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  • 1. Dugo-Cota, Alvaro
    et al.
    Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago
    Vila, Carles
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Spain; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    A test of the integrated evolutionary speed hypothesis in a Neotropical amphibian radiation2015Ingår i: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 24, nr 7, s. 804-813Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim - The evolutionary speed hypothesis is a mechanistic explanation for the latitudinal biodiversity gradient. The recently extended integrated evolutionary speed hypothesis (IESH) proposes that temperature, water availability, population size and spatial heterogeneity influence the rate of molecular evolution which, in turn, affects diversification. However, the evidence for some of the associations predicted by the IESH is not conclusive, and in some cases is contradictory.

    Location - The Neotropics.

    Methods - Using a comparative Bayesian method we tested the following predictions of the IESH: the association between the rate of molecular evolution and temperature (and elevation and latitude, as proxies), water availability (using precipitation and relative humidity as proxies), productivity and rate of diversification. We also accounted for the potential confounding effects of body size and UVB radiation. We tested these predictions separately in mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    Results - Substitution rates of mitochondrial and nuclear genes were positively associated with temperature and negatively with elevation, while only the mitochondrial coding gene rate was associated with UVB radiation. However, when controlling for temperature, the association between substitution rate and elevation and UVB radiation disappeared, while a negative association with precipitation emerged. Moreover, diversification events were positively correlated with the rate of molecular evolution but only in mitochondrial genes.

    Main conclusions - Our results support two key predictions of the IESH. They highlight the important association between rate of molecular evolution and temperature within a recently diverged group and also confirm the positive association between molecular evolution and diversification rate, although only in mitochondrial genes. However, the lack of association between diversification and temperature and the low effect size of the relationship between substitution rates and diversification in mitochondrial genes emphasize the important role other factors, such as time, spatial heterogeneity and population size might have in the origin and maintenance of the latitudinal biodiversity gradient.

  • 2.
    Eckerström-Liedholm, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Sowersby, Will
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Rogell, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Time-limited environments affect the evolution of egg-body size allometry2017Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, nr 7, s. 1900-1910Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Initial offspring size is a fundamental component of absolute growth rate, where large offspring will reach a given adult body size faster than smaller offspring. Yet, our knowledge regarding the coevolution between offspring and adult size is limited. In time-constrained environments, organisms need to reproduce at a high rate and reach a reproductive size quickly. To rapidly attain a large adult body size, we hypothesize that, in seasonal habitats, large species are bound to having a large initial size, and consequently, the evolution of egg size will be tightly matched to that of body size, compared to less time-limited systems. We tested this hypothesis in killifishes, and found a significantly steeper allometric relationship between egg and body sizes in annual, compared to nonannual species. We also found higher rates of evolution of egg and body size in annual compared to nonannual species. Our results suggest that time-constrained environments impose strong selection on rapidly reaching a species-specific body size, and reproduce at a high rate, which in turn imposes constraints on the evolution of egg sizes. In combination, these distinct selection pressures result in different relationships between egg and body size among species in time-constrained versus permanent habitats.

  • 3.
    Eckerström-Liedholm, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Sowersby, Will
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Näslund, Joacim
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Rowiński, Piotr
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Rogell, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Fast life-histories are associated with larger brain size in killifishesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative studies suggest a negative relationship between pace of life-history, and relative energetic investment into brain size. However, since brain size typically evolves as a correlated response to selection on body size, any lag in brain size evolution will result in a shift in relative brain size (e.g. small body – large relative brain size).Coevolution between body size and life-history hence has the potential to drive secondary associations between relative brain size and life-history, when body size is correlated with life history. However, as far as we know, the relationship between relative brain size and life-history strategy has not been examined in systems that simultaneously present marked contrasts in life-history but no concordant shifts in body size. Using a common garden approach, we test the association between relative brain size and life-history in 21 species of killifish; a study system that fulfils the aforementioned requirements. Contrary to the prediction that brain size evolves through energetic trade-offs with life-history, we found that adults, but not juveniles, of fast-living species had larger relative brain sizes. Rather than an energetic link to life-history, our results suggest that fast- and slow-living species differ in terms of how cognitively demanding environments they inhabit are, or alternatively in the ontogenetic timing of somatic vs. neural growth.

