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  • 1. Bianchi, Federico
    et al.
    Kurtén, Theo
    Riva, Matthieu
    Mohr, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Rissanen, Matti P.
    Roldin, Pontus
    Berndt, Torsten
    Crounse, John D.
    Wennberg, Paul O.
    Mentel, Thomas F.
    Wildt, Jürgen
    Junninen, Heikki
    Jokinen, Tuija
    Kulmala, Markku
    Worsnop, Douglas R.
    Thornton, Joel A.
    Donahue, Neil
    Kjaergaard, Henrik G.
    Ehn, Mikael
    Highly Oxygenated Organic Molecules (HOM) from Gas-Phase Autoxidation Involving Peroxy Radicals: A Key Contributor to Atmospheric Aerosol2019In: Chemical Reviews, ISSN 0009-2665, E-ISSN 1520-6890, Vol. 119, no 6, p. 3472-3509Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM) are formed in the atmosphere via autoxidation involving peroxy radicals arising from volatile organic compounds (VOC). HOM condense on pre-existing particles and can be involved in new particle formation. HOM thus contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), a significant and ubiquitous component of atmospheric aerosol known to affect the Earths radiation balance. HOM were discovered only very recently, but the interest in these compounds has grown rapidly. In this Review, we define HOM and describe the currently available techniques for their identification/quantification, followed by a summary of the current knowledge on their formation mechanisms and physicochemical properties. A main aim is to provide a common frame for the currently quite fragmented literature on HOM studies. Finally, we highlight the existing gaps in our understanding and suggest directions for future HOM research.

  • 2. Dall'Osto, M.
    et al.
    Beddows, D. C. S.
    Asmi, A.
    Poulain, L.
    Hao, L.
    Freney, E.
    Allan, J. D.
    Canagaratna, M.
    Crippa, M.
    Bianchi, F.
    de Leeuw, G.
    Eriksson, A.
    Swietlicki, E.
    Hansson, Hans Christen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Henzing, J. S.
    Granier, C.
    Zemankova, K.
    Laj, P.
    Onasch, T.
    Prevot, A.
    Putaud, J. P.
    Sellegri, K.
    Vidal, M.
    Virtanen, A.
    Simo, R.
    Worsnop, D.
    O'Dowd, C.
    Kulmala, M.
    Harrison, Roy M.
    Novel insights on new particle formation derived from a pan-european observing system2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 1482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of new atmospheric particles involves an initial step forming stable clusters less than a nanometre in size (<similar to 1 nm), followed by growth into quasi-stable aerosol particles a few nanometres (similar to 1-10 nm) and larger (>similar to 10 nm). Although at times, the same species can be responsible for both processes, it is thought that more generally each step comprises differing chemical contributors. Here, we present a novel analysis of measurements from a unique multi-station ground-based observing system which reveals new insights into continental-scale patterns associated with new particle formation. Statistical cluster analysis of this unique 2-year multi-station dataset comprising size distribution and chemical composition reveals that across Europe, there are different major seasonal trends depending on geographical location, concomitant with diversity in nucleating species while it seems that the growth phase is dominated by organic aerosol formation. The diversity and seasonality of these events requires an advanced observing system to elucidate the key processes and species driving particle formation, along with detecting continental scale changes in aerosol formation into the future.

