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  • 1. Couvreur, Valentin
    et al.
    Ledder, Glenn
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Way, Danielle A.
    Muller, Erik B.
    Russo, Sabrina E.
    Water transport through tall trees: A vertically explicit, analytical model of xylem hydraulic conductance in stems2018In: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, E-ISSN 1365-3040, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1821-1839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trees grow by vertically extending their stems, so accurate stem hydraulic models are fundamental to understanding the hydraulic challenges faced by tall trees. Using a literature survey, we showed that many tree species exhibit continuous vertical variation in hydraulic traits. To examine the effects of this variation on hydraulic function, we developed a spatially explicit, analytical water transport model for stems. Our model allows Huber ratio, stem-saturated conductivity, pressure at 50% loss of conductivity, leaf area, and transpiration rate to vary continuously along the hydraulic path. Predictions from our model differ from a matric flux potential model parameterized with uniform traits. Analyses show that cavitation is a whole-stem emergent property resulting from non-linear pressure-conductivity feedbacks that, with gravity, cause impaired water transport to accumulate along the path. Because of the compounding effects of vertical trait variation on hydraulic function, growing proportionally more sapwood and building tapered xylem with height, as well as reducing xylem vulnerability only at branch tips while maintaining transport capacity at the stem base, can compensate for these effects. We therefore conclude that the adaptive significance of vertical variation in stem hydraulic traits is to allow trees to grow tall and tolerate operating near their hydraulic limits.

  • 2. Vico, Giulia
    et al.
    Way, Danielle A.
    Hurry, Vaughan
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Can leaf net photosynthesis acclimate to rising and more variable temperatures?2019In: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, E-ISSN 1365-3040, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1913-1928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under future climates, leaf temperature (T-l) will be higher and more variable. This will affect plant carbon (C) balance because photosynthesis and respiration both respond to short-term (subdaily) fluctuations in T-l and acclimate in the longer term (days to months). This study asks the question: To what extent can the potential and speed of photosynthetic acclimation buffer leaf C gain from rising and increasing variable T-l? We quantified how increases in the mean and variability of growth temperature affect leaf performance (mean net CO2 assimilation rates, A(net); its variability; and time under near-optimal photosynthetic conditions), as mediated by thermal acclimation. To this aim, the probability distribution of A(net) was obtained by combining a probabilistic description of short- and long-term changes in T-l with data on A(net) responses to these changes, encompassing 75 genera and 111 species, including both C3 and C4 species. Our results show that (a) expected increases in T-l variability will decrease mean A(net) and increase its variability, whereas the effects of higher mean T-l depend on species and initial T-l, and (b) acclimation reduces the effects of leaf warming, maintaining A(net) at >80% of its maximum under most thermal regimes.

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