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  • 1. Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Changes in gender equality?: Swedish fathers' parental leave, division of childcare and housework2014In: Journal of family studies, ISSN 1322-9400, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is well known for its family policy and this study explores whether fathers' parental leave is related to later division of childcare and housework. Two materials were used; a panel survey (2003, 2009) and an interview- study (2008). Respondents in the survey had their first child between the waves and the interview-study focused on parents of 2-3 year olds. The survey is analyzed by logistic regression and the interviews by grounded theory. The results indicate that when fathers took long leave parents shared both household tasks and childcare more equally after the leave. Higher expectations of sharing childcare is related to a higher share of divided childcare once becoming parents, although it seems that some tasks are more often shared than others. When the father took long leave both parents mention that the child relates to the father as much as the mother in everyday life.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Barnafödande och familjepolitik i kristider2010In: Global kris - Håller välfärdssystemen / [ed] Försäkringskassan, Stockholm: Försäkringskassan , 2010, p. 49-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I vårt avsnitt diskuterar vi hur ekonomisk tillbakagång och ekonomiska kristider kan tänkas påverka barnafödandet i ett land som Sverige. Vi diskuterar även hur familjepolitiken påverkar barnafödandet och hur den kan modifiera eventuella samband mellan ekonomisk tillväxt och benägenheten att skaffa barn. Bakgrunden till bidraget är den senaste tidens ekonomiska kris, en utveckling som i Sverige inträffat under en period av relativt höga och stigande fruktsamhetstal.

  • 3. Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Social differentials in speed-premium effects in childbearing in Sweden2006In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 51-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, parents receive a parental-leave allowance of a high percentage (currently 80%) of their pre-birth salary for about a year in connection with any birth. If they space their births sufficiently closely, they avoid a reduction in the allowance caused by any reduced income earned between the births. The gain is popularly called a “speed premium”. In previous work we have shown that childbearing was sped up correspondingly. This is clear evidence of a causal effect of a policy change on childbearing behavior. In the present paper, we study how this change in behavior was adopted in various social strata of the Swedish population.

  • 4.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ohlsson-Wijk, Sofi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sharing the Caring: Attitude-Behavior Discrepancies and Partnership Dynamics2018In: Journal of family issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 771-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though ideals in favor of gender equality in the private sphere are wide spread, discrepancies between ideals and actual behavior are common. Such discrepancies and potential dissatisfaction with gender unequal behavior within a couple are expected to influence partnership dynamics negatively. This study examines how discrepancies between the perceived ideal sharing of parental leave and the actual division of leave, as well as satisfaction with the division are associated with (a) relationship satisfaction, (b) continued childbearing, and (c) union dissolution, using Swedish panel data. The findings cannot confirm an effect of discrepancies on partnership dynamics. However, men who wish they had used a larger share of the parental leave have lower relationship satisfaction, lower continued childbearing, and higher probability of union dissolution. Women are seemingly not affected by their (dis)satisfaction with the division. The findings may reflect a changing father role related to the policy setting and norms in Sweden.

  • 5.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Moulding Parents’ Childcare?: A Comparative Analysis of Paid Work and Time with Children in Different Family Policy Models2011In: Work-Life Balance in Europe: The Role of Job Quality / [ed] Drobnic, Sonja & Guillén, Ana, Palgrave Macmillan , 2011, p. 207-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Duvander, Aduva Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Parental leave2011In: Parental leave, childcare and gender equality in the Nordic countries / [ed] Ingólfur V. Gíslason, Guðný Björk Eydal, Köpenhamn: Nordiska ministerråd , 2011, p. 31-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Föräldraledigheten påverkas av reformer2013In: Jordemodern, ISSN 0021-7468, no 4, p. 6-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    How Long Should Parental Leave Be?: Attitudes to Gender Equality, Family, and Work as Determinants of Women's and Men's Parental Leave in Sweden2014In: Journal of family issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 909-926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A more equal division of parental leave use between parents has been a major political goal in Sweden for a long time, as it is assumed to lead to gender equality in the labor market, as well as in the homes. The assumed correlation between gender equality and shared parental leave has many aspects, but it has been investigated only in part. In this study, we investigate the determinants of men's and women's parental leave use with a focus on attitudes toward family, work, and gender equality. We use the Young Adult Panel Study with surveys conducted in 1999, 2003, and 2009. The findings indicate that gender equality orientation matters for parental leave for fathers. Mothers' parental leave length is primarily influenced by family orientation, whereas fathers' is influenced by the economic dimension of work.

