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  • 1. Anya, Obinna
    et al.
    Carletti, Laura
    Coughlan, Tim
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Liu, Sophia B.
    The Morphing Organization: Rethinking Groupwork Systems in the Era of Crowdwork2014In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Supporting Group Work, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, p. 317-320Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web 2.0 has provided organizations remarkable opportunities to improve productivity, gain competitive advantage, and increase participation by engaging crowds to accomplish tasks at scale. However, establishing and integrating crowd-based systems into organizations is still an open question. The systems and the collaborative processes they enable appear diametrically in dissonance with the norms and culture of collaboration and knowledge sharing in traditional organizations. They require mechanisms for articulation of work, coordination, cooperation, and knowledge co-creation that are fundamentally different from those in current groupwork systems and processes. This workshop will bring together researchers investigating issues related to social computing and collaborative technologies, organizational science, crowdsourcing, and workplace research, work in industry, government and voluntary sectors, to discuss the future of groupwork systems in the era of crowdwork. Building on two workshops hosted at ACM CSCW 2014, we will explore questions such as: How does the shift in organizational work from a closed system with known individuals, to an open and crowd model that requires engagement with an undefined network of people, affect how we conceptualize groupwork? What are the implications for the design of groupwork systems? What can the crowdsourcing research community learn from groupwork systems, or conversely what can groupwork researchers learn from crowdsourcing? How do cultures, motivations, ownership and representation fit into these systems? The workshop will advance our understanding of this area, through presentations, discussion, and activities to articulate an agenda for future research.

  • 2.
    Bergholtz, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Snygg, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Framework for evaluating tools used in edemocracy: transparency, autonomy, consensus and pluralism2014In: DSV writers hut 2014: proceedings, Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of e-democracy has been around for a while. However, the intercontextual understanding of this is still immature which complicates interdisciplinarity and communication with a diversity of stakeholders, resulting in a weak participation and implementation of e-services. This is even more emphasized in an international setting, not the least in the context of various European Union initiatives regarding e-service provision. To increase the participation in the context, e-democracy services can be utilized for strengthening individual capabilities as well as political processes. The effective design of such processes requires tools to support decision-making, collaboration, and collaborative decision-making, voting engagement and involvement in the democratic process. This article presents an evaluation framework suitable for tools for e-democracy aiming at forming a constructive base for implementing an efficient support for enabling an increased participation in vital democratic processes.

  • 3.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Danielson, Mats
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Multi-criteria decision-making of policy strategies with public-private re-insurance systems.2004In: Risk, Decision, and Policy, ISSN 1357-5309, E-ISSN 1466-4534, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes an integrated flood catastrophe model as well as some results of a case study made in the Upper Tisza region in north-eastern Hungary: the Palad-Csecsei basin. The background data was provided through the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and complemented by interviews with different stakeholders in the region. Based on these data, for which a large degree of uncertainty is prevailing, we demonstrate how an implementation of a simulation and decision analytical model can provide insights into the effects of imposing different policy options for a flood risk management program in the region. We focus herein primarily on general options for designing a public-private insurance and reinsurance system for Hungary. Obviously, this is a multi-criteria and multi-stakeholder problem and cannot be solved using standard approaches. It should, however, be emphasised that the main purpose of this article is not to provide any definite recommendations, but rather to explore a set of policy packages that could gain a consensus among the stakeholders.

  • 4.
    Ekenberg, Love
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cars, Göran
    Deliberation, representation, equity: research approaches, tools and algorithms for participatory processes2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In democratic societies there is widespread acknowledgment of the need to incorporate citizens' input in decision-making processes in more or less structured ways. But participatory decision making is balancing on the borders of inclusion, structure, precision and accuracy. To simply enable more participation will not yield enhanced democracy, and there is a clear need for more elaborated elicitation and decision analytical tools. This rigorous and thought-provoking volume draws on a stimulating variety of international case studies, from flood risk management in the Red River Delta of Vietnam.

  • 5.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A micro-democratic perspective on crowd-work2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has provided governments with new means to improve efficiency and innovation, by engaging a crowd in the gathering and development of data. These collaborative processes are also described as a way to improve democracy by enabling a more transparent and deliberative democracy where citizens participate more directly in decision processes on different levels. However, the dominant research on the e-democratic field takes a government perspective rather then a citizen perspective. E-democracy from the perspective of the individual actor, in a global context, is less developed. In this paper I therefore develop a model for a democratic process outside the realm of the nation state, in a performative state where inequality is norm and the state is unclear and fluid. In this process e-participation means an ICT supported method to get a diversity of opinions and perspectives rather than one single. This micro perspective on democratic participation online might be useful for development of tools for more democratic online crowds.

  • 6.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Accommodating differences: Power, belonging, and representation online2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can political participatory processes online be understood in the dynamic, conflicted and highly mediated situations of contemporary society? What does democracy mean in a scenario where inequality and difference are the norms, and where people tend to abandon situations in which they and their interests are not recognized? How can we accommodate differences rather than consensus in a scenario where multiple networks of people are the starting point rather than a single community?

    In this thesis, these questions are explored through an iterative process in two studies that have used or resulted in three prototypes and one art exhibition. The first study is of communication practices in a global interest community, which resulted in two prototypes: Actory, a groupware that takes differences rather than equality as the starting point for a collaborative tool, and The Affect Machine, a social network where differences are used as a relational capital. The second study is of communication practices in a local commonality where the art exhibition Performing the Common created a public space and involved participants. This resulted in Njaru, a collaborative tool with integrated decision support and visualization of representativeness.

