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  • 1. Evans, P. A.
    et al.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Kennea, J. A.
    Emery, S. W. K.
    Kuin, N. P. M.
    Korobkin, O.
    Wollaeger, R. T.
    Fryer, C. L.
    Madsen, K. K.
    Harrison, F. A.
    Xu, Y.
    Nakar, E.
    Hotokezaka, K.
    Lien, A.
    Campana, S.
    Oates, S. R.
    Troja, E.
    Breeveld, A. A.
    Marshall, F. E.
    Barthelmy, S. D.
    Beardmore, A. P.
    Burrows, D. N.
    Cusumano, G.
    D'Ai, A.
    D'Avanzo, P.
    D'Elia, V.
    De Pasquale, M.
    Even, W. P.
    Fontes, C. J.
    Forster, K.
    Garcia, J.
    Giommi, P.
    Grefenstette, B.
    Gronwall, C.
    Hartmann, D. H.
    Heida, M.
    Hungerford, A. L.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Krimm, H. A.
    Levan, A. J.
    Malesani, D.
    Melandri, A.
    Miyasaka, H.
    Nousek, J. A.
    O'Brien, P. T.
    Osborne, J. P.
    Pagani, C.
    Page, K. L.
    Palmer, D. M.
    Perri, M.
    Pike, S.
    Racusin, J. L.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Siegel, M. H.
    Sakamoto, T.
    Sbarufatti, B.
    Tagliaferri, G.
    Tanvir, N. R.
    Tohuvavohu, A.
    Swift and NuSTAR observations of GW170817: Detection of a blue kilonova2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 358, no 6370, p. 1565-1569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the first direct detection of merging black holes in 2015, the era of gravitational wave (GW) astrophysics began. A complete picture of compact object mergers, however, requires the detection of an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. We report ultraviolet (UV) and x-ray observations by Swift and the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array of the EM counter part of the binary neutron star merger GW170817. The bright, rapidly fading UV emission indicates a high mass (approximate to 0.03 solar masses) wind-driven outflow with moderate electron fraction (Y-e approximate to 0.27). Combined with the x-ray limits, we favor an observer viewing angle of approximate to 30 degrees away from the orbital rotation axis, which avoids both obscuration from the heaviest elements in the orbital plane and a direct view of any ultrarelativistic, highly collimated ejecta (a gamma-ray burst afterglow).

  • 2.
    Setzer, Christian N.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Biswas, Rahul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Peiris, Hiranya V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). University College London, UK.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Korobkin, Oleg
    Wollaeger, Ryan T.
    Serendipitous discoveries of kilonovae in the LSST main survey: maximizing detections of sub-threshold gravitational wave events2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 485, no 3, p. 4260-4273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the ability of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) to discover kilonovae (kNe) from binary neutron star (BNS) and neutron star-black hole (NSBH) mergers, focusing on serendipitous detections in the Wide-Fast-Deep (WFD) survey. We simulate observations of kNe with proposed LSST survey strategies, focusing on cadence choices that are compatible with the broader LSST cosmology programme. If all kNe are identical to GW170817, we find the baseline survey strategy will yield 58 kNe over the survey lifetime. If we instead assume a representative population model of BNS kNe, we expect to detect only 27 kNe. However, we find the choice of survey strategy significantly impacts these numbers and can increase them to 254 and 82 kNe over the survey lifetime, respectively. This improvement arises from an increased cadence of observations between different filters with respect to the baseline. We then consider the detectability of these BNS mergers by the Advanced LIGO/Virgo (ALV) detector network. If the optimal survey strategy is adopted, 202 of the GW170817-like kNe and 56 of the BNS population model kNe are detected with LSST but are below the threshold for detection by the ALV network. This represents, for both models, an increase by a factor greater than 4.5 in the number of detected sub-threshold events over the baseline strategy. These subthreshold events would provide an opportunity to conduct electromagnetic-triggered searches for signals in gravitational-wave data and assess selection effects in measurements of the Hubble constant from standard sirens, e.g. viewing angle effects.

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