large-scale and regional climate changes giving rise to phenomena such as land-sea contrast and high-latitude amplification in temperature changes, and responses of the monsoons, as compared to today. They also provide an opportunity, through carefully designed additional sensitivity experiments, to quantify the strength of atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, and land-surface feedbacks. Sensitivity experiments are proposed to investigate the role of freshwater forcing in triggering abrupt climate changes within interglacial epochs. These feedback experiments naturally lead to a focus on climate evolution during interglacial periods, which will be examined through transient experiments. Analyses of the sensitivity simulations will also focus on interactions between extratropical and tropical circulation, and the relationship between changes in mean climate state and climate variability on annual to multi-decadal timescales. The comparative abundance of paleoenvironmental data and of quantitative climate reconstructions for the Holocene and Last Interglacial make these two epochs ideal candidates for systematic evaluation of model performance, and such comparisons will shed new light on the importance of external feedbacks (e.g., vegetation, dust) and the ability of state-of-the-art models to simulate climate changes realistically.

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