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  • 1.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Beyond social ties: The impact of social capital on labour market outcomes for young Swedish people2016In: Journal of Sociology, ISSN 1440-7833, E-ISSN 1741-2978, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 711-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study makes use of a dataset which contains material relating to young Swedish people who have recently completed their studies and started working. It explores whether using social networks as such or using individuals' resources which are accessible through social networks (social capital) provides relative advantages in the competition for better jobs. Interest in this topic stems from the recent development of sociological theories in this field. The results indicate that the use of social ties is a common way to find a job in the highly regulated Swedish labour market, but that informal recruitment methods per se provide no relative advantages in the competition for better jobs. On the other hand, given the same demographic characteristics, socioeconomic background and educational attainments, there is a positive association between resources embedded in an individual's social network (social capital) and the quality of the jobs obtained.

  • 2.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology. Södertörns högskola, Sverige.
    Etniska hierarkier och (icke-)representation: Partikandidater med migrationsbakgrund vid svenska valet 20142018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 2-3, p. 317-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic hierarchies and (non)representation. Party candidates with migration background in the general election of 2014This paper analyses the extent to which individuals with migration background were appointed and elected into different levels of public decision-making bodies in the latest Swedish general election (2014). Individuals of migration background refers in this study to those born abroad or born in Sweden with two foreign-born parents. Data for this study is taken from Statistics Sweden's register of candidates elected in municipal, county and national parliamentary elections in 2014, supplemented by information from other Statistics Sweden's registers. The results demonstrate that: (a) individuals with a migration background are severely underrepresented in the Swedish decision-making bodies; (b) even in cases when individuals with a migration background are nominated on the party lists, they have less of a chance of being elected compared to native candidates. (c) The dominant resource theory cannot explain the underrepresentation of the stigmatized migrant groups and their descendants, and finally; (d) the results indicate some support to the hypothesis about the importance of access to social networks in order to be nominated and elected.

  • 3.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Incorporation of children of immigrants: the case of descendants of immigrants from Turkey in Sweden2013In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 2141-2159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigatehh ow children of immigrants fromTurkey are integrated into Swedish society. The educational achievements and labour market outcomes of this group are compared with the performance  of the offspring of native.born parents. The aim of the study is to explore whether we can observe a tendency towards 'downwards mobility' among young people of immigrant background in Sweden and thereby provide reflections on the existing fomulationof the 'segmented assimilation' theory.Findings show that descendants of immigrants seem not to be in the process of downward assimilation, that is social exclusion and therefore formation of a distinct' underclassin Sweden. The concept of 'subordinate inclusion' is a more appropriate description of the experiences of children of immigrants.

  • 4.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (CEIFO).
    Marriage Pattern of Immigrants in Sweden2010In: Journal of Comparative Family Studies, ISSN 0047-2328, E-ISSN 1929-9850, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 415-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is (a) to depict the general pattern of partnership of Immigrants and their children in Sweden and their position in the Swedish ""marriage market"" relative to that of natives; (b) to estimate probability of out-marriage of individuals from different immigrant groups with natives; and (c) to examine 'exchange theory' in relation to partnerships between immigrants and natives. Using a register data-set provided by Statistics Sweden, I find that individuals in this sample tend to choose men and women who are like themselves in socio-economic background, income, educational level, and position in the labour market. Regarding ""immigrant background,"" the results indicate a tendency towards ""ethnic endogamy."" Results also show that men and women with origins in countries outside northwest Europe and North America (ONW) have a lower probability of having a native partner than others. Empirical results also provide some support for ""exchange theory,"" that is, members of the ONW Immigrant group with native partners have compensated for their ""tribal stigma of race/ethnicity"" with their age and educational differences. They tend to be younger and better-educated than their native partners.