    In summary, these works depart from the notion of the importance of belonging for e-participation, where the individual can be seen as a participant in several performative states, more or less interconnected trans-local publics. Here the individuals’ participation in the local public sphere compete with their participation in other communities, and affect the conditions for local democracy. This thesis contributes to a deeper understanding of these processes, and discusses how differences in democratic participation can be managed with the help of ICT.

  • 7.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. The Royal Institute of Art in Stockholm, Sweden.
    An introduction to The Affect Machine2014In: Ada: A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology, ISSN 2325-0496, E-ISSN 2325-0496, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Affect Machine is a project that explores what a commodification of social relations would entail, by creating scenarios where a trading company is merged with an online social network. It will do this through the detailed design of different parts of the “system”, from the interface design to family law, to social relations.

  • 8.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Controlling singularity: The role of online communication for young visual artists’ identity management2015In: First Monday, ISSN 1396-0466, E-ISSN 1396-0466, Vol. 20, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the literature on art, new media and identity by investigating the role online communication plays for young visual artists’ identity management. Drawing from comprehensive sources on the Internet such as blogs, Web pages, networking sites and digital magazines, as well as interview data from art students at the Royal Institute of Art in Stockholm, this article describes how artists deal with convergent contexts online, while addressing an exclusive public of cultural producers and simultaneously reaching for a broad cultural significance.

  • 9.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Embodiment and gameplay: a framework for exploring patterns of bias in collaborative information production2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Föreställningar om det gemensamma2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Performing the Common documents an artistic research project about public spaces, private networks and the art of organizing collective meaning. The privatization of public space has changed the common. New common room has been created within the private sphere. When is the public the common? Where do you go when you want to talk to The Others? Performing the Comman explores the manifestations of the public sphere in town squares, in stairways and under TV sofas. The project was developed 2010-2012 by the Department of Computer and System Sciences (DSV) at Stockholm University and The Royal Institute of Art in Stockholm, supported by Formas and in collaboration with Association for Temporary Art, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, the Romanian Cultural Institute, Centrum för gestaltning, Stockholm Academy of Dramatic Arts, Husby Gård and Moderna Museet.

  • 11.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Konst som deltagande metodologi 2013In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, no 1, p. 25-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While Art is often defined in opposition to Science, artistic research is often legitimaced by a positivistic classical scientific paradigm. For example the artist as scientist was highlighted in 2012 year’s Documenta – one of the most important exhibitions of contemporary art. In contrast to this position, I intend to show the fruitfulness in positioning art in a feminist, qualitative-oriented research tradition. An important point here is the definition of an artistic methodology, where art is a reflective process and where artistic work is both means and goal. This includes the use of artistic practices to break the own pre-understanding of a phenomenon. It is the personal motive that determines what is relevant, while this perspective is exposed to critical scrutiny. Based on this, I discuss how art can be described as a participatory methodology, and use a research project in urban planning and information and communication technology as an example. Here, the art project functioned as a creative and critical room that created a greater understanding of the significance of discursive practices and the importance of reviewing the information that is the foundation of how we formulate the research problems. The most significant conclusion is that artistic research in this sense may well be, and probably should, be an important part of a scientific research and is a prerequisite for scientific development.

  • 12.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mediating Authenticity: Performing the Artist in Digital Media2010In: Great Expectations: Arts and the Future, The European Sociological Association’s Research Network on the Sociology of the Arts (RN02) mid-term conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the interplay between identity positions, dominant ideologies, and discursive practices on the Internet. The aim is to study how a culture like the art world is adapting to digital technology. The starting question is: How are artists’ identities created today? To answer this question, I did an ethnographic study of art students at the Royal Institute of Art in Stockholm (KKH), focusing on their use of the Internet as a means of communication. During a five-month stay as a teacher at the school I studied how 50 students artist's identity was performed on the Web, and 10 students were interviewed about their views on marketing in general. The study shows a picture where two competing concepts of the artist create uncertainty about how an artist should be: like the romantic concept of the genial artist or like the institutional concept of the artist who is collectively created by the art world’s institutions. This applies to someone who appears as an outsider but in practice is a networker. The ideology expressed isn’t something new, however the discursive practices have changed. The artist is still an oracle that must be explained by others, but when the art world through globalization became more difficult to overview it is not enough to hang at gallery openings, a digital business card in the form of a website makes the curator’s work easy. It must however still look as if someone else does the framing. The common denominator for the students who used the web more directly to communicate and collaborate was not that they were making “digital art” but that the that they appeared in various creative fields. Digital media can be seen here as a mean for the individual to more easily move between different art worlds, and thus as a possible means to change.

  • 13.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Navigating the researchers’ identities2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As our identity both enables and constrains our relations with others it is a central feature in any kind of participatory research. Therefore the researchers’ identities can be seen as participatory methods that enable certain types of data gathering. To support a research that contains a plurality of perspectives and methods a diversity of identity positions are needed. In this position paper I therefore sketch a map for researchers’ and participants’ positions in relation to different ontologies and epistemologies. This map can be a useful tool for navigating identities, understanding uncomfortable differences and developing strong research collaborations. The various positions on the map illustrate the diversity of perspectives that are required to describe a complexand flexible social reality. To move across the entire surface of overlapping research paradigms can be away to formulate conflictual, uncomfortable, dynamic and creative research collaborations.

