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  • 1.
    Darin-Mattsson, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Andel, Ross
    Celeste, Roger Keller
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Linking financial hardship throughout the life-course with psychological distress in old age: Sensitive period, accumulation of risks, and chain of risks hypotheses2018In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 201, p. 111-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary objective was to investigate the life course hypotheses - sensitive period, chain of risks, and accumulation of risks - in relation to financial hardship and psychological distress in old age. We used two Swedish longitudinal surveys based on nationally representative samples. The first survey includes people 18-75 years old with multiple waves, the second survey is a longitudinal continuation, including people 76 + years old. The analytical sample included 2990 people at baseline. Financial hardship was assessed in childhood (retrospectively), at the mean ages of 54, 61, 70, and 81 years. Psychological distress (self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms) was assessed at the same ages. Path analysis with WLSMV estimation was used. There was a direct path from financial hardship in childhood to psychological distress at age 70 (0.26, p = 0.002). Financial hardship in childhood was associated with increased risk of psychological distress and financial hardship both at baseline (age 54), and later. Financial hardship, beyond childhood, was not independently associated with psychological distress at age 81. Higher levels of education and employment decreased the negative effects of financial hardship in childhood on the risk of psychological distress and financial hardship later on. There was a bi-directional relationship between psychological distress and financial hardship; support for health selection was slightly higher than for social causation. We found that psychological distress in old age was affected by financial hardship in childhood through a chain of risks that included psychological distress earlier in life. In addition, financial hardship in childhood seemed to directly affect psychological distress in old age, independent of other measured circumstances (i.e., chains of risks). Education and employment could decrease the effect of an adverse financial situation in childhood on later-life psychological distress. We did not find support for accumulation of risks when including tests of all hypotheses in the same model.

  • 2.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Eyjólfsdóttir, Harpa Sif
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Celeste, Roger Keller
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Social class and infirmity. The role of social class over the life-course2018In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 4, p. 169-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an aging society, it is important to promote the compression of poor health. To do so, we need to know more about how life-course trajectories influence late-life health and health inequalities. In this study, we used a life-course perspective to examine how health and health inequalities in late-midlife and in late-life are influenced by socioeconomic position at different stages of the life course. We used a representative sample of the Swedish population born between 1925 and 1934 derived from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD) to investigate the impact of socioeconomic position during childhood (social class of origin) and of socioeconomic position in young adulthood (social class of entry) and late-midlife (social class of destination) on infirmity in late-midlife (age 60) and late-life (age 80). The results of structural equation modelling showed that poor social class of origin had no direct effect on late-midlife and late-life infirmity, but the overall indirect effect through chains of risks was significant. Thus, late-midlife and late-life health inequalities are the result of complex pathways through different social and material conditions that are unevenly distributed over the life course. Our findings suggest that policies that break the chain of disadvantage may help reduce health inequalities in late-midlife and in late-life.

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