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  • 1. El-Seedi, Hesham R.
    et al.
    Khalifa, Shaden A. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Taher, Eman A.
    Farag, Mohamed A.
    Saeed, Aamer
    Gamal, Mohamed
    Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F.
    Youssef, Diaa
    Musharraf, Syed G.
    Alajlani, Muaaz M.
    Xiao, Jianbo
    Efferth, Thomas
    Cardenolides: Insights from chemical structure and pharmacological utility2019In: Pharmacological Research, ISSN 1043-6618, E-ISSN 1096-1186, Vol. 141, p. 123-175Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are a class of naturally occurring steroid-like compounds, and members of this class have been in clinical use for more than 1500 years. They have been used in folk medicine as arrow poisons, abortifacients, heart tonics, emetics, and diuretics as well as in other applications. The major use of CGs today is based on their ability to inhibit the membrane-bound Na+/K+ -ATPase enzyme, and they are regarded as an effective treatment for congestive heart failure (CHF), cardiac arrhythmia and atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, increasing evidence has indicated the potential cytotoxic effects of CGs against various types of cancer. In this review, we highlight some of the structural features of this class of natural products that are crucial for their efficacy, some methods of isolating these compounds from natural resources, and the structural elucidation tools that have been used. We also describe their physicochemical properties and several modern biotechnological approaches for preparing CGs that do not require plant sources.

  • 2.
    Khalifa, Shaden A. M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Elias, Nizar
    Farag, Mohamed A.
    Chen, Lei
    Saeed, Aamer
    Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F.
    Moustafa, Moustafa S.
    Abd El-Wahed, Aida
    Al-Mousawi, Saleh M.
    Musharraf, Syed G.
    Chang, Fang-Rong
    Iwasaki, Arihiro
    Suenaga, Kiyotake
    Alajlani, Muaaz
    Göransson, Ulf
    El-Seedi, Hesham R.
    Marine Natural Products: A Source of Novel Anticancer Drugs2019In: Marine Drugs, ISSN 1660-3397, E-ISSN 1660-3397, Vol. 17, no 9, article id 491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer remains one of the most lethal diseases worldwide. There is an urgent need for new drugs with novel modes of action and thus considerable research has been conducted for new anticancer drugs from natural sources, especially plants, microbes and marine organisms. Marine populations represent reservoirs of novel bioactive metabolites with diverse groups of chemical structures. This review highlights the impact of marine organisms, with particular emphasis on marine plants, algae, bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, sponges and soft corals. Anti-cancer effects of marine natural products in in vitro and in vivo studies were first introduced; their activity in the prevention of tumor formation and the related compound-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicities were tackled. The possible molecular mechanisms behind the biological effects are also presented. The review highlights the diversity of marine organisms, novel chemical structures, and chemical property space. Finally, therapeutic strategies and the present use of marine-derived components, its future direction and limitations are discussed.

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