  • 9.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Leave policies development in Sweden: Seminar report2012In: Parental leave policies and the economic crisis in the Nordic countries / [ed] Sanna Parrukoski and Johanna Lammi-Taskula, Helsinki: Helsinki University , 2012, p. 19-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fahlén, Susanne
    Ohlsson-Wijk, Sofi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Women have a stronger say in couples' decisions to have a child2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 307-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden stands out as a forerunner in the development of gender equality and family dynamics. To deepen the knowledge on power distribution and gender dynamics of couple relations, we investigate how women and men's childbearing intentions influence actual childbearing behavior. The Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS) has information on both partners' childbearing intentions in 2009, which we follow for five years with register data on childbearing. The results indicate that women's childbearing intentions are more important than men's intentions in determining actual childbirths.

  • 11.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ellingsaeter, Anne Lise
    Cash for childcare schemes in the Nordic welfare states: diverse paths, diverse outcomes2016In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 70-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent family policy developments may blur conventional family policy typologies. While policies in some European welfare states are shifting away from strong male breadwinner regimes towards work-family reconciliation, the adding of cash for childcare (CFC) benefits in Nordic earner-carer welfare states points in the opposite direction. How can we understand growing family policy hybridisation? Comparison of CFC schemes in the five Nordic countries is the empirical basis of the discussion here - what does the insertion of such a familistic policy measure actually mean? The analysis displays diverse national policy processes and policy outputs and wide variation in parents' responses to this policy incentive. Reforms have been subject to conflicts and amendments to different degrees, and impact has been shaped by their institution at different times distinguished by mothers' varying access to childcare services and labour markets. We conclude that conceptualisation of CFC schemes needs to be contextualised in relation to political dynamisms and opportunity structures.

  • 12.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Swedish Inspectorate Social Insurance, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats
    Parental leave use for different fathers: a study of the impact of three Swedish parental leave reforms2015In: Fatherhood in the Nordic Welfare States: Comparing Care Policies and Practice / [ed] Guðný Björk Eydal, Tine Rostgaard, Bristol: Policy Press, 2015, p. 347-369Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Johansson, Mats
    What are the effects of reforms promoting fathers' parental leave use?2012In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 319-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the introduction of parental leave in Sweden a more gender-equal division of such leave has been targeted. In 1995 one month was reserved for each parent, implying that the month was forfeited if not used by the same parent. A second month was reserved in 2002. In 2008, a gender equality bonus was introduced, meaning that tax credits were given to parents who shared the leave equally. This study investigates the effects of these reforms on parental leave use by means of a difference-in-difference approach with parents of children born just before and just after the introduction of each reform. We use register data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, which include all parents residing in Sweden. The results indicate a strong effect on parental leave use resulting from the introduction of the first reserved month, a more modest but clear effect resulting from the second reserved month and, so far, no effect resulting from the gender equality bonus. Possible interpretations of the results are that (1) reserved time may be more effective than an economic bonus, (2) change from low levels of use may be easier and (3) reforms may matter most when they are first introduced.