  • 4.
    Eckerström-Liedholm, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Sowersby, Will
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Morozov, Sergey
    van der Bijl, Wouter
    Rowiński, Piotr
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Rogell, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Macroevolutionary evidence suggests trait-dependent coevolution between behaviour and life-historyManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Species with fast life-histories prioritize current over future reproduction, which ought to require greater energetic resources, but also results in a shorter time-period to realize their reproductive potential, compared to slow life-histories, which prioritize future reproduction. Hence, behaviours that increase access to both resources and mating opportunities, at a cost of increased mortality risk, are thought to coevolve with the pace of life-history. However, whether this prediction holds across species, is yet to be tested under standardized conditions. Here, we test how potentially risky behaviours, which facilitate access to resources and mating opportunities (i.e. activity, boldness and aggression), along with metabolic rate, correlates with the pace of life-history across 20 species of killifish, which present a remarkable divergence in the pace of their life-histories. We found a positive correlation between the pace of life-history and aggression, but not with any other behavioural traits or metabolic rate. Aggression is often expressed in the context of mating, while the other behaviours we measured might be more relevant for access to energetic resources. Our results therefore suggest that the trade-off between current and future reproduction plays a more prominent role in shaping mating behaviour, while behaviours related to acquisition of energetic resources may be more affected by ecological factors.

  • 5.
    Eckerström-Liedholm, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Sowersby, Will
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Morozov, Sergey
    van der Bijl, Wouter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Rowiński, Piotr K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Rogell, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Macroevolutionary evidence suggests trait-dependent coevolution between behavior and life-history2019Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 73, nr 11, s. 2312-2323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Species with fast life-histories typically prioritize current over future reproductive events, compared to species with slow life-histories. These species therefore require greater energetic input into reproduction, and also likely have less time to realize their reproductive potential. Hence, behaviors that increase access to both resources and mating opportunities, at a cost of increased mortality risk, could coevolve with the pace of life-history. However, whether this prediction holds across species, remains untested under standardized conditions. Here, we test how risky behaviors, which facilitate access to resources and mating opportunities (i.e., activity, boldness, and aggression), along with metabolic rate, coevolve with the pace of life-history across 20 species of killifish that present remarkable divergences in the pace of life-history. We found a positive association between the pace of life-history and aggression, but interestingly not with other behavioral traits or metabolic rate. Aggression is linked to interference competition, and in killifishes is often employed to secure mates, while activity and boldness are more relevant for exploiting energetic resources. Our results suggest that the trade-off between current and future reproduction plays a more prominent role in shaping mating behavior, while behaviors related to energy acquisition may be influenced by ecological factors.

  • 6. Fitzpatrick, J. L.
    et al.
    Almbro, Maria
    University of Western Australia, WA, Australia.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, A.
    Hamada, S.
    Pennington, C.
    Scanlan, J.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Sexual selection uncouples the evolution of brain and body size in pinnipeds2012Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 25, nr 7, s. 1321-1330Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The size of the vertebrate brain is shaped by a variety of selective forces. Although larger brains (correcting for body size) are thought to confer fitness advantages, energetic limitations of this costly organ may lead to trade-offs, for example as recently suggested between sexual traits and neural tissue. Here, we examine the patterns of selection on male and female brain size in pinnipeds, a group where the strength of sexual selection differs markedly among species and between the sexes. Relative brain size was negatively associated with the intensity of sexual selection in males but not females. However, analyses of the rates of body and brain size evolution showed that this apparent trade-off between sexual selection and brain mass is driven by selection for increasing body mass rather than by an actual reduction in male brain size. Our results suggest that sexual selection has important effects on the allometric relationships of neural development.