  • 14.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Performing the Common: Recognition in Online Participatory Processes2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    How can e-participation be understood? New information communication technologies (ICT) create new types of public spheres, while old social hierarchies prevail. Grounds for discrimination e.g. gender, age, and ethnicity, are just as common online as in other social contexts. Moreover, socio-economic inequalities are emphasized rather than reduced. Therefore it is important to carefully investigate the participatory processes at stake when creating ICT systems aimed at supporting democracy. How can political participatory processes online be understood without relying on a simplistic view of communication technology and political participation? How can we create more open-ended models to understand e-participation in the dynamic, fluid and highly mediated situations of contemporary society? In this thesis, these questions are explored through an iterative process in two studies described in three papers. The first study discusses how participation in a global community can be understood by translating its organizational principles into a digital system of cooperation. The initial investigation demonstrated how important identity is for technology-using behavior. It also discussed the importance of socio-economic factors for participation in online public spheres. By studying how an interest-based common is established and translating this into design principles for collaborative software, we create a model of how the common can be constituted online. The thesis also discusses what motivates participation in locally situated commons, i.e. how one can understand the connection between the individuals' globally scattered communities of interest and their participation in the local culture. The second study emanates from an art exhibition in the public space, and is used as a platform to explore the conditions for e-participation in a neighborhood of Stockholm.

  • 15.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Reflexive technology for collaborative environments2012In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 1, p. 11-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of e-democracy, what is mostly emphasized is the ability to create a neutral place for deliberative discussions and voting, where the view is that technology can enable a stronger democracy. Most important, focus is on the nation state, not on democracy on a global level. In a democracy initiative on a global scale one cannot only deal with the questions of what should be discussed and in what way. First of all the question about representation has to be answered: who the participants are that are part of democracy. In order to create technologies that support democracy initiatives at a global level, it is not enough to create methods to set the agenda and framework for discussion, but it is also important to have a well thought out idea about how those who participate will be selected and on what grounds. In a micro-global perspective, in the collaborative network, this is about creating incentives that support a democratic culture, an awareness of how to go about involving everyone in the conversation. With this in mind we have developed a discussion platform that uses a radical democracy as a benchmark. Based on democratic meeting techniques and social media and grounded in a participatory design process, basic principles for a groupware are formulated containing typical democratic features such as voting and discussion, but taking user activities and reactions into account and clarifying the individual’s activities in relation to the group. The result of the design process is a Wiki-like prototype where the participants’ reputations are measured and transformed through a dynamic voting process. This can clarify the representativeness of the discussion at stake, showing whose positions and interests are put forward, providing a method for measuring the quality of online discussion.

  • 16.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Research practices as strategic games: Clarifying differences in gameplay to support interdisciplinarity2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many descriptions of interdisciplinarity and how to rate its success, but less research is done on why interdisciplinarity in joint research efforts fails. Explanations are often focused on the conceptual distance between research fields as the cause for communication problems. However, a more pragmatic explanation might be the interaction of participants’ different economic systems in the interdisciplinary setting. In this position paper I take a joint research project at the Department of Computer and Systems Sciences at Stockholm University and the Departmentof Architecture and the Built Environment at KTH, in collaboration with the Royal Institute of Art in Stockholm, as a case to discuss how to support interdisciplinarity by clarifying differences in gameplay between research fields.

  • 17.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    The design process as a way to increase participation in a research project about the art world2011In: Situating Ubiquity. Media Art, Technology, and Cultural Theory, Stockholm, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a design project that is used as a way of enhancing participation in an ongoing research project about the role of the artist in relation to digital media. This is achieved in two ways. First the design process is used as a means to concretize abstract theories through a practical case. The design thus function as a way of transforming the informants into participants in the research process contributing not only with empiric material but also in the analysis. Second, as a way to coordinate the design and expand the group of participants, we design a collaborative tool that mirrors the complex and dynamic system of the art world. In this tool a common assumption about equality as the base for participation is challenged; instead hierarchy is used as a way to motivate participation. The result of the design process is; 1) Design guidelines drawn from theories about the art world. 2) A beta‐version of a groupware that visualizes structuring processes. The beta‐version of the groupware uses a Wiki‐like interface for discussion and collaboration, combined with a score level meter that shows the individual activities in relation to the total amount of activity. Participants are scored both for the level of their own activity and the score others put on this work. Scoring is done constantly and in different ways: Linking, commenting, liking/disliking, and rating. Just as in the art world co-branding is an important part of the scoring system, and the individual score level changes when the score value changes for the attached users. As a way to formalize the informal rules the system creates a visualization of the individual strategies in relation to others. The visualization of the score level also creates a kind of gaming experience that clarifies the strategies involved for achieving a higher score, and can serve as a way to motivate participation in the short run.

  • 18.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    The desires of the crowd: scenario for a future social system2014In: Leonardo Electronic Almanac, ISSN 1071-4391, E-ISSN 1071-4391, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 182-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The micro-financing of artists offers new possibilities for people other than the economic and cultural elite to become patrons of the arts. One might term it a more democratic base for the artistic activity and its varied discursive practices. However, it is not just the economy of art that focuses on people with particular abilities. Promoting a personal brand in the form of taste, education and social relations is also central to every career in an insecure and flexible labor market, not only in the creative sector. Accordingly, crowd funding of humanity, rather than of production of commodities, is a possible and reasonable scenario for a future social system, where people are deeply interconnected in collaborative networks. In order to examine what such a system might look like in practice, I have in the project the Affect Machine formulated a market place for social relations. Here I show how the principles for a capitalist institution like a limited company can be combined with those of a digital social network, and thus point to a form of merger between the private and public sector. In this scenario for a future social system, we may approach something resembling Marx’s vision of a communist society.