  • 14.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lappegard, Trude
    Statistics Norway Research Department, Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Family Policy and Fertility: Fathers' and Mothers' Use  of Parental Leave and Continued Childbearing in Norway and Sweden2010In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 45-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Nordic countries gender equality is an explicit policy goal. For example, Norway and Sweden both offer paid parental leave for approximately one year following childbirth with earnings-related benefits and with certain periods reserved exclusively for the father. In this study, we examine the relationship between fathers’ and mothers’ use of parental leave and continued childbearing among couples in Norway and Sweden. The two countries offer largely similar family policies, but differ concerning family policy context. While Sweden has a consistent policy concerning gender relations, Norway has more ambiguous family policies giving incentives both to gender equality and childrearing at home. Our study shows that father’s parental leave use is positively associated with continued childbearing in both Norway and Sweden, for both one- and two-child couples. The association is stronger in Norway. For two-child families a long leave of the mother is positively associated with third birth. It seems as the two-child family is highly compatible with the combination of work and family life, but that in families who choose to have more children the mother often seems to have a weaker work orientation.

  • 15.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Mussino, Eleonora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Föräldraledig nu eller senare? Invandrade kvinnors användning av föräldrapenning2016In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 23, no 3-4, p. 259-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental leave now or later? Immigrant women’s use of parental leave benefit

    Sweden is a welfare state with a family policy that strongly emphasizes equality without distinction according to place of birth or gender. In this study, we investigate the di erences in uptake of parental leave between native and immigrant women, and the connection to labour-market attachment. Sweden represents a unique case study, not only because of the strong e ort to combine work and family for all women and men, the high level of fertility and the large presence of immigrants in the country; it also enables a detailed and sophisticated analysis based on the high-quality data derived from its population registers. We nd that immigrant mothers use more parental leave bene t the rst year after their child’s birth, but then fewer in the second year compared to native women. e di erences diminish when labour-market status is controlled for. Additionally, after some time in Sweden, immigrant mothers use leave more similarly to how native mothers do. We conclude that labour-market status is the most decisive factor for parental leave use and we point out the relationship between labour market and family policy. 

  • 16.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Olsson, Sten
    Nyanlända invandrares användning av föräldrapenning2012In: Förmån och fälla - nyanländas uttag av föräldrapenning: delbetänkande, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2012, p. 141-171Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till att undersöka nyanlända invandrares föräldrapenninguttag. För att sätta uttaget i perspektiv jämförs nyanlända invandrares föräldrapenninguttag med föräldrapenninguttaget bland övriga föräldrar i Sverige.

  • 17.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Turunen, JaniStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Demografi: Befolkningsperspektiv på samhället2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jordens befolkning har de senaste 50 åren ökat med över fyra miljarder människor. Hur har det gått till? Är det för att vi lever längre eller för att vi skaffar fler barn? Är befolkningsökning  positivt eller negativt? Varför domineras vissa befolkningar av barn medan andra åldras snabbt – och vad blir följderna av detta?

    För att svara på dessa frågor krävs demografisk kunskap. Med den här boken vill vi ge läsaren ökad kunskap om världens befolkningsutveckling med fokus på Sverige. Vi vill ge förståelse för hur befolkningen påverkar samhällets utformning, men också om hur samhället kan påverka befolkningsutvecklingen.

    Boken beskriver befolkningsutvecklingen i ett historiskt perspektiv men har sitt huvudsakliga fokus på nutida samhällen. Kapitlen tar upp demografins mest centrala processer: barnafödande, dödlighet och migration men även befolkningsstruktur samt parbildning och separationer. Boken presenterar även grundläggande demografiska mått och metoder.

    Boken vänder sig till studenter inom främst samhällsvetenskap men även andra som är intresserade av att få en introduktion till demografi.