  • 7. Fitzpatrick, J. L.
    et al.
    Almbro, Maria
    University of Western Australia, WA, Australia.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, A.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Simmons, L. W.
    Male Contest Competition And The Coevolution Of Weaponry And Testes In Pinnipeds2012Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, nr 11, s. 3595-3604Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Male reproductive success is influenced by competitive interactions during precopulatory and postcopulatory selective episodes. Consequently, males can gain reproductive advantages during precopulatory contest competition by investing in weaponry and during postcopulatory sperm competition by investing in ejaculates. However, recent theory predicts male expenditure on weaponry and ejaculates should be subject to a trade-off, and should vary under increasing risk and intensity of sperm competition. Here, we provide the first comparative analysis of the prediction that expenditure on weaponry should be negatively associated with expenditure on testes mass. Specifically, we assess how sexual selection influences the evolution of primary and secondary sexual traits among pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses). Using recently developed comparative methods, we demonstrate that sexual selection promotes rapid divergence in body mass, sexual size dimorphism (SSD), and genital morphology. We then show that genital length appears to be positively associated with the strength of postcopulatory sexual selection. However, subsequent analyses reveal that both genital length and testes mass are negatively associated with investment in precopulatory weaponry. Thus, our results are congruent with recent theoretical predictions of contest-based sperm competition models. We discuss the possible role of trade-offs and allometry in influencing patterns of reproductive trait evolution in pinnipeds.

  • 8.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution.
    Fitzpatrick, John L.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution.
    Sexual selection determines parental care patterns in cichlid fishes2008Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 62, nr 8, s. 2015-2026Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a massive research effort, our understanding of why, in most vertebrates, males compete for mates and females care for offspring remains incomplete. Two alternative hypotheses have been proposed to explain the direction of causality between parental care and sexual selection. Traditionally, sexual selection has been explained as a consequence of relative parental investment, where the sex investing less will compete for the sex investing more. However, a more recent model suggests that parental care patterns result from sexual selection acting on one sex favoring mating competition and lower parental investment. Using species-level comparative analyses on Tanganyikan cichlid fishes we tested these alternative hypotheses employing a proxy of sexual selection based on mating system, sexual dichromatism, and dimorphism data. First, while controlling for female reproductive investment, we found that species with intense sexual selection were associated with female-only care whereas species with moderate sexual selection were associated with biparental care. Second, using contingency analyses, we found that, contrary to the traditional view, evolutionary changes in parental care type are dependent on the intensity of sexual selection. Hence, our results support the hypothesis that sexual selection determines parental care patterns in Tanganyikan cichlid fishes.

  • 9.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Estación Biológica de Donana (EBD-CSIC), Spain; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.
    Gonzalez-Suarez, Manuela
    Vila, Carles
    Revilla, Eloy
    Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals2016Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, nr 6, s. 1364-1375Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous studies have addressed the question of why large brains evolved, we have limited understanding of potential beneficial or detrimental effects of enlarged brain size in the face of current threats. Using novel phylogenetic path analysis, we evaluated how brain size directly and indirectly, via its effects on life history and ecology, influences vulnerability to extinction across 474 mammalian species. We found that larger brains, controlling for body size, indirectly increase vulnerability to extinction by extending the gestation period, increasing weaning age, and limiting litter sizes. However, we found no evidence of direct, beneficial, or detrimental effects of brain size on vulnerability to extinction, even when we explicitly considered the different types of threats that lead to vulnerability. Order-specific analyses revealed qualitatively similar patterns for Carnivora and Artiodactyla. Interestingly, for Primates, we found that larger brain size was directly (and indirectly) associated with increased vulnerability to extinction. Our results indicate that under current conditions, the constraints on life history imposed by large brains outweigh the potential benefits, undermining the resilience of the studied mammals. Contrary to the selective forces that have favored increased brain size throughout evolutionary history, at present, larger brains have become a burden for mammals.

  • 10.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Zooekologi.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Zooekologi.
    Rates of phenotypic evolution of ecological characters and sexual traits during the Tanganyikan cichlid adaptive radiation2011Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 24, nr 11, s. 2378-2388Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory suggests that sexual traits evolve faster than ecological characters. However, characteristics of a species niche may also influence evolution of sexual traits. Hence, a pending question is whether ecological characters and sexual traits present similar tempo and mode of evolution during periods of rapid ecological divergence, such as adaptive radiation. Here, we use recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods to analyse the temporal dynamics of evolution for ecological and sexual traits in Tanganyikan cichlids. Our results indicate that whereas disparity in ecological characters was concentrated early in the radiation, disparity in sexual traits remained high throughout the radiation. Thus, closely related Tanganyikan cichlids presented higher disparity in sexual traits than ecological characters. Sexual traits were also under stronger selection than ecological characters. In sum, our results suggest that ecological characters and sexual traits present distinct evolutionary patterns, and that sexual traits can evolve faster than ecological characters, even during adaptive radiation.

