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  • 1. Ranta, E.
    et al.
    Stockmann, G.
    Wagner, T.
    Fusswinkel, T.
    Sturkell, E.
    Tollefsen, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Skelton, Alasdair
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Fluid-rock reactions in the 1.3Ga siderite carbonatite of the GrOnnedal-ika alkaline complex, Southwest Greenland2018In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 173, no 10, article id 78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Petrogenetic studies of carbonatites are challenging, because carbonatite mineral assemblages and mineral chemistry typically reflect both variable pressure-temperature conditions during crystallization and fluid-rock interaction caused by magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. However, this complexity results in recognizable alteration textures and trace-element signatures in the mineral archive that can be used to reconstruct the magmatic evolution and fluid-rock interaction history of carbonatites. We present new LA-ICP-MS trace-element data for magnetite, calcite, siderite, and ankerite-dolomite-kutnohorite from the iron-rich carbonatites of the 1.3Ga GrOnnedal-ika alkaline complex, Southwest Greenland. We use these data, in combination with detailed cathodoluminescence imaging, to identify magmatic and secondary geochemical fingerprints preserved in these minerals. The chemical and textural gradients show that a 55m-thick basaltic dike that crosscuts the carbonatite intrusion has acted as the pathway for hydrothermal fluids enriched in F and CO2, which have caused mobilization of the LREEs, Nb, Ta, Ba, Sr, Mn, and P. These fluids reacted with and altered the composition of the surrounding carbonatites up to a distance of 40m from the dike contact and caused formation of magnetite through oxidation of siderite. Our results can be used for discrimination between primary magmatic minerals and later alteration-related assemblages in carbonatites in general, which can lead to a better understanding of how these rare rocks are formed. Our data provide evidence that siderite-bearing ferrocarbonatites can form during late stages of calciocarbonatitic magma evolution.

  • 2.
    Skelton, Alasdair
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Liljedahl-Claesson, L.
    Wästeby, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Andrén, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Stockmann, G.
    Sturkell, E.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Stefansson, A.
    Tollefsen, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Siegmund, Heike
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Keller, N.
    Kjartansdóttir, R.
    Hjartarson, H.
    Kockum, I.
    Hydrochemical Changes Before and After Earthquakes Based on Long-Term Measurements of Multiple Parameters at Two Sites in Northern IcelandA Review2019In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth, ISSN 2169-9313, E-ISSN 2169-9356, Vol. 124, no 3, p. 2702-2720Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrochemical changes before and after earthquakes have been reported for over 50years. However, few reports provide sufficient data for an association to be verified statistically. Also, no mechanism has been proposed to explain why hydrochemical changes are observed far from earthquake foci where associated strains are small (<10(-8)). Here we address these challenges based on time series of multiple hydrochemical parameters from two sites in northern Iceland. We report hydrochemical changes before and after M >5 earthquakes in 2002, 2012, and 2013. The longevity of the time series (10 and 16years) permits statistical verification of coupling between hydrochemical changes and earthquakes. We used a Student t test to find significant hydrochemical changes and a binomial test to confirm association with earthquakes. Probable association was confirmed for preseismic changes based on five parameters (Na, Si, K, O-18, and H-2) and postseismic changes based on eight parameters (Ca, Na, Si, Cl, F, SO4, O-18, and H-2). Using concentration ratios and stable isotope values, we showed that (1) gradual preseismic changes were caused by source mixing, which resulted in a shift from equilibrium and triggered water-rock interaction; (2) postseismic changes were caused by rapid source mixing; and (3) longer-term hydrochemical changes were caused by source mixing and mineral growth. Because hydrochemical changes occur at small earthquake-related strains, we attribute source mixing and water-rock interaction to microscale fracturing. Because fracture density and size scale inversely, we infer that mixing of nearby sources and water-rock interaction are feasible responses to small earthquake-related strains. Plain Language Summary Changes in groundwater chemistry before and after earthquakes have been reported for over 50years. However, few studies have been able to prove that the earthquakes caused these changes. Also, no study has explained why these changes are often reported far from where the earthquake occurred. Here we address these challenges based on measurements of groundwater chemistry made at two sites in northern Iceland over time periods of 10 and 16years. We used statistical methods to prove that the earthquakes caused changes of ground water chemistry both before and after the earthquakes. We showed that changes of groundwater chemistry before earthquakes were caused by slow mixing between different groundwaters, which triggered reactions with the wall rock that changed groundwater chemistry, and that changes of groundwater chemistry after earthquakes were causes by rapid mixing between different groundwaters. That these changes were detected far from where the earthquakes occurred suggests that cracking of the wall rock at a very small scale was all that was needed for mixing of different groundwaters and reactions with the wall rock to occur.

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