  • 18.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Viklund, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Adoptivföräldrar delar föräldrapenning jämnare2013In: Välfärd : SCB:s tidskrift om arbetsliv, demografi och välfärd, ISSN 1651-6710, no 3, p. 28-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Viklund, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    What’s biology got to do with it? Parental leave use among adoptive and biological parents2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Parental Leave - Possibility or Trap?: Does Family Leave Length Effect Swedish Women's Labor Market Opportunities?2011In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 435-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is known for its policies aimed at facilitating the combination of work and familyfor both mothers and fathers. The parental leave insurance is one important part of these policies, considered to reduce the work-family conflict for women. However, there is scarce knowledge about the effects a long family leave break may have on women’s occupational careers and the studies on the topic so far mainly refer to the period up to the early 1990s. In addition, issues of selectivity are seldom dealt with. In the present study, we focus on mothers’ leave-taking behaviour in the period from 1974 to 2000 and estimate the relationship between family leave length and the transition rate to an upward occupational move upon return to work. Data from the nationally representative Swedish Level of Living Survey of 1991 and 2000 are used. The results indicate that women with leaves of 16 months or more were less likely to experience an upward occupational move once back on the job again. In a multilevel, multiprocess model including terms for unobserved heterogeneity, the main results remain, and we conclude that even after controlling for selectivity into different parental leave length, we find a negative effect of time out on subsequent career moves.

  • 21.
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Earner-Carer Model at the Cross-Roads: Reforms and Outcomes of Sweden’s Family Policy in Comparative Perspective2010In: International Journal of Health Services, ISSN 0020-7314, E-ISSN 1541-4469, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 373-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the 2006 election, the Swedish earner-carer model of family policy seems to have come to an important crossroads, and questions have been raised about the future course of policies. Will the prototypical earner-carer model in Sweden persist? The separate reforms in cash transfers, services, and tax systems in several respects seem to point in contradictory directions, simultaneously introducing new principles of social care. In this article, past and present reforms and potential outcomes of policies are discussed from an institutional and comparative perspective. Reviewing research on outcomes of earner-carer policies for gendered patterns of productive and reproductive work, class-based stratification, child well-being, fertility, and work-family conflict, the article also contributes to the discussion about future challenges for family policy institutions in Sweden and other advanced welfare states.

  • 22. Giuliani, Giuliana
    et al.
    Duvander, Ann Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Cash-for-care policy in Sweden: An appraisal of its consequences on female employment2017In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 49-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, Sweden introduced a cash-for-care benefit consisting of a flat-rate sum paid by municipalities to parents whose children were between the ages of one and three and who did not use publicly subsidised childcare. The main object of the reform was to increase parents' freedom to choose', but the policy was criticised because of its potentially negative effects on gender equality and mothers' employment. This study focuses on the effects of cash-for-care on female employment in Sweden. The study shows that the adoption of this policy had negative effects on female employment, although primarily in rural areas. Cash-for-care was abolished in Sweden in 2016. To evaluate the effects that the policy had on female employment during the time it was in place is important as it indicates what may happen if the policy is introduced again.

  • 23. Johansson, Mats
    et al.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ett jämställt uttag? Reformer inom föräldraförsäkringen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan föräldrapenningen infördes 1974 har flera reformer genomförts för att uppnå en jämnare fördelning av uttaget mellan kvinnor och män.

    År 1995 reserverades en månad i föräldrapenningen till vardera föräldern. Denna följdes av ytterligare en månad 2002, då också föräldrapenningen förlängdes med en månad. År 2008 infördes en jämställdhetsbonus, som ger skattelättnader till föräldrar där båda använder fler föräldrapenningdagar än de två reserverade månaderna. Bonusen blir högre ju jämnare uttaget är.

    I rapporten visas att den första reserverade månaden ledde till att mammors uttag av föräldrapenning minskade, medan pappornas uttag ökade. De grupper som ökade sitt uttag mest var de där relativt få pappor använt föräldrapenningen före reformen. Pappor med låg inkomst, förgymnasial utbildning och pappor födda utomlands använde föräldrapenning i lägre utsträckning än andra innan den första reserverade månaden infördes. Den andra reserverade månaden hade också en tydlig utjämnande effekt på fördelningen mellan könen.