  • 19.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bannister, Frank
    The non-government and voluntary sector, ICT, and democracy: introduction to the special issue2015In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 11, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online tools make large scale organisation of volunteer activities easier at the same time as the public sphere is becoming more difficult to navigate, demanding an ever higher level of digital literacy of those who want to participate. NGOs play an important role in creating and maintaining alternative public spheres by providing not only infrastructure, but by accommodating people’s need to belong, for recognition and for places to meet. This special issue contains contributions from research that examines, in different ways, how the voluntary sector uses ICT to support both internally, its democratic structures, and externally, democracy in the community. The authors represented in this issue come from a variety of disciplines such as computer science, economics, political science and informatics, and the studies they present come from four different continents covering the use of online phenomena such as crowdsourcing, community journalism, blogging and social media.

  • 20.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Belkacem, Kheira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. The International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, IIASA, Austria.
    Open Government and Democracy: A Research Review2015In: Social science computer review, ISSN 0894-4393, E-ISSN 1552-8286, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 540-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of open government, having been promoted widely in the past 5 years, has promised a broader notion than e-government, as supposed to fundamentally transform governments to become more open and participative and collaborative. Unfortunately, this has not significantly enhanced a set of fundamental problems regarding e-government. One of the problems is that the underlying democratic ideology is rarely clearly expressed. In this paper, we have therefore constructed a framework for the analysis of open government from a democratic perspective, to explore the research foundation of open government and the types of research missing. We have looked closely at the notion of democracy in peer-reviewed journals on open government from 2009 to 2013, focusing on discussions of some fundamental issues regarding democracy and the type of solutions suggested. We have found that despite seemingly good intentions and an extensive rhetoric, there is still an apparent lack of adequate tools in which public deliberation and representation are addressed in any meaningful sense. There are two main important observations herein: (i) the rhetoric in the dominant discourse supports the concept of open government formulated by the Obama administration as transparency, participation, and collaboration, but in practice, the focus is predominantly on transparency and information exchange, while ignoring fundamental democratic issues regarding participation and collaboration, and (ii) the concept of the public is inadequately considered as a homogenous entity rather than a diversified group with different interests, preferences, and abilities.

  • 21.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cars, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Diversity and Public Decision Making2012In: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology: An International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-376X, E-ISSN 2070-3740, no 0071, p. 1678-1683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the realm of e-government, the development has moved towards testing new means for democratic decision-making, like e-panels, electronic discussion forums, and polls. Although such new developments seem promising, they are not problem-free, and the outcomes are seldom used in the subsequent formal political procedures. Nevertheless, process models offer promising potential when it comes to structuring and supporting transparency of decision processes in order to facilitate the integration of the public into decision-making procedures in a reasonable and manageable way. Based on real-life cases of urban planning processes in Sweden, we present an outline for an integrated framework for public decision making to: a) provide tools for citizens to organize discussion and create opinions; b) enable governments, authorities, and institutions to better analyse these opinions; and c) enable governments to account for this information in planning and societal decision making by employing a process model for structured public decision making.

  • 22.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cars, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    The importance of recognition for equal representation in participatory processes: Lessons from Husby2013In: Footprint, ISSN 1875-1504, E-ISSN 1875-1490, no 13, p. 81-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the ambition to involve people on more equal terms, participation often still means that the audience is involved in clearly demarcated parts of the process and attempts to develop more deliberative democratic processes in urban planning often fail due to unequal representation in the participatory process. While sharing the general idea of the value of participatory processes, we here investigate some problematic features involved and suggest how some of these can be remedied. We employ the concept of recognition to analyse the conditions for public participation in a recent case of urban planning in the Stockholm suburb of Husby. This case is particularly interesting as it clearly demonstrates the impact of globalisation on local participatory processes. The results show the importance of broad recognition for equal representation in participatory processes, and the need for a plurality of public spheres to support long-term participation in the development of the common urban space.

  • 23.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Choi, Jaz Hee-jeong
    Cerratto Pargman, Tessy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bardzell, Shaowen
    Forlano, Laura
    DiSalvo, Carl
    Lindtner, Silvia
    Joshi, Somya
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ting: making publics through provocation, conflict and appropriation2016In: Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference: Short Papers, Interactive Exhibitions, Workshops, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, Vol. 2, p. 109-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish the word "ting" has different meanings. It can mean "things", "matters" and "a session at court" as well as the act of appropriating space. This one-day workshop starts in the notion of the artifact as a "ting", and design as something that raises a question, provokes a discussion, and creates a public through which agonistic encounters occur. This particular lens allows us to approach design beyond 'merely producing artifacts'. Instead, we come to see it as a production of provocations, speculations, and alternative interpretations of the social world as well as new sets of relationships between participants in this public.

    Because of the importance of the role and embodiment of the designer/artist in making publics, this workshop calls attention to self-reflective practices in participatory design, and questions how these practices can be embedded in the functionality of new publics and design practices.

  • 24.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A framework for describing the social production of data in crowdsourcing2016In: International Reports on Socio-Informatics (IRSI), ISSN 1861-4280, E-ISSN 1861-4280, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 27-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This overview of the handling of user profile data and user activity in some crowdsourcing tools provides a framework for analyzing data production processes in terms of embodiment (the participants’ social and cultural perspective) and gameplay (how the participants can interact through the tool). This can create a better understanding of the quality of the data in crowd produced environments, which can be particularly interesting in contexts were trustworthiness is aggregated in the network rather than provided by a single source (of unknown credibility), and as an alternative when normal sources cannot provide trustworthy information or information at all. By combining gameplay metrics with data indicating embodiment, the social production of data can become more transparent.

