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  • 1. Feng, Xue
    et al.
    Ackerly, David D.
    Dawson, Todd E.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    McLaughlin, Blair
    Skelton, Robert P.
    Vico, Giulia
    Weitz, Andrew P.
    Thompson, Sally E.
    Beyond isohydricity: The role of environmental variability in determining plant drought responses2019In: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, E-ISSN 1365-3040, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 1104-1111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the appeal of the iso/anisohydric framework for classifying plant drought responses, recent studies have shown that such classifications can be strongly affected by a plant's environment. Here, we present measured in situ drought responses to demonstrate that apparent isohydricity can be conflated with environmental conditions that vary over space and time. In particular, we (a) use data from an oak species (Quercus douglasii) during the 2012-2015 extreme drought in California to demonstrate how temporal and spatial variability in the environment can influence plant water potential dynamics, masking the role of traits; (b) explain how these environmental variations might arise from climatic, topographic, and edaphic variability; (c) illustrate, through a common garden thought experiment, how existing trait-based or response-based isohydricity metrics can be confounded by these environmental variations, leading to Type-1 (false positive) and Type-2 (false negative) errors; and (d) advocate for the use of model-based approaches for formulating alternate classification schemes. Building on recent insights from greenhouse and vineyard studies, we offer additional evidence across multiple field sites to demonstrate the importance of spatial and temporal drivers of plants' apparent isohydricity. This evidence challenges the use of isohydricity indices, per se, to characterize plant water relations at the global scale.

  • 2.
    Livsey, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Katterer, Thomas
    Vico, Giulia
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. The Nature Conservancy, USA..
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Scaini, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Da, Chau Thi
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Do alternative irrigation strategies for rice cultivation decrease water footprints at the cost of long-term soil health?2019In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 14, no 7, article id 074011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of water is a growing concern for flooded rice production. As such, several water-saving irrigation practices have been developed to reduce water requirements. Alternate wetting and drying and mid-season drainage have been shown to potentially reduce water requirements while maintaining rice yields when compared to continuous flooding. With the removal of permanently anaerobic conditions during the growing season, water-saving irrigation can also reduce CO2 equivalent (CO2eq) emissions, helping reduce the impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the long-term impact of water-saving irrigation on soil organic carbon (SOC)-used here as an indicator of soil health and fertility-has not been explored. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effects of common water-saving irrigation practices (alternate wetting and drying and mid-season drainage) on (i) SOC, and (ii) GHG emissions. Despite an extensive literature search, only 12 studies were found containing data to constrain the soil C balance in both continuous flooding and water-saving irrigation plots, highlighting the still limited understanding of long-term impacts of water-saving irrigation on soil health and GHG emissions. Water-saving irrigation was found to reduce emissions of CH4 by 52.3% and increased those of CO2 by 44.8%. CO2eq emissions were thereby reduced by 18.6% but the soil-to-atmosphere carbon (C) flux increased by 25% when compared to continuous flooding. Water-saving irrigation was also found to have a negative effect on both SOC-reducing concentrations by 5.2%-and soil organic nitrogen-potentially depleting stocks by more than 100 kgN/ha per year. While negative effects of water-saving irrigation on rice yield may not be visible in short-term experiments, care should be taken when assessing the long-term sustainability of these irrigation practices because they can decrease soil fertility. Strategies need to be developed for assessing the more long-term effects of these irrigation practices by considering trade-offs between water savings and other ecosystem services.

  • 3.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Vico, Giulia
    Katul, Gabriel
    Palmroth, Sari
    Porporato, Amilcare
    Optimal plant water-use strategies under stochastic rainfall2014In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 5379-5394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant hydraulic traits have been conjectured to be coordinated, thereby providing plants with a balanced hydraulic system that protects them from cavitation while allowing an efficient transport of water necessary for photosynthesis. In particular, observations suggest correlations between the water potentials at which xylem cavitation impairs water movement and the one at stomatal closure, and between maximum xylem and stomatal conductances, begging the question as to whether such coordination emerges as an optimal water-use strategy under unpredictable rainfall. Here mean transpiration <E> is used as a proxy for long-term plant fitness and its variations as a function of the water potentials at 50% loss of stem conductivity due to cavitation and at 90% stomatal closure are explored. It is shown that coordination between these hydraulic traits is necessary to maximize <E>, with rainfall patterns altering the optimal range of trait values. In contrast, coordination between ecosystem-level conductances appears not necessary to maximize <E>. The optimal trait ranges are wider under drier than under mesic conditions, suggesting that in semiarid systems different water use strategies may be equally successful. Comparison with observations across species from a range of ecosystems confirms model predictions, indicating that the coordinated functioning of plant organs might indeed emerge from an optimal response to rainfall variability.

  • 4.
    Messori, Gabriele
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ruiz-Pérez, Guiomar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Vico, G.
    Climate drivers of the terrestrial carbon cycle variability in Europe2019In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 14, no 6, article id 063001Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The terrestrial biosphere is a key component of the global carbon cycle and is heavily influenced by climate. Climate variability can be diagnosed through metrics ranging from individual environmental variables, to collections of variables, to the so-called climate modes of variability. Similarly, the impact of a given climate variation on the terrestrial carbon cycle can be described using several metrics, including vegetation indices, measures of ecosystem respiration and productivity and net biosphere-atmosphere fluxes. The wide range of temporal (from sub-daily to paleoclimatic) and spatial (from local to continental and global) scales involved requires a scale-dependent investigation of the interactions between the carbon cycle and climate. However, a comprehensive picture of the physical links and correlations between climate drivers and carbon cycle metrics at different scales remains elusive, framing the scope of this contribution. Here, we specifically explore how climate variability metrics (from single variables to complex indices) relate to the variability of the carbon cycle at sub-daily to interannual scales (i.e. excluding long-term trends). The focus is on the interactions most relevant to the European terrestrial carbon cycle. We underline the broad areas of agreement and disagreement in the literature, and conclude by outlining some existing knowledge gaps and by proposing avenues for improving our holistic understanding of the role of climate drivers in modulating the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  • 5. Vico, Giulia
    et al.
    Way, Danielle A.
    Hurry, Vaughan
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Can leaf net photosynthesis acclimate to rising and more variable temperatures?2019In: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, E-ISSN 1365-3040, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1913-1928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under future climates, leaf temperature (T-l) will be higher and more variable. This will affect plant carbon (C) balance because photosynthesis and respiration both respond to short-term (subdaily) fluctuations in T-l and acclimate in the longer term (days to months). This study asks the question: To what extent can the potential and speed of photosynthetic acclimation buffer leaf C gain from rising and increasing variable T-l? We quantified how increases in the mean and variability of growth temperature affect leaf performance (mean net CO2 assimilation rates, A(net); its variability; and time under near-optimal photosynthetic conditions), as mediated by thermal acclimation. To this aim, the probability distribution of A(net) was obtained by combining a probabilistic description of short- and long-term changes in T-l with data on A(net) responses to these changes, encompassing 75 genera and 111 species, including both C3 and C4 species. Our results show that (a) expected increases in T-l variability will decrease mean A(net) and increase its variability, whereas the effects of higher mean T-l depend on species and initial T-l, and (b) acclimation reduces the effects of leaf warming, maintaining A(net) at >80% of its maximum under most thermal regimes.

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