  • 3. Lehtipalo, Katrianne
    et al.
    Yan, Chao
    Dada, Lubna
    Bianchi, Federico
    Xiao, Mao
    Wagner, Robert
    Stolzenburg, Dominik
    Ahonen, Lauri R.
    Amorim, Antonio
    Baccarini, Andrea
    Bauer, Paulus S.
    Baumgartner, Bernhard
    Bergen, Anton
    Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin
    Breitenlechner, Martin
    Brilke, Sophia
    Buchholz, Angela
    Mazon, Stephany Buenrostro
    Chen, Dexian
    Chen, Xuemeng
    Dias, Antonio
    Dommen, Josef
    Draper, Danielle C.
    Duplissy, Jonathan
    Ehn, Mikael
    Finkenzeller, Henning
    Fischer, Lukas
    Frege, Carla
    Fuchs, Claudia
    Garmash, Olga
    Gordon, Hamish
    Hakala, Jani
    He, Xucheng
    Heikkinen, Liine
    Heinritzi, Martin
    Helm, Johanna C.
    Hofbauer, Victoria
    Hoyle, Christopher R.
    Jokinen, Tuija
    Kangasluoma, Juha
    Kerminen, Veli-Matti
    Kim, Changhyuk
    Kirkby, Jasper
    Kontkanen, Jenni
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kuerten, Andreas
    Lawler, Michael J.
    Mai, Huajun
    Mathot, Serge
    Mauldin, Roy L.
    Molteni, Ugo
    Nichman, Leonid
    Nie, Wei
    Nieminen, Tuomo
    Ojdanic, Andrea
    Onnela, Antti
    Passananti, Monica
    Petaja, Tuukka
    Piel, Felix
    Pospisilova, Veronika
    Quelever, Lauriane L. J.
    Rissanen, Matti P.
    Rose, Clemence
    Sarnela, Nina
    Schallhart, Simon
    Schuchmann, Simone
    Sengupta, Kamalika
    Simon, Mario
    Sipila, Mikko
    Tauber, Christian
    Tome, Antonio
    Trostl, Jasmin
    Vaisanen, Olli
    Vogel, Alexander L.
    Volkamer, Rainer
    Wagner, Andrea C.
    Wang, Mingyi
    Weitz, Lena
    Wimmer, Daniela
    Ye, Penglin
    Ylisirnio, Arttu
    Zha, Qiaozhi
    Carslaw, Kenneth S.
    Curtius, Joachim
    Donahue, Neil M.
    Flagan, Richard C.
    Hansel, Armin
    Riipinen, Ilona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Virtanen, Annele
    Winkler, Paul M.
    Baltensperger, Urs
    Kulmala, Markku
    Worsnop, Douglas R.
    Multicomponent new particle formation from sulfuric acid, ammonia, and biogenic vapors2018In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 12, article id eaau5363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles, which affect both air quality and climate, form from gaseous precursors in the atmosphere. Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs), formed by oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, are known to participate in particle formation and growth. However, it is not well understood how they interact with atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOx) from fossil fuel combustion, as well as ammonia (NH3) from livestock and fertilizers. Here, we show how NOx suppresses particle formation, while HOMs, sulfuric acid, and NH3 have a synergistic enhancing effect on particle formation. We postulate a novel mechanism, involving HOMs, sulfuric acid, and ammonia, which is able to closely reproduce observations of particle formation and growth in daytime boreal forest and similar environments. The findings elucidate the complex interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic vapors in the atmospheric aerosol system.

  • 4. Yao, Lei
    et al.
    Garmash, Olga
    Bianchi, Federico
    Zheng, Jun
    Yan, Chao
    Kontkanen, Jenni
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Junninen, Heikki
    Mazon, Stephany Buenrostro
    Ehn, Mikael
    Paasonen, Pauli
    Sipilä, Mikko
    Wang, Mingyi
    Wang, Xinke
    Xiao, Shan
    Chen, Hangfei
    Lu, Yiqun
    Zhang, Bowen
    Wang, Dongfang
    Fu, Qingyan
    Geng, Fuhai
    Li, Li
    Wang, Hongli
    Qiao, Liping
    Yang, Xin
    Chen, Jianmin
    Kerminen, Veli-Matti
    Petäjä, Tuukka
    Worsnop, Douglas R.
    Kulmala, Markku
    Wang, Lin
    Atmospheric new particle formation from sulfuric acid and amines in a Chinese megacity2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 361, no 6399, p. 278-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is an important global phenomenon that is nevertheless sensitive to ambient conditions. According to both observation and theoretical arguments, NPF usually requires a relatively high sulfuric acid (H2SO4) concentration to promote the formation of new particles and a low preexisting aerosol loading to minimize the sink of new particles. We investigated NPF in Shanghai and were able to observe both precursor vapors (H2SO4) and initial clusters at a molecular level in a megacity. High NPF rates were observed to coincide with several familiar markers suggestive of H2SO4-dimethylamine (DMA)water (H2O) nucleation, including sulfuric acid dimers and H2SO4-DMA clusters. In a cluster kinetics simulation, the observed concentration of sulfuric acid was high enough to explain the particle growth to similar to 3 nanometers under the very high condensation sink, whereas the subsequent higher growth rate beyond this size is believed to result fromthe added contribution of condensing organic species. These findings will help in understanding urban NPF and its air quality and climate effects, as well as in formulating policies to mitigate secondary particle formation in China.

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