  • 25.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Deliberation and Representation in Participatory Tools for the Public Sector2014In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) 2014, 2014, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tools for participatory decision-making in the public sector have gained attention for a while, where, in particular, wikis have been put forward as an open-ended negotiation between different worldviews and discourses. It might seem that these are the ultimate Habermasian deliberative tools engaging the participants in the collaborative processes of developing consensus. However, in actual fact, neither the processes nor the tools are sophisticated enough. Tools often lack the necessary structure to support more complex reasoning, and if they do they are too complicated to use to enable broad participation. Furthermore, participants mostly lack legitimacy du to unequal representation, as there is a rather limited group that has the means and the motivation to participate. Therefore, in this paper we present a prototype where we have implemented tools for decision support and a statistical tool in a standard, easy-to-use application. The voting feature and pro/con argumentation is integrated in the discussion forum, as an extra formatting feature. The statistical tool, in an adequate context, can be used for understanding how the decisions are taken and how representative the opinion/decision is for the relevant population. It can also be used as a reflective tool, i.e., for making users aware of power qustions in the group of users. What this show is how a standard interface can be improved with integrated tools for structured discussions and representation analysis, without sacrificing usability.

  • 26.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Embodiment and gameplay in networked publics2017In: International Journal of Public Administration in the Digital Age, ISSN 2334-4520, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 43-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-making in self-organized information systems such as online collaborative data production systems can be understood as an autonomous system beyond centralized power of nation-states and their various institutions, mediated by social media tools where crowd feedbacks are aggregated in a variety of reputation mechanisms. These more informal sources are however not without problems. Group biases easily appear and assumed credible sources do not necessarily provide more accurate information, in particular when it comes to more complex problems and when a diversity of perspectives or certain expertise is required. To this adds the practical problem that there is a lack of efficient technology design to support equal representation and analysis of representativeness. This article focus on the representativeness issue and, while providing an overview over principles and some tools for crowd sourced data production, suggests a framework for making patterns of bias in collaborative information production online more transparent.

  • 27.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Embodiment and Gameplay: Situating the User in Crowdsourced Information Production2018In: Innovative Perspectives on Public Administration in the Digital Age / [ed] Aroon P. Manoharan, James McQuiston, IGI Global, 2018, p. 239-255Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed decision making with several stakeholders has various facets. On one hand, it enables significant opportunities for fast and efficient information provision, in particular when various structuring frameworks are provided. On the other hand, there are several problems regarding the reliability and consistency of the data produced in social media contexts as well as with the frameworks themselves. Online collaborative data production systems where crowd feedbacks are aggregated and mediated are easily affected by group biases. There are also several credibility and verification issues as the representativeness of the participants normally is difficult or impossible to determine. This chapter discusses the handling of user data in tools for crowd sourced data production and suggests a framework for describing the socio-technical setting for the production of data, and thereby the detectability of bias patterns in collaborative information production.

  • 28.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Learning from information crises: Exploring aggregated trustworthiness in big data production2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a crisis situation when traditional venues for information dissemination aren’t reliable and information is needed immediately “aggregated trustworthiness”, data verification through network evaluation and social validation, becomes an important alternative. However, the risk with evaluating credibility through trust and network reputation is that the perspective can get biased. In these socially distributed information systems there is therefore of particularly high importance to understand how data is socially produced and by whom. The purpose with the research project presented in this position paper is to explore how patterns of bias in information production online can become more transparent by including tools that analyze and visualize aggregated trustworthiness. The research project consists of two interconnected parts. We will first look into a recent crisis situation, the case Red Hook after Hurricane Sandy, to see how the dissemination of information took place in the recovery work, focusing on questions of credibility and trust. Thereafter, this case study will inform the design of two collaborative tools where we investigate how social validation processes can be made more transparent.

  • 29.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Managing deliberation: tools for structuring discussions and analyzing representation2016In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 256-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – In this article we address the lack of adequate tools for deliberation and analyzing representativeness in a more collaborative e-government. Available discussion tools generally lack the necessary structure for supporting more complex reasoning, or they are too complicated to use. The groups of participants in such contexts often lack representativeness regarding the issues at hand.

    Design/methodology/approach – This design research is based on two case studies of urban planning projects in Swedish municipalities. A set of semi structured interviews with municipality officials and residents exposed a need for supporting the direct communication with citizens and NGOs as well as groups internal democratic processes.

    Findings  – We show how a general participatory methodology on different levels of governance can be better supported using a standard type of interface and analytical tools for structured discussions and representation. We furthermore address the traditional dichotomy between the government and the citizens in e-government research by developing a tool that takes the individual actor as the starting point rather than an abstract collective.

    Research limitations/implications – The tool is at present foremost useful for communicating participatory methodologies. The actor perspective means that the actors are highlighted as owners of specific questions rather than organisations. It also means that a government initiated survey can have competition from other actors using the same instrument.

    Practical implications – Except for being an analytical tool for analysing participatory attributes and for better understanding how decisions are formed, the platform also includes tools for more elaborated decision support as well as support for voting and pro/con argumentation integrated with discussion forum for providing reasonable conditions for a broader more well structured participation.

    Originality/value – This platform provides integrated analytical tools and elaborated decision support for the individual user to support democracy from a micro perspective rather than a government perspective and goes significantly beyond the capacities of similar tools and methods presently available.

