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  • 1. Raaschou-Nielsen, O.
    et al.
    Beelen, R.
    Wang, M.
    Hoek, G.
    Andersen, Z. J.
    Hoffmann, B.
    Stafoggia, M.
    Samoli, E.
    Weinmayr, G.
    Dimakopoulou, K.
    Nieuwenhuijsen, M.
    Xun, W. W.
    Fischer, P.
    Eriksen, K. T.
    Sorensen, M.
    Tjonneland, A.
    Ricceri, F.
    De Hoogh, K.
    Key, T.
    Eeftens, M.
    Peeters, P. H.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.
    Meliefste, K.
    Oftedal, B.
    Schwarze, P. E.
    Nafstad, P.
    Galassi, C.
    Migliore, E.
    Ranzi, A.
    Cesaroni, G.
    Badaloni, C.
    Forastiere, F.
    Penell, J.
    De Faire, U.
    Korek, M.
    Pedersen, N.
    Ostenson, C. -G.
    Pershagen, G.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Concin, H.
    Nagel, G.
    Jaensch, A.
    Ineichen, A.
    Naccarati, A.
    Katsoulis, M.
    Trichpoulou, A.
    Keuken, M.
    Jedynska, A.
    Kooter, I. M.
    Kukkonen, J.
    Brunekreef, B.
    Sokhi, R. S.
    Katsouyanni, K.
    Vineis, P.
    Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 87, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. Methods: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We geocoded baseline addresses and assessed air pollution with land-use regression models for eight elements (Cu, Fe, K, Ni, S, Si, V and Zn) in size fractions of PM2.5 and PM10. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effect models for meta-analysis. Results: The 245,782 cohort members contributed 3,229,220 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean, 13.1 years), 1878 incident cases of lung cancer were diagnosed. In the meta-analyses, elevated hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer were associated with all elements except V; none was statistically significant In analyses restricted to participants who did not change residence during follow-up, statistically significant associations were found for PM2.5 Cu (HR, 125; 95% Cl, 1.01-1.53 per 5 ng/m(3)), PM10 Zn (1.28; 1.02-1.59 per 20 ng/m3), PMio S (1.58; 1.03-2.44 per 200 ng/m(3)), PM10 Ni (1.59; 1.12-2.26 per 2 ng/m(3)) and PM10K (1.17; 1.02-1.33 per 100 ng/m(3)). In two-pollutant models, associations between PMio and PM2.5 and lung cancer were largely explained by PM2.5 S. Conclusions: This study indicates that the association between PM in air pollution and lung cancer can be attributed to various PM components and sources. PM containing S and Ni might be particularly important.

  • 2. Weinmayr, Gudrun
    et al.
    Pedersen, Marie
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Andersen, Zorana J.
    Galassi, Claudia
    Munkenast, Jule
    Jaensch, Andrea
    Oftedal, Bente
    Krog, Norun H.
    Aamodt, Geir
    Pyko, Andrei
    Pershagen, Goran
    Korek, Michal
    De Faire, Ulf
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Sorensen, Mette
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Concin, Hans
    Lang, Alois
    Wang, Meng
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Forastiere, Francesco
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Beelen, Rob
    Vineis, Paolo
    Kooter, Ingeborg
    Sokhi, Ranjeet
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Particulate matter air pollution components and incidence of cancers of the stomach and the upper aerodigestive tract in the European Study of Cohorts of Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 120, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Previous analysis from the large European multicentre ESCAPE study showed an association of ambient particulate matter < 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) air pollution exposure at residence with the incidence of gastric cancer. It is unclear which components of PM are most relevant for gastric and also upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and some of them may not be strongly correlated with PM mass. We evaluated the association between long-term exposure to elemental components of PM2.5 and PM10 and gastric and UADT cancer incidence in European adults.

    Methods: Baseline addresses of individuals were geocoded and exposure was assessed by land-use regression models for copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) representing non-tailpipe traffic emissions; sulphur (S) indicating long-range transport; nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) for mixed oil-burning and industry; silicon (Si) for crustal material and potassium (K) for biomass burning. Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined with random effects meta-analyses.

    Results: Ten cohorts in six countries contributed data on 227,044 individuals with an average follow-up of 14.9 years with 633 incident cases of gastric cancer and 763 of UADT cancer. The combined hazard ratio (HR) for an increase of 200 ng/m(3) of PM2.5_S was 1.92 (95%-confidence interval (95%-CI) 1.13; 3.27) for gastric cancer, with no indication of heterogeneity between cohorts (I-2= 0%), and 1.63 (95%-CI 0.88; 3.01) for PM2.5_Zn (I-2= 70%). For the other elements in PM2.5 and all elements in PM10 including PM10_S, non-significant HRs between 0.78 and 1.21 with mostly wide CIs were seen. No association was found between any of the elements and UADT cancer. The HR for PM2.5_S and gastric cancer was robust to adjustment for additional factors, including diet, and restriction to study participants with stable addresses over follow-up resulted in slightly higher effect estimates with a decrease in precision. In a two-pollutant model, the effect estimate for total PM2.5 decreased whereas that for PM2.5_S was robust.

    Conclusion: This large multicentre cohort study shows a robust association between gastric cancer and long-term exposure to PM2.5 S but not PM10 S, suggesting that S in PM2.5 or correlated air pollutants may contribute to the risk of gastric cancer.

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