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  • 1. Arp, Hans Peter H.
    et al.
    Hale, Sarah E.
    Elmquist Kruså, Marie
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Grabanski, Carol B.
    Miller, David J.
    Hawthorne, Steven B.
    Review of polyoxymethylene passive sampling methods for quantifying freely dissolved porewater concentrations of hydrophobic organic contaminants2015Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 710-720Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods involving polyoxymethylene (POM) as a passive sampler are increasing in popularity to assess contaminant freely dissolved porewater concentrations in soils and sediments. These methods require contaminant-specific POM-water partition coefficients, K-POM. Certain methods for determining K-POM perform reproducibly (within 0.2 log units). However, other methods can give highly varying K-POM values (up to 2 log units), especially for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To account for this variation, the authors tested the influence of key methodological components in K-POM determinations, including POM thickness, extraction procedures, and environmental temperature and salinity, as well as uptake kinetics in mixed and static systems. All inconsistencies in the peer-reviewed literature can be accounted for by the likelihood that thick POM materials (500m or thicker) do not achieve equilibrium (causing negative biases up to 1 log unit), or that certain POM extraction procedures do not ensure quantitative extraction (causing negative biases up to 2 log units). Temperature can also influence K-POM, although all previous literature studies were carried out at room temperature. The present study found that K-POM values at room temperature are independent (within 0.2 log units) of POM manufacture method, of thickness between 17m and 80m, and of salinity between 0% and 10%. Regarding kinetics, monochloro- to hexachloro-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were within 0.2 log units of equilibrium after 28d in the mixed system, but only dichloro-PCBs achieved near equilibrium after 126d in the static system. Based on these insights, recommended methods and K-POM values to facilitate interlaboratory reproducibility are presented.

  • 2. Hale, Sarah E.
    et al.
    Endo, Satoshi
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Zimmerman, Andrew R.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway; University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Sorption of the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and limonene to carbonaceous geosorbents including biochar2015Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 119, s. 881-888Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The sorption of two monoterpenes, alpha pinene and limonene to the carbonaceous geosorbents graphite, bituminous coal, lignite coke, biochar and Pahokee peat was quantified. Polyethylene (PE) passive samplers were calibrated for the first time for these compounds by determining the PE-water partitioning coefficients and used as a tool to determine sorption to the carbonaceous geosorbents. Log KPE-water values were 3.49 +/- 0.58 for alpha pinene and 4.08 +/- 0.27 for limonene. The sorption of limonene to all materials was stronger than that for a pinene (differences of 0.2-13 log units between distribution coefficients for the monoterpenes). Placing K-d values in increasing order for a pinene gave biochar approximate to Pahokee peat approximate to bituminous coal approximate to lignite coke < graphite. For limonene the order was: Pahokee peat approximate to biochar approximate to bituminous coal < graphite approximate to lignite coke. Micropore (defined as pores <1.5 nm) and nanopore surface area (defined as pores 1.5 nm to 50 nm) normalised carbonaceous geosorbent-water distribution coefficients were also calculated. There was no clear correlation of these distribution coefficients with SA. Elemental composition was used to assess the degree of condensation (or alteration) of the carbonaceous geosorbents. The degree of carbonisation increased in the order; Pahokee peat < lignite coke < bituminous coal < biochar < graphite, however this was not correlated with an increase in the experimental distribution coefficients.

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