  • 30.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. The International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, IIASA, Austria.
    Understanding the demographics of the crowd: mapping the role of the participant in crisis informatics2017In: Proceedings of the Internationsl Conference on Electronic Governance and Open Society: Challenges in Eurasia, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 160-165Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital differences constitute a significant problem when it comes to the use of social media in crisis management. There is a lack of systematic strategies and theories for understanding and handling differences, which significantly delimits the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. Consequently, we must better understand the broader communication settings and in particular how different applications and methods can enable an understanding of the demographics of social media contributors and users.

    In this article, we provide an overview and an analysis of the description of the participant in crisis informatics against this background. We also suggest a taxonomy to capture discourses about the role of the participant in the communication situation. This methodology is applied on research in the field of crisis informatics to identify some aspects on how the problem with unequal data production is addressed in this field.

    The results show that participants often are described in terms of roles defined by action such as "police" or "first responder". When it comes to participants' different situated perspectives, i.e., whether the participants have on site experience or are reporting from a particular locality, disability is to some extent acknowledged, while differences between participants such as age, gender, and socio-economic factors, are not taken into account at all. Overall participants are seen as a homogenous crowd from where data is extracted.

  • 31.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cars, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    An e-participatory map over process methods in urban planning2013In: CeDEM 2013: Proceedings of the Conference for E-Democracy and Open Governement (Revised Edition) / [ed] Peter Parycek, Noella Edelmann, Edition Donau-Universität Krems , 2013, p. 119-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we put the concept of e-participation in a wider perspective. Based on experiences of using participatory process methods in urban planning, we address the importance of communicating underlying epistemological beliefs in various participatory methods. Using eight cases of urban planning, we show how an analysis of the interplay of the concept of agenda, participant, and method can be used when developing strategies for e-participation. The investigation reveals a lack of procedures and methods for actively visualizing different groups’ and individuals’ unequal influence on the participatory processes and decisions. In contrast to the usual governmentally controlled participation models, we propose a map clarifying the epistemological and ontological positions of different participatory methods, bridging various research paradigms and methods while identifying project teams' expectations and common concepts.

  • 32.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Implementation of a Decision Theoretical Framework, A case study of the Red River Delta in Vietnam2006In: Proceedings of the 19th International Florida AI Research Society Conference, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Gustavsson Fürst, Johanna
    Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap, , .
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Liljenberg, Thomas
    Artist, , .
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Prototyping for Participatory Democracy: Fine Arts as Means for the Study of Multi-modal Communication in Public Decision Making2011In: IMAC, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a thematic art project in a suburb of Stockholm as a means to generate problem areas in focus for a research project on multimodal communication and democratic decision-making. Through art we play with different techniques and ideas about democracy in a particular location in order to obtain a better understanding of the citizens and their environments. Artists' actions, installations and mediations create a direct confrontation with the place and its inhabitants, and explore the dynamic relationships that constitute its context. The common denominator for the invited artists is that they work with situation-specific emancipatory art that in various ways relates to the physical and mediated public sphere. The art project Performing Structure is a collaborative process where the artists develop the project and take part in the contextualization in collaboration with researchers. This is achieved partly through a shared memory work on the theme of power / powerlessness. From this feminist research practice notions of democracy is examined in order to investigate, expose, enhance and / or remodel relations of the site. The aim with the art project is to put the site and the individual in a web of geographical, social and economic contexts. The aim is also to contribute to a debate on artistic research by showing how art can be viewed as a qualitative method. Through the practice of the memory work method we contribute to the development of this methodology, and map out a space for art in the field of science.

  • 34.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Gustavsson Fürst, Johanna
    Liljenberg, Thomas
    Performing Structure: Fine Art as a Prototype for Participation2011In: ISEA 2011 Istanbul, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The art project Performing Structure (www.performingstructure.se) deals with the performance of organizational systems like democracy in a place structured by globalization. An art exhibition in the public space is employed as a way to better understand the conditions for democratic participation. In this work-in-progress, artists work in relation to research regarding e-democracy using the concept of art as a method to explore the context.

  • 35.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Forlano, Laura
    Choi, Jaz Hee-jeong
    DiSalvo, Carl
    Cerratto Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bardzell, Shaowen
    Lindtner, Silvia
    Joshi, Somya
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Provocation, Conflict, and Appropriation: The Role of the Designer in Making Publics2018In: Desidades, E-ISSN 2318-9282, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 3-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Gustafsson Fürst, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Methodology for sustainable e-participation: Redistribution, representation and recognition2013In: MeTTeG 13: 7th International Conference on Methodologies, Technologies and Tools enabling e-Government / [ed] Luis Álvarez Sabucedo, Luis Anido Rifón, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is often too much confidence in the capacity of technologies to solve complex democratic problems. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have rather widened the gaps between different groups. ICT strengthens undemocratic influence on the political agenda, the information becomes more difficult to overview and interpret and the fragmentation of the media increases the differences between various groups’ worldviews and reduces involvement in the local common. A methodology that stands on a radical democratic ground departs from a broader understanding of citizens as e-participants. To find more sustainable e-strategies for participation we have studied the information structures in relation to an urban planning process in Husby, Stockholm. Based on these findings we suggest an IT-strategy to strengthen existing democratic structures. This entails redistribution of the means to participate with public available decision-support systems, a clarification of the unequal representation in the public sphere, support of a variety of alternative public spheres, and to strengthen recognition of the community through a shared archive.

