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  • 1. Attard, K. M.
    et al.
    Rodil, Iván F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Berg, P.
    Norkko, J.
    Norkko, Alf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Glud, R. N.
    Seasonal metabolism and carbon export potential of a key coastal habitat: The perennial canopy-forming macroalga Fucus vesiculosus2019In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 149-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The important role of macroalgal canopies in the oceanic carbon (C) cycle is increasingly being recognized, but direct assessments of community productivity remain scarce. We conducted a seasonal study on a sublittoral Baltic Sea canopy of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, a prominent species in temperate and Arctic waters. We investigated community production on hourly, daily, and seasonal timescales. Aquatic eddy covariance (AEC) oxygen flux measurements integrated similar to 40 m(2) of the seabed surface area and documented considerable oxygen production by the canopy year-round. High net oxygen production rates of up to 35 +/- 9 mmol m(-2) h(-1) were measured under peak irradiance of similar to 1200 mu mol photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) m(-2) s(-1) in summer. However, high rates > 15 mmol m(-2) h(-1) were also measured in late winter (March) under low light intensities < 250 mu mol PAR m(-2) s(-1) and water temperatures of similar to 1 degrees C. In some cases, hourly AEC fluxes documented an apparent release of oxygen by the canopy under dark conditions, which may be due to gas storage dynamics within internal air spaces of F. vesiculosus. Daily net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) was positive (net autotrophic) in all but one of the five measurement campaigns (December). A simple regression model predicted a net autotrophic canopy for two-thirds of the year, and annual canopy NEM amounted to 25 mol O-2 m(-2) yr(-1), approximately six-fold higher than net phytoplankton production. Canopy C export was similar to 0.3 kg C m(-2) yr(-1), comparable to canopy standing biomass in summer. Macroalgal canopies thus represent regions of intensified C assimilation and export in coastal waters.

  • 2.
    Rodil, Iván F.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Attard, Karl M.
    Norkko, Joanna
    Glud, Ronnie N.
    Norkko, Alf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Towards a sampling design for characterizing habitat-specific benthic biodiversity related to oxygen flux dynamics using Aquatic Eddy Covariance2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 2, article id e0211673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Aquatic Eddy Covariance (AEC) technique has emerged as an important method to quantify in situ seafloor metabolism over large areas of heterogeneous benthic communities, enabling cross-habitat comparisons of seafloor productivity. However, the lack of a corresponding sampling protocol to perform biodiversity comparisons across habitats is impeding a full assessment of marine ecosystem metabolism. Here, we study a range of coastal benthic habitats, from rocky-bed communities defined by either perennial macroalgae or blue mussel beds to soft-sediment communities comprised of either seagrass, patches of different macrophyte species or bare sand. We estimated that the maximum contribution to the AEC metabolic flux can be found for a seafloor area of approximately 80 m(2) with a 5 meter upstream distance of the instrument across all the habitats. We conducted a sampling approach to characterize and quantify the dominant features of biodiversity (i.e., community biomass) within the main seafloor area of maximum metabolic contribution (i.e., gross primary production and community respiration) measured by the AEC. We documented a high biomass contribution of the macroalgal Fucus vesiculosus, the seagrass Zostera marina and the macroinvertebrate Mytilus edulis to the net ecosystem metabolism of the habitats. We also documented a significant role of the bare sediments for primary productivity compared to vegetated canopies of the soft sediments. The AEC also provided insight into dynamic short-term drivers of productivity such as PAR availability and water flow velocity for the productivity estimate. We regard this study as an important step forward, setting a framework for upcoming research focusing on linking biodiversity metrics and AEC flux measurements across habitats.

  • 3.
    Rodil, Iván F.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lucena-Moya, P.
    Lastra, M.
    The Importance of Environmental and Spatial Factors in the Metacommunity Dynamics of Exposed Sandy Beach Benthic Invertebrates2018In: Estuaries and Coasts, ISSN 1559-2723, E-ISSN 1559-2731, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 206-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the contribution of environmental and spatial factors in determining the metacommunity dynamics of benthic macroinvertebrates in ocean-exposed sandy beaches. A combination of different metacommunity models contributed to the structure of the benthic species, suggesting that the interplay of environmental and spatial factors played a key role in determining the beach community structure. Our study highlights the sensitivity of beach invertebrates to environmental factors such as morphodynamic descriptors, and to oceanographic-related variables (e.g., sea-water temperature). The results also suggest significant spatial signals at a large geographical scale. We applied two different species categorizations, high dispersive vs low dispersive and generalist vs specialist, to disentangle the roles of dispersal mode and habitat specialization in the beach metacommunity structure. The strength of the environmental and spatial factors varied depending on the category of species traits considered, emphasizing the value of using different groups of species in explaining variation in metacommunity dynamics. Low dispersive species showed a better ability to track environmental variability than high dispersive species, which were more spatially constrained. Habitat specialists were better able to track environmental variability than generalists, which were mainly predicted by pure spatial factors. A better understanding of the metacommunity dynamics using different species categorizations can help to improve our predictions about exposed beach community structure, and to prioritize management actions to cope with biodiversity loss in such superlative marine environment.

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