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  • 1. Pedersen, Marie
    et al.
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Andersen, Zorana J.
    Galassi, Claudia
    Sommar, Johan
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Olsson, David
    Oftedal, Bente
    Krog, Norun H.
    Aamodt, Geir
    Pyko, Andrei
    Pershagen, Goran
    Korek, Michal
    De Faire, Ulf
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Odiaeresi, Claes-Goran
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Sorensen, Mette
    Eriksen, Kirsten T.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Plusquin, Michelle
    Key, Timothy J.
    Jaensch, Andrea
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Concin, Hans
    Wang, Meng
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Grioni, Sara
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Tamayo, Ibon
    Amiano, Pilar
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Stayner, Leslie T.
    Kogevinas, Manolis
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
    Sokhi, Ranjeet
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Beelen, Rob
    Vineis, Paolo
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Is There an Association Between Ambient Air Pollution and Bladder Cancer Incidence? Analysis of 15 European Cohorts2018In: European Urology Focus, ISSN 1540-0085, E-ISSN 1788-618X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ambient air pollution contains low concentrations of carcinogens implicated in the etiology of urinary bladder cancer (BC). Little is known about whether exposure to air pollution influences BC in the general population. Objective: To evaluate the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and BC incidence. Design, setting and participants: We obtained data from 15 population-based cohorts enrolled between 1985 and 2005 in eight European countries (N = 303 431; mean follow-up 14.1 yr). We estimated exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx), particulate matter (PM) with diameter <10 mu m (PM10), <2.5 mu m (PM2.5). between 2.5 and 10 mu m (PM2.5-10). PM2.5 absorbance (soot), elemental constituents of PM, organic carbon, and traffic density at baseline home addresses using standardized land-use regression models from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects project. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We used Cox proportional-hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and meta-analyses to estimate summary hazard ratios (HRS) for BC incidence. Results and limitations: During follow-up, 943 incident BC cases were diagnosed. In the meta-analysis, none of the exposures were associated with BC risk. The summary HRs associated with a 10-mu g/m(3) increase in NO2 and 51-mu g/m(3) increase in PM2.5 were 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-1.08) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.63-1.18), respectively. Limitations include the lack of information about lifetime exposure. Conclusions: There was no evidence of an association between exposure to outdoor air pollution levels at place of residence and risk of BC. Patient summary: We assessed the link between outdoor air pollution at place of residence and bladder cancer using the largest study population to date and extensive assessment of exposure and comprehensive data on personal risk factors such as smoking. We found no association between the levels of outdoor air pollution at place of residence and bladder cancer risk.

  • 2. Raaschou-Nielsen, O.
    et al.
    Beelen, R.
    Wang, M.
    Hoek, G.
    Andersen, Z. J.
    Hoffmann, B.
    Stafoggia, M.
    Samoli, E.
    Weinmayr, G.
    Dimakopoulou, K.
    Nieuwenhuijsen, M.
    Xun, W. W.
    Fischer, P.
    Eriksen, K. T.
    Sorensen, M.
    Tjonneland, A.
    Ricceri, F.
    De Hoogh, K.
    Key, T.
    Eeftens, M.
    Peeters, P. H.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.
    Meliefste, K.
    Oftedal, B.
    Schwarze, P. E.
    Nafstad, P.
    Galassi, C.
    Migliore, E.
    Ranzi, A.
    Cesaroni, G.
    Badaloni, C.
    Forastiere, F.
    Penell, J.
    De Faire, U.
    Korek, M.
    Pedersen, N.
    Ostenson, C. -G.
    Pershagen, G.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Concin, H.
    Nagel, G.
    Jaensch, A.
    Ineichen, A.
    Naccarati, A.
    Katsoulis, M.
    Trichpoulou, A.
    Keuken, M.
    Jedynska, A.
    Kooter, I. M.
    Kukkonen, J.
    Brunekreef, B.
    Sokhi, R. S.
    Katsouyanni, K.
    Vineis, P.
    Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 87, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. Methods: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We geocoded baseline addresses and assessed air pollution with land-use regression models for eight elements (Cu, Fe, K, Ni, S, Si, V and Zn) in size fractions of PM2.5 and PM10. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effect models for meta-analysis. Results: The 245,782 cohort members contributed 3,229,220 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean, 13.1 years), 1878 incident cases of lung cancer were diagnosed. In the meta-analyses, elevated hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer were associated with all elements except V; none was statistically significant In analyses restricted to participants who did not change residence during follow-up, statistically significant associations were found for PM2.5 Cu (HR, 125; 95% Cl, 1.01-1.53 per 5 ng/m(3)), PM10 Zn (1.28; 1.02-1.59 per 20 ng/m3), PMio S (1.58; 1.03-2.44 per 200 ng/m(3)), PM10 Ni (1.59; 1.12-2.26 per 2 ng/m(3)) and PM10K (1.17; 1.02-1.33 per 100 ng/m(3)). In two-pollutant models, associations between PMio and PM2.5 and lung cancer were largely explained by PM2.5 S. Conclusions: This study indicates that the association between PM in air pollution and lung cancer can be attributed to various PM components and sources. PM containing S and Ni might be particularly important.