  • 37.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Karlström, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Verhagen, Harko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Actory: A Tool for Visualizing Reputation as a Means to Formalize Informal Social Behavior2011In: The second International Conference on Reputation, ICORE 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate and challenge a normative liberal democratic view of participation, we propose an experimental system based on differences in reputation and user activity. Based on democratic meeting techniques and social media, basic principles for a groupware are formulated containing typical democratic features such as voting and discussion, but taking reputation into account and clarifying the individual's activities in relation to the group. The prototype stands in contrast to commonly used internet forums by highlighting differences in reputation and activity and making these visible and changeable by its users thus shedding some light on status and reputation issues in internet forums and groupware.

  • 38.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Karlström, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Verhagen, Harko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Reputation, inequality and meeting techniques: visualising user hierarchy to support collaboration2014In: Computational and mathematical organization theory, ISSN 1381-298X, E-ISSN 1572-9346, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 155-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equality within groups is ordinarily taken for granted when technology for e-democracy is conceived and developed. However, inequality in online communication is just as common as in other social contexts. Therefore, we have developed a groupware with the express purpose of illuminating imbalance of power. Inequalities are measured and made visible to users of the system, and they change dynamically as actions are taken by users. The system is based on democratic meeting techniques and is reminiscent of a strategy game based on social media. Each participant’s score within the game is dynamically calculated and reflects that user’s activity, others’ reactions to that activity and reactions to others’ activities. The calculations and weighing mechanisms are open to inspection and change by the users, and hierarchical roles reflecting game levels may be attached to system rights belonging to individual users and user groups. The prototype we present stems from the question of how to conceive of groupware based on diversity and is the result of combining social theory with algorithms for modelling and visualising user hierarchy and status. Empirical user tests suggest improvements to the prototype’s interface, which will be implemented and further evaluated by embedding the algorithms in a system for e-participation.

  • 39.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ludwig, Thomas
    Aitamurto, Tanja
    Capitalizing Relationships: Modes of Participation in Crowdsourcing2019In: Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ISSN 0925-9724, E-ISSN 1573-7551, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 977-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While crowds online are increasingly used for data gathering and problem solving, the relationships and structures within these processes remain largely unexamined. For understanding the usage of crowdsourcing and to design appropriate technologies and processes, it is important to understand how different tools support relationships in these contexts. Based on an extensive literature review of existing crowdsourcing tools and practices, we contribute with the development of a typology of alienation in crowdsourcing by using Marx's theory of alienation. The theory serves as a lens to compare and contrast a number of currently available tools for crowdsourcing, focusing on how relationships between participants are supported and capitalized within the tool. We show how different types of crowdsourcing practices can be described in terms of alienation where the producer, the producers, the consumers, and products are connected in different modes of participation. This systematical application of Marx theory of alienation provides a way to compare the technical support for social relationships in a number of platforms used for crowdsourcing.

  • 40.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Muller, Michael
    Aitamurto, Tanja
    Irani, Lily
    Mazarakis, Athanasios
    Gupta, Neha
    Ludwig, Thomas
    Crowd Dynamics: Exploring Conflicts and Contradictions in Crowdsourcing2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 3604-3611Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unfair reputation systems, slow payments, lack of transparency, and socio-spatial inequalities are only some of the many reasons for conflicts in crowdsourcing. The divisive logic of the system and the sharing processes in the peer-community create interesting dynamics and new foci on old conflicts. In this workshop we explore the reasons, processes, power relations, and dynamics of conflicts within crowdsourcing. We invite participants from a diversity of disciplines and perspectives to contribute with insights from different types of crowdsourcing, and thereby deepen our understanding of the relations in contexts such as crowd-work, crowdfunding, peer-production and citizen science. Furthermore, we examine strategies for accommodating differences in crowdsourcing environments.

  • 41.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Muller, Michael
    Aitamurto, Tanja
    Light, Ann
    Mazarakis, Athanasios
    Gupta, Neha
    Ludwig, Thomas
    Toward a Typology of Participation in Crowdwork2016In: Proceedings of the 19th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing Companion, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 515-521Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are new potentials for transformative developments in government, work life, science, and emergency response as the use of participatory and social media has become widespread in society and enabled a more collaborative information production. However, these new platforms for participation have not solved many of the pre-crowd problems regarding participation, such as lack of representativeness and flawed deliberative processes. Therefore it is important and relevant to look at the power relations within crowd production and to examine how different tools handle participatory processes in the crowd. This workshop examines different types of participation in crowd work such as crowdsourced policymaking, crisis management, citizen science and paid crowd work, among others, focusing on relations and power dynamics within and beyond the crowds. We welcome researchers from a diversity of disciplines and perspectives to formulate a typology of participation in crowd work.

  • 42.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Talantsev, Anton
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Lindgren, Tony
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Open government ideologies in post-soviet countries2016In: International Journal of Electronic Governance, ISSN 1742-7509, E-ISSN 1742-7517, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 244-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most research in research areas like e-government, e-participation and open government assumes a democratic norm. The open government (OG) concept is commonly based on a general liberal and deliberative ideology emphasising transparency, access, participation and collaboration, but were also innovation and accountability are promoted. In this paper, we outline a terminology and suggest a method for how to investigate the concept more systematically in different policy documents, with a special emphasis on post-soviet countries. The result shows that the main focus in this regions OG policy documents is on freedom of information and accountability, and to a lesser extent on collaboration, while other aspects, such as diversity and innovation, are more rarely mentioned, if at all.