    I motsats till detta visar analysen inte några positiva signifikanta effekter på uttaget av föräldrapenning 24 månader efter införandet av jämställdhetsbonusen vare sig för mammor eller för pappor. Detta behöver dock inte innebära att en ekonomisk stimulans i sig är fel. Den uteblivna effekten kan också hänga samman med att bonusen trots informationsinsatsen har varit relativt okänd bland blivande föräldrar och att utbetalningen skett i efterhand med viss fördröjning. Ett förenklat förfarande har införts, och kunskapen om bonusen sprids successivt. Det finns alltså anledning att följa utvecklingen under ytterligare något år innan definitiva slutsatser dras om bonusens effekter.

  • 24.
    Lappegård, Trude
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Har foreldrepermisjon betydning for barnefødsler?2013In: Fedrekvoten og den farsvennlige velferdsstaten / [ed] Berit Brandth, Elin Kvande, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget , 2013, p. 211-221Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25. Lee, Soomi
    et al.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Swedish Inspectorate Social Insurance, Sweden.
    Zarit, Steven H.
    How can family policies reconcile fertility and women's employment? Comparisons between South Korea and Sweden2016In: Asian Journal of Women's Studies, ISSN 1225-9276, E-ISSN 2377-004X, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 269-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    South Korea has extremely low rates of fertility and labor force participation by women during their childbearing years, whereas Sweden has high rates for both. Variations in family policy models may explain differences in fertility and women's employment between the two countries. Drawing upon literature that examines the effects of family policies on fertility and women's employment, this paper compares childcare support for very young children and parental leave policies in South Korea and Sweden. Thereafter, we discuss the importance of providing stronger support for dual-earner rather than single-earner families to reconcile the two objectives of increasing fertility and women's workforce participation. Specifically, it is critical to: (a) enhance the quantity and quality of childcare services for very young children, (b) achieve gender equality in parental leave policies, and (c) reduce gaps in the accessibility and utilization of family benefits by working parents from different social classes.

  • 26.
    Mussino, Eleonora
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Use It or Save It? Migration Background and Parental Leave Uptake in Sweden2016In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 189-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is a welfare state with a family policy that strongly emphasizes equality without distinction by place of birth or gender. In this study, we investigate the differences in uptake of parental leave between native and immigrant mothers, and the connection to labour-market attachment. Sweden represents a unique case study, not only because of the strong effort to combine work and family for all women and men, the high level of fertility and the large presence of immigrants in the country; it also enables a detailed and sophisticated analysis based on the high-quality data derived from its population registers. We find that immigrant mothers use more parental leave benefit the first year after their child's birth, but then fewer in the second year compared with native mothers. The differences diminish when labour-market activity is controlled for. Additionally, after a time in Sweden, immigrant mothers use leave more similarly to how native mothers do.

  • 27. Tervola, Jussi
    et al.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Mussino, Eleonora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Promoting Parental Leave for Immigrant Fathers-What Role Does Policy Play?2017In: Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, ISSN 1072-4745, E-ISSN 1468-2893, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 269-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gender differences in labor force participation and take-up of parental leave are accentuated in immigrant populations. This study examines whether certain policy features of parental leave are effective in leveling out the gendered differences among immigrants. We compare two distinct policy contexts, Finland and Sweden, and analyze the impacts of three policy reforms. Our results imply that policy features such as the earmarking of days and flexibility are the reason why immigrant fathers' take-up of leave is higher in Sweden. However, analysis of policy reforms suggests that other contextual factors also play a role.

  • 28. Valarino, Isabel
    et al.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Haas, Linda L.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Exploring Leave Policy Preferences: A Comparison of Austria, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States2018In: Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, ISSN 1072-4745, E-ISSN 1468-2893, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 118-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses preferences regarding leave length, gender division of leave,and leave financing in four countries with different welfare-state and leaveregimes. Embedded in a gender perspective, institutional, self-interest, and ideationaltheoretical approaches are used to explore the factors shaping individuals’preferences (ISSP 2012 data). Findings show dramatic cross-country differences,suggesting the institutional dimension is most strongly related to leave policy preferences.Self-interest and values concerning gender relations and state responsibilityare also important correlates. The study identifies mismatches between leavepreferences, entitlements, and uptake, with implications for policy reform and thegendered division of parenting.

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