  • 3. Weinmayr, Gudrun
    et al.
    Pedersen, Marie
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Andersen, Zorana J.
    Galassi, Claudia
    Munkenast, Jule
    Jaensch, Andrea
    Oftedal, Bente
    Krog, Norun H.
    Aamodt, Geir
    Pyko, Andrei
    Pershagen, Goran
    Korek, Michal
    De Faire, Ulf
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Sorensen, Mette
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Concin, Hans
    Lang, Alois
    Wang, Meng
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Forastiere, Francesco
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Beelen, Rob
    Vineis, Paolo
    Kooter, Ingeborg
    Sokhi, Ranjeet
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Particulate matter air pollution components and incidence of cancers of the stomach and the upper aerodigestive tract in the European Study of Cohorts of Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 120, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Previous analysis from the large European multicentre ESCAPE study showed an association of ambient particulate matter < 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) air pollution exposure at residence with the incidence of gastric cancer. It is unclear which components of PM are most relevant for gastric and also upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and some of them may not be strongly correlated with PM mass. We evaluated the association between long-term exposure to elemental components of PM2.5 and PM10 and gastric and UADT cancer incidence in European adults.

    Methods: Baseline addresses of individuals were geocoded and exposure was assessed by land-use regression models for copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) representing non-tailpipe traffic emissions; sulphur (S) indicating long-range transport; nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) for mixed oil-burning and industry; silicon (Si) for crustal material and potassium (K) for biomass burning. Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined with random effects meta-analyses.

    Results: Ten cohorts in six countries contributed data on 227,044 individuals with an average follow-up of 14.9 years with 633 incident cases of gastric cancer and 763 of UADT cancer. The combined hazard ratio (HR) for an increase of 200 ng/m(3) of PM2.5_S was 1.92 (95%-confidence interval (95%-CI) 1.13; 3.27) for gastric cancer, with no indication of heterogeneity between cohorts (I-2= 0%), and 1.63 (95%-CI 0.88; 3.01) for PM2.5_Zn (I-2= 70%). For the other elements in PM2.5 and all elements in PM10 including PM10_S, non-significant HRs between 0.78 and 1.21 with mostly wide CIs were seen. No association was found between any of the elements and UADT cancer. The HR for PM2.5_S and gastric cancer was robust to adjustment for additional factors, including diet, and restriction to study participants with stable addresses over follow-up resulted in slightly higher effect estimates with a decrease in precision. In a two-pollutant model, the effect estimate for total PM2.5 decreased whereas that for PM2.5_S was robust.

    Conclusion: This large multicentre cohort study shows a robust association between gastric cancer and long-term exposure to PM2.5 S but not PM10 S, suggesting that S in PM2.5 or correlated air pollutants may contribute to the risk of gastric cancer.

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