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  • 1. Carter, Stephen F.
    et al.
    Schöll, Michael
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wall, Anders
    Engler, Henry
    Långström, Bengt
    Nordberg, Agneta
    Evidence for Astrocytosis in Prodromal Alzheimer Disease Provided by C-11-Deuterium-L-Deprenyl: A Multitracer PET Paradigm Combining C-11-Pittsburgh Compound B and F-18-FDG2012In: Journal of Nuclear Medicine, ISSN 0161-5505, E-ISSN 1535-5667, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Astrocytes colocalize with fibrillar amyloid-beta (A beta) plaques in postmortem Alzheimer disease (AD) brain tissue. It is therefore of great interest to develop a PET tracer for visualizing astrocytes in vivo, enabling the study of the regional distribution of both astrocytes and fibrillar A beta. A multitracer PET investigation was conducted for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), patients with mild AD, and healthy controls using C-11-deuterium-L-deprenyl (C-11-DED) to measure monoamine oxidase B located in astrocytes. Along with C-11-DED PET, C-11-Pittsburgh compound B (C-11-PIB; fibrillar A beta deposition), F-18-FDG (glucose metabolism), T1 MRI, cerebrospinal fluid, and neuropsychologic data were acquired from the patients. Methods: C-11-DED PET was performed in MCI patients (n = 8; mean age 6 SD, 62.6 +/- 7.5 y; mean Mini Mental State Examination, 27.5 +/- 2.1), AD patients (n = 7; mean age, 65.1 +/- 6.3 y; mean Mini Mental State Examination, 24.4 +/- 5.7), and healthy age-matched controls (n = 14; mean age, 64.7 +/- 3.6 y). A modified reference Patlak model, with cerebellar gray matter as a reference, was chosen for kinetic analysis of the C-11-DED data. C-11-DED data from 20 to 60 min were analyzed using a digital brain atlas. Mean regional F-18-FDG uptake and C-11-PIB retention were calculated for each patient, with cerebellar gray matter as a reference. Results: ANOVA analysis of the regional C-11-DED binding data revealed a significant group effect in the bilateral frontal and bilateral parietal cortices related to increased binding in the MCI patients. All patients, except 3 with MCI, showed high C-11-PIB retention. Increased C-11-DED binding in most cortical and subcortical regions was observed in MCI C-11-PIB+ patients relative to controls, MCI C-11-PIB (negative) patients, and AD patients. No regional correlations were found between the 3 PET tracers. Conclusion: Increased C-11-DED binding throughout the brain of the MCI C-11-PIB+ patients potentially suggests that astrocytosis is an early phenomenon in AD development.

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