  • 5.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (CEIFO).
    Social capital and stigmatised immigrants2009In: European perspectives on exclusion and subordination: the political economy of migration / [ed] Anders Neergaard, Maaschtrict: Shaker Publishing, 2009, p. 232-237Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Social Capital and Stratification of Young People2013In: Journal of Social Inclusion, ISSN 1836-8808, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 46-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the impact of social capital on the status attainment process of young people at the start of their careers and examines how social class, gender and ethnicity affect the accumulation of social capital and thereby labour market stratification of young people. A sample of young Swedes graduating from vocational schools and universities between 2005 and 2006, was surveyed via the telephone about their experiences acquiring jobs. Two re­search questions are posed: (i) Which characteristics (class, gender and ethnicity) affect young people's access to more social capital? (ii) How is social capital rewarded in the labour market? The results show that being female, coming from the lower social classes and being a member of a stigmatized immigrant groupare associated with a substantial social capital deficit. When socioeconomic and demographic backgrounds as well as the human capital of respondents are controlled, social capital is positively associated with salary level. The results indicate that social capital is a significant factor in the stratification process of young people.

  • 7.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology. Linköping University.
    The ethnic penalty: immigration, education and the labour market2013In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 915-916Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Boréus, Kristina
    Neergaard, Anders
    Yazdanpanah, Soheyla
    Speaking up, leaving or keeping silent: racialized employees in the Swedish elderly care sector2017In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 954-971Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When encountering problems and dissatisfaction in the workplace, employees may choose between three strategies: voice; exit; or silence. Using survey data and interview material from a study of employees in an elderly care organization in Sweden, this article investigates the workers' perceptions of the eligibility and prospects of these strategies and which individual characteristics and situational factors might affect them. The focus is on racialized workers (operationalized through their region of birth) who, according to earlier studies, are less likely than other employees to choose voice behaviour. Contrary to some earlier studies, the results here attribute such a propensity to the importance of power differences across racial hierarchies' rather than to differences in cultural values. Individuals in this (racialized) category have a lower occupational status, earn less and experience less favourable relationships with their managers.

  • 9.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology. Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Hertzberg, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jonsson, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    León Rosales, René
    Neergaard, Anders
    Sweden: The Otherization of the Descendants of Immigrants2019In: The Palgrave Handbook of Race and Ethnic Inequalities in Education / [ed] Peter A. J. Stevens, A. Gary Dworkin, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, 2, no 0721474136, p. 999-1034Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter offers a systematic review of the literature on educational inequality and school attainments of immigrants’ offspring in Sweden. The review covers research conducted between 1990 and 2015 and critically examines how different research traditions explain this inequality. The chapter begins by mapping the key characteristics of the Swedish educational system together with Swedish immigration patterns. Thereafter, five major research traditions that explain educational inequality and ethnic background in Sweden are presented. These perspectives include (1) political arithmetic; (2) racism and discrimination; (3) language proficiency tradition; (4) school choice and school segregation; and (5) cultural and social capital and socio-historical contexts. The ‘political arithmetic’ tradition, which starts mainly from a positivistic approach and employs large-scale, quantitative research strategies, has focused on the individual and demographic characteristics of pupils. The main assumption of the other research clusters is that there are important contextual circumstances (beyond individual factors) which decisively affect the educational achievements of the descendants of immigrants. While often dominated by qualitative approaches, these types of research do sometimes include quantitatively designed studies. These research traditions take a more critical stance on government policies, which have produced an extremely segregated school system, and show the consequences of a concentration of children of families from vulnerable groups (economically disadvantaged and immigrant groups in marginalized neighborhoods) in schools with limited resources.

  • 10.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology. Södertörns högskola, Sweden.
    Høyer Leivestad, Hege
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    The "stranger" among Swedish "homo academicus"2019In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 213-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with individuals of immigrant background in Swedish higher education—i.e., those who have a PhD and work in Swedish universities. The aim of the study is to examine whether and how factors other than academic qualifications—such as gender and migrant background—may affect the individual’s ability to find employment and pursue a successful career in a Swedish institution of higher education. The data used in the first section are Swedish registry data (LISA database and population), administered by Statistics Sweden. The second part of the paper is based on semi-structured interviews with 19 academics of migrant background. The results show that, given the same work experience and compared to the reference group (born in Sweden with at least one Swedish-born parent), individuals born in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America are, firstly, more likely to be unemployed and, secondly, if they are employed, to have a lower income (lower position). The ways in which such gaps arises are also examined.

