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  • 1. Jungclaus, Johann H.
    et al.
    Bard, Edouard
    Baroni, Mélanie
    Braconnot, Pascale
    Cao, Jian
    Chini, Louise P.
    Egorova, Tania
    Evans, Michael
    González-Rouco, J. Fidel
    Goosse, Hugues
    Hurtt, George C.
    Joos, Fortunat
    Kaplan, Jed O.
    Khodri, Myriam
    Goldewijk, Kees Klein
    Krivova, Natalie
    LeGrande, Allegra N.
    Lorenz, Stephan J.
    Luterbacher, Jürg
    Man, Wenmin
    Maycock, Amanda C.
    Meinshausen, Malte
    Moberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Muscheler, Raimund
    Nehrbass-Ahles, Christoph
    Otto-Bliesner, Bette I.
    Phipps, Steven J.
    Pongratz, Julia
    Rozanov, Eugene
    Schmidt, Gavin A.
    Schmidt, Hauke
    Schmutz, Werner
    Schurer, Andrew
    Shapiro, Alexander I.
    Sigl, Michael
    Smerdon, Jason E.
    Solanki, Sami K.
    Timmreck, Claudia
    Toohey, Matthew
    Usoskin, Ilya G.
    Wagner, Sebastian
    Wu, Chi-Ju
    Yeo, Kok Leng
    Zanchettin, Davide
    Zhang, Qiong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Zorita, Eduardo
    The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6-Part 3: The last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations2017In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 4005-4033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pre-industrial millennium is among the periods selected by the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) for experiments contributing to the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) and the fourth phase of the PMIP (PMIP4). The past1000 transient simulations serve to investigate the response to (mainly) natural forcing under background conditions not too different from today, and to discriminate between forced and internally generated variability on interannual to centennial timescales. This paper describes the motivation and the experimental set-ups for the PMIP4-CMIP6 past1000 simulations, and discusses the forcing agents orbital, solar, volcanic, and land use/land cover changes, and variations in greenhouse gas concentrations. The past1000 simulations covering the pre-industrial millennium from 850 Common Era (CE) to 1849 CE have to be complemented by historical simulations (1850 to 2014 CE) following the CMIP6 protocol. The external forcings for the past1000 experiments have been adapted to provide a seamless transition across these time periods. Protocols for the past1000 simulations have been divided into three tiers. A default forcing data set has been defined for the Tier 1 (the CMIP6 past1000) experiment. However, the PMIP community has maintained the flexibility to conduct coordinated sensitivity experiments to explore uncertainty in forcing reconstructions as well as parameter uncertainty in dedicated Tier 2 simulations. Additional experiments (Tier 3) are defined to foster collaborative model experiments focusing on the early instrumental period and to extend the temporal range and the scope of the simulations. This paper outlines current and future research foci and common analyses for collaborative work between the PMIP and the observational communities (reconstructions, instrumental data).

  • 2. Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.
    et al.
    Braconnot, Pascale
    Harrison, Sandy P.
    Lunt, Daniel J.
    Abe-Ouchi, Ayako
    Albani, Samuel
    Bartlein, Patrick J.
    Capron, Emilie
    Carlson, Anders E.
    Dutton, Andrea
    Fischer, Hubertus
    Goelzer, Heiko
    Govin, Aline
    Haywood, Alan
    Joos, Fortunat
    LeGrande, Allegra N.
    Lipscomb, William H.
    Lohmann, Gerrit
    Mahowald, Natalie
    Nehrbass-Ahles, Christoph
    Pausata, Francesco S. R.
    Peterschmitt, Jean-Yves
    Phipps, Steven J.
    Renssen, Hans
    Zhang, Qiong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6-Part 2: Two interglacials, scientific objective and experimental design for Holocene and Last Interglacial simulations2017In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 3979-4003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two interglacial epochs are included in the suite of Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP4) simulations in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). The experimental protocols for simulations of the mid-Holocene (midHolocene, 6000 years before present) and the Last Interglacial (lig127k, 127 000 years before present) are described here. These equilibrium simulations are designed to examine the impact of changes in orbital forcing at times when atmospheric greenhouse gas levels were similar to those of the preindustrial period and the continental configurations were almost identical to modern ones. These simulations test our understanding of the interplay between radiative forcing and atmospheric circulation, and the connections among large-scale and regional climate changes giving rise to phenomena such as land-sea contrast and high-latitude amplification in temperature changes, and responses of the monsoons, as compared to today. They also provide an opportunity, through carefully designed additional sensitivity experiments, to quantify the strength of atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, and land-surface feedbacks. Sensitivity experiments are proposed to investigate the role of freshwater forcing in triggering abrupt climate changes within interglacial epochs. These feedback experiments naturally lead to a focus on climate evolution during interglacial periods, which will be examined through transient experiments. Analyses of the sensitivity simulations will also focus on interactions between extratropical and tropical circulation, and the relationship between changes in mean climate state and climate variability on annual to multi-decadal timescales. The comparative abundance of paleoenvironmental data and of quantitative climate reconstructions for the Holocene and Last Interglacial make these two epochs ideal candidates for systematic evaluation of model performance, and such comparisons will shed new light on the importance of external feedbacks (e.g., vegetation, dust) and the ability of state-of-the-art models to simulate climate changes realistically.

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