  • 43.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Verhagen, Harko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Karlström, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Formalizing informal social behavior: Developing a visual tool to support collaborative discussions2011In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications and Worksharing / [ed] Dimitrios Georgakopoulos and James B. D. Joshi, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 422-429Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In technological development in the area of e- democracy in-group equality is taken for granted. However, inequality in online communication is just as common as in other social contexts. To research the effects of starting from the presupposition of inequality we have developed a groupware for discussions. Based on democratic meeting techniques and social media it takes the form of a strategic game. The score within the game reflect user activity and the reactions to the activity in a dynamic way. Existing groupware and Internet forums available share the measurement of user activity but their evaluation systems are hidden from the user and not open to change. Instead, our system offers many reaction mechanisms that all add to the score for a user that can be seen as the expression of the user’s status. The calculation and weighing mechanisms are open to inspection and change by the users. Hierarchical roles reflecting game levels may be attached to rights of what a specific user may change. The prototype presented in this paper will be evaluated in the next phase of the design research process.

  • 44.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Verhagen, Harko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Karlström, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Reputation and Online Communication: Visualizing Reputational Power to Promote Collaborative Discussions2013In: 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 2013, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 748-758Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In technological development in the area of e-democracy in-group equality is taken for granted. However, inequality in online communication is just as common as in other social contexts. To research the effects of starting from the presupposition of inequality we have developed a groupware for discussions. Based on democratic meeting techniques and social media it takes the form of a strategic game. The score within the game reflect user activity and the reactions to the activity in a dynamic way. The calculation and weighing mechanisms are open to inspection and change by the users. Hierarchical roles reflecting game levels may be attached to rights of what a specific user may change. The prototype presented in this paper will be further evaluated in the next phase of the design research process.

  • 45.
    Lindgren, Tony
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    An Open Government Index: from Democracy to Efficiency to Innovation2014In: DSV writers hut 2014: proceedings, Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most research in research areas like E-government, E-participation and Open government assume a democratic norm. The concept of Open government, recently promoted by, e.g., The Obama administration and the European Commission is to a large extent based on a general liberal and deliberative ideology emphasizing transparency, participation and collaboration. The concept has also become of interest for states like China and Singapore. In this position paper we outline how to study the concept under different political discourses and suggest an Open government index that can be used to analyze the concept of open government under various settings.

  • 46.
    Mondlane, Avelino
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Popov, Oliver
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    E-Governance and Natural Hazards in Mozambique: A Challenge for Backasting Method Used for Flood Risk Management Strategies2014In: Emerging Issues And Prospects In African E-Government / [ed] Inderjeet Singh Sodhi, IGI Global, 2014, no 1, p. 253-268Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic planning is a decisive process toward sustainable development for any organization. Mozambique has developed many tools toward good governance, among which Poverty Alleviation Strategy Paper (PARPA) is an umbrella. PARPA includes different key decisive segments of society, particularly the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) as the pool for development. This chapter investigates to what extent e-Governance, particularly the development of strategies based on ICTs, can contribute to minimize the impact of floods at local governments by addressing best practice and decision-making process. The authors address backcasting methodology as an approach to consider in a participatory strategic planning for long-term decision-making processes. They use Chókwe District as a showcase where e-governance has an impact in mitigating and preventing the impact of floods.

  • 47.
    Mondlane, Avelino
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Popov, Oliver
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Muianga, Xavier
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique.
    ICT for Social Networking in Flood Risk and Knowledge Management Strategies - an MCDA approach2013In: International Journal of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, ISSN 1307-4164, Vol. 7, no 10, p. 330-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the role and importance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and social Networking (SN) in the process of decision making for Flood Risk and Knowledge Management Strategies. We use Mozambique Red Cross (CVM) as the case study and further more we address scenarios for flood risk management strategies, using earlier warning and social networking and we argue that a sustainable desirable stage of life can be achieved by developing scenario strategic planning based on backcasting.

  • 48.
    Mondlane, Avelino I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Popov, Oliver B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Insurance as Strategy for Flood Risk Management at Limpopo River Basin – A decision making Process under Uncertainty2013In: International Journal of Computers & Technology, ISSN 2277-3061, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1862-1877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Limpopo River Basin, one of the nine international rivers crossing Mozambique, historically has shown to be cyclically flooded, undermining the economic and social development of its four riparian countries. Local and external added efforts are always in place when floods occur. Nowadays there are recommended ex-ante instruments to prevent floods and one of the most applicable instruments worldwide is insurance. Most of the inhabitants, even governments, affected by Limpopo River Basin are poor, therefore our concern regards the viability to apply insurance as a strategy for flood risk management. Moreover our research investigates to what extent the application of insurance, within two identified communities as case study, might create an added value in the process of decision making on flood risk management for Limpopo River Basin.

  • 49.
    Mondlane, Avelino
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique.
    Popov, Oliver
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Vulnerability, Human Behaviour, Hazards and Expected Utility in the Context of Risk Management: “The case of Limpopo River Basin in Mozambique”2013In: International Journal of Computer Science and Network, ISSN 2277-5420, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we use four main dimensions: Vulnerability, Human Behaviour, Hazards and Expected Utility to analyze their impact in scenario planning when cross-matched with Human Development Adjusted, Gender Inequality and Multidimensional Poverty Indexes within flood risk management strategies. We argue that the four dimensions are among the central factors behind the poor quality of life. Hence, we propose a backcasting method for a scenario planning and based on sustainable principles at long run to provide a desired and better quality of life as a contribution by the human beings in reducing vulnerability to risk and exposure to hazards. In doing so, we address best practices toward utility improvement and behaviour paradigm shift as a novel approach for participatory strategic thinking in the Multicriteria Decision Analysis for integrating flood risk management strategies related to Limpopo River Basin.

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