  • 11.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Jonsson, Stefan
    Rasism: särskiljandets och rangordningens praktik2013In: Migrationens och etnicitetens epok: kritiska perspektiv i etnicitets- och migrationsstudier / [ed] Magnus Dahlstedt, Anders Neergarard, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 1, p. 168-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Neergaard, Anders
    Social capital and the educational achievement of young people in Sweden2016In: British Journal of Sociology of Education, ISSN 0142-5692, E-ISSN 1465-3346, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 947-969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on Bourdieu's conceptualization of social capital (the social stratification perspective), this study examines the impact of social capital on the educational outcomes of young people in Sweden, with a focus on the extra-familial aspect of social capital - that is, social capital generated by parental networks and active membership in various social organizations and friendship networks. The results indicate that the class background of respondents is the main predictor of access to all three forms of extra-familial social capital. However, after controlling for class background, the children of racialized immigrant groups are more likely to have access to more types of social capital than others. All three aspects of extra-familial social capital positively influence the educational performance of pupils.

  • 13.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (CEIFO). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (CEIFO).
    Neergaard, Anders
    REMESO Linköpings universitet.
     Social capital and wage disadvantages among immigrant workers2010In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 761-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the characteristics that affect access to social capital for employees in a single industrial firm in Sweden, and the impact of their social capital on their monthly salaries. The results demonstrate that being a member of a stigmatised immigrant group is associated with a substantial social capital deficit. This deficit arises because immigrant workers are embedded in social networks that constrain their ability to acquire valuable social resources or are excluded from social networks with valuable resources. Another finding is that the average salary earned by members of stigmatised immigrant groups is lower than that earned by native-born workers. The observed wage gap cannot be explained by ‘human capital’ variables. However, when social capital variables were taken into account, wage gaps noticeably shrank, which indicates that part of the wage disadvantage experienced by immigrants is likely to represent the impact of unequal access to social capital.

  • 14.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    The Performance of Early Age Migrants in Education and the Labour Market: a Comparison of Bosnia Herzegovinians, Chileans and Somalis in Sweden2014In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 778-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how early age immigrants to Sweden from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Chile and Somalia perform in education and the labour market in comparison with the children of natives. As the results demonstrate, the socio-economic position of the parents, family structure and other demographic characteristics of individuals only partially explain the differences between the descendants of natives and young immigrants from these countries. A further analysis demonstrates that the socio-historical contexts into which these immigrant children arrive and settle, that is the processes of migration, are equally likely to have an impact on young immigrants' performance.

  • 15.
    Leivestad Høyer, Hege
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    "De andra" i den svenska akademiska eliten2018In: Eliter i Sverige: Tvärvetenskapliga perspektiv på makt, status och klass / [ed] Bengt Erik Eriksson, Mikael Holmqvist, Lena Sohl, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 247-274Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Olsson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Høyer Leivestad, Hege
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Karriär på spel: Socialt kapital och karriärer för disputerade migranter i den svenska högskolan2018In: Högutbildade migranter i Sverige / [ed] Maja Povrzanović Frykman, Magnus Öhlander, Lund: Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2018, p. 195-210Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Olsson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (CEIFO).
    Lundqvist, Catarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (CEIFO).
    Behtoui, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (CEIFO).
    Unga migranters studiebenägenhet: Rapport från projektet Transnationella utbildningskarriärer: Studieval, möjlighetshorisont och sociala nätverk för unga med utländsk anknytning2012In: Resultatdialog 2012, Vetenskapsrådet , 2012, p. 112-118Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 17 of 17
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