  • 11.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Sex, Ecology and the Brain: Evolutionary Correlates of Brain Structure Volumes in Tanganyikan Cichlids2010Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, nr 12, s. e14355-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyses of the macroevolutionary correlates of brain structure volumes allow pinpointing of selective pressures influencing specific structures. Here we use a multiple regression framework, including phylogenetic information, to analyze brain structure evolution in 43 Tanganyikan cichlid species. We analyzed the effect of ecological and sexually selected traits for species averages, the effect of ecological traits for each sex separately and the influence of sexual selection on structure dimorphism. Our results indicate that both ecological and sexually selected traits have influenced brain structure evolution. The patterns observed in males and females generally followed those observed at the species level. Interestingly, our results suggest that strong sexual selection is associated with reduced structure volumes, since all correlations between sexually selected traits and structure volumes were negative and the only statistically significant association between sexual selection and structure dimorphism was also negative. Finally, we previously found that monoparental female care was associated with increased brain size. However, here cerebellum and hypothalamus volumes, after controlling for brain size, associated negatively with female-only care. Thus, in accord with the mosaic model of brain evolution, brain structure volumes may not respond proportionately to changes in brain size. Indeed selection favoring larger brains can simultaneously lead to a reduction in relative structure volumes.

  • 12.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Zooekologi.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala universitet, Fysiologi.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Zooekologi.
    Brain structure evolution in a basal vertebrate clade: evidence from phylogenetic comparative analysis of cichlid fishes2009Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 9, s. 238-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Background: The vertebrate brain is composed of several interconnected, functionally distinct structures and much debate has surrounded the basic question of how these structures evolve. On the one hand, according to the 'mosaic evolution hypothesis', because of the elevated metabolic cost of brain tissue, selection is expected to target specific structures mediating the cognitive abilities which are being favored. On the other hand, the 'concerted evolution hypothesis' argues that developmental constraints limit such mosaic evolution and instead the size of the entire brain varies in response to selection on any of its constituent parts. To date, analyses of these hypotheses of brain evolution have been limited to mammals and birds; excluding Actinopterygii, the basal and most diverse class of vertebrates. Using a combination of recently developed phylogenetic multivariate allometry analyses and comparative methods that can identify distinct rates of evolution, even in highly correlated traits, we studied brain structure evolution in a highly variable clade of ray-finned fishes; the Tanganyikan cichlids.

    Results: Total brain size explained 86% of the variance in brain structure volume in cichlids, a lower proportion than what has previously been reported for mammals. Brain structures showed variation in pair-wise allometry suggesting some degree of independence in evolutionary changes in size. This result is supported by variation among structures on the strength of their loadings on the principal size axis of the allometric analysis. The rate of evolution analyses generally supported the results of the multivariate allometry analyses, showing variation among several structures in their evolutionary patterns. The olfactory bulbs and hypothalamus were found to evolve faster than other structures while the dorsal medulla presented the slowest evolutionary rate.

    Conclusion: Our results favor a mosaic model of brain evolution, as certain structures are evolving in a modular fashion, with a small but non-negligible influence of concerted evolution in cichlid fishes. Interestingly, one of the structures presenting distinct evolutionary patterns within cichlids, the olfactory bulbs, has also been shown to evolve differently from other structures in mammals. Hence, our results for a basal vertebrate clade also point towards a conserved developmental plan for all vertebrates.

  • 13.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Zooekologi.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala universitet, Fysiologi.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Zooekologi.
    Distinct Evolutionary Patterns of Brain and Body Size During Adaptive Radiation2009Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 63, nr 9, s. 2266-2274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Morphological traits are often genetically and/or phenotypically correlated with each other and such covariation can have an important influence on the evolution of individual traits. The strong positive relationship between brain size and body size in vertebrates has attracted a lot of interest, and much debate has surrounded the study of the factors responsible for the allometric relationship between these two traits. Here, we use comparative analyses of the Tanganyikan cichlid adaptive radiation to investigate the patterns of evolution for brain size and body size separately. We found that body size exhibited recent bursts of rapid evolution, a pattern that is consistent with divergence linked to ecological specialization. Brain weight on the other hand, showed no bursts of divergence but rather evolved in a gradual manner. Our results thus show that even highly genetically correlated traits can present markedly different patterns of evolution, hence interpreting patterns of evolution of traits from correlations in extant taxa can be misleading. Furthermore, our results suggest, contrary to expectations from theory, that brain size does not play a key role during adaptive radiation.

  • 14.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Zooekologi.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala universitet, Fysiologi.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Zooekologi.
    Social fishes and single mothers: brain evolution in African cichlids2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 276, nr 1654, s. 161-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As with any organ, differences in brain size-after adequate control of allometry-are assumed to be a response to selection. With over 200 species and an astonishing diversity in niche preferences and social organization, Tanganyikan cichlids present an excellent opportunity to study brain evolution. We used phylogenetic comparative analyses of sexed adults from 39 Tanganyikan cichlid species in a multiple regression framework to investigate the influence of ecology, sexual selection and parental care patterns on whole brain size, as well as to analyse sex-specific effects. First, using species-specific measures, we analysed the influence of diet, habitat, form of care (mouthbrooding or substrate guarding), care type (biparental or female only) and intensity of sexual selection on brain size, while controlling for body size. Then, we repeated the analyses for male and female brain size separately. Type of diet and care type were significantly correlated with whole brain size. Sex-specific analyses showed that female brain size correlated significantly with care type while male brain size was uncorrelated with care type. Our results suggest that more complex social interactions associated with diet select for larger brains and further that the burden of uniparental care exerts high cognitive demands on females.

  • 15.
    Maklakov, Alexei
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Immler, Simone
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Rönn, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Brains and the city: big-brained passerine birds succeed in urban environments2011Ingår i: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 730-732Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban regions are among the most human-altered environments on Earth and they are poised for rapid expansion following population growth and migration. Identifying the biological traits that determine which species are likely to succeed in urbanized habitats is important for predicting global trends in biodiversity. We provide the first evidence for the intuitive yet untested hypothesis that relative brain size is a key factor predisposing animals to successful establishment in cities. We apply phylogenetic mixed modelling in a Bayesian framework to show that passerine species that succeed in colonizing at least one of 12 European cities are more likely to belong to big-brained lineages than species avoiding these urban areas. These data support findings linking relative brain size with the ability to persist in novel and changing environments in vertebrate populations, and have important implications for our understanding of recent trends in biodiversity.

  • 16. Rodríguez, Ariel
    et al.
    Dugo-Cota, Álvaro
    Montero-Mendieta, Santiago
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Alonso Bosch, Roberto
    Vences, Miguel
    Vilà, Carles
    Cryptic within cryptic: genetics, morphometrics, and bioacoustics delimitate a new species of Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from Eastern Cuba2017Ingår i: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, Vol. 4221, nr 5, s. 501-522Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the variation in genetics, bioacustics, and morphology in Eleutherodactylus glamyrus, a regionally endemic frog species restricted to high elevations in the Sierra Maestra Massif, Western Cuba that was originally described as a cryptic species hidden under the name E. auriculatus. Genetic analysis of mtDNA sequences of the 16S and cob genes identify two allopatric and strongly supported mitochondrial clades (phylogroups) which also showed no haplotype sharing in the nuclear Rag-1 gene. Bioacustic, and morphological comparisons concordantly identify these two phylogroups as independent evolutionary lineages. Therefore, we herein restrict the name Eleutherodactylus glamyrus Estrada and Hedges to populations represented in our analyses as the western phylogroup (Cordillera del Turquino to Pico La Bayamesa) and consider specimens from the eastern phylogroup (Sierra del Cobre) to represent a new species described and named as Eleutherodactylus cattus. Our results add to the growing list of Eleutherodactylus species endemic to Cuba and highlight the importance of combining different sources of evidence for obtaining robust assessments of species limits in amphibians.

  • 17.
    Schäpers, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Nylin, Sören
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för etologi.
    Wang, Houshuai
    Wahlberg, Niklas
    Janz, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Clutch size and host use in butterflies - and how to measure diet breadthManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The utilization of host plants is a central aspect of herbivorous insect life-history and known to promote processes of diversification in this group. In species that aggregate their eggs, female selection of a suitable egg-laying site is especially important, since a large proportion of the realized fitness will depend on few oviposition events. A cluster of larvae also requires a large resource to complete development and thus resource size may further limit the range of suitable hosts. We investigated whether there is a relationship between clutch size and diet breadth for 206 nymphalid butterfly species, using phylogenetic comparative methods. Results were consistent across several taxonomic and phylogenetic diet breadth measures, suggesting that some taxonomic measures may be as good approximations as the more cumbersome estimates based on phylogenetic distance. Treating diet breadth and clutch size as continuous data indicated no relationship between the traits, while categorizing them into binary form showed that they evolve in a correlated fashion. The discordance between analyses indicated that clutch size may be constrained among extreme generalists, as polyphagous clutch layers were rare. We found clutch-laying to be a relatively conserved trait in the phylogeny and less flexible than variation in degree of host plant specialization. Host plant growth form did not influence the clutch size diet breath relationship, but was weakly correlated with both factors. We discuss the general role of conservative life-history traits, such as clutch size, for the evolutionary dynamics of more labile traits such as diet breadth among phytophagous insects.

  • 18. Sol, Daniel
    et al.
    Maspons, Joan
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Morales-Castilla, Ignacio
    Zsolt Garamszegi, László
    Møller, Anders Pape
    Risk-taking behavior, urbanization and the pace of life in birds2018Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 72, nr 3, artikel-id UNSP 59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite growing appreciation of the importance of considering a pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) perspective to understand how animals interact with their environment, studies relating behavior to life history under altered environmental conditions are still rare. By means of a comparative analysis of flight initiation distances (i.e., the distance at which an animal takes flight when a human being is approaching) across > 300 bird species distributed worldwide, we document here the existence of a POLS predicted by theory where slow-lived species tend to be more risk-averse than fast-lived species. This syndrome largely emerges from the influence of body mass, and is highly dependent on the environmental context. Accordingly, the POLS structure vanishes in urbanized environments due to slow-lived species adjusting their flight distances based on the perception of risk. While it is unclear whether changes in POLS reflect plastic and/or evolutionary adjustments, our findings highlight the need to integrate behavior into life history theory to fully understand how animals tolerate human-induced environmental changes. Significance statement Animals can often respond to changing environmental conditions by adjusting their behavior. However, the degree to which different species can modify their behavior depends on their life history strategy and on the environmental context. Species-specific perception of risk is a conspicuous example of adjustable behavior tightly associated with life history strategy. While there is a general tendency of higher risk aversion in rural than city-dwelling birds, it is dependent on the species' life history strategy. Slow-lived species are more prone to adjust their flight initiation distances based on the perception of risk, allowing humans to approach closer in urban than rural environments. Behavior must therefore be taken into account together with life history to reliably assess species' vulnerability at the face of ongoing environmental change.

  • 19. Sowersby, Will
    et al.
    Eckerström-Liedholm, Simon
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Rowiński, Piotr
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Balogh, Julia
    Eiler, Stefan
    Upstone, Joseph
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Rogell, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Costly sexual ornaments coevolve with fast life-histories in killifishesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexually selected ornaments constitute an important investment into reproduction, increasing current mating success, at a potential cost to survival. Theory suggests that exaggerated sexual ornaments may coevolve with the life-history trade-off between current and future reproduction, however this hypothesis has remained unexplored. Here, we determine how the size of secondary sexual traits coevolves with the pace of life-histories (slow or fast), using a clade of killifishes, where independent adaptations to ephemeral environments have resulted in substantial divergences in life-history strategy. In addition, we assess costs to swimming performance driven by enlarged, ornamental fins. We predict that killifishes with fast life-histories, which inhabit time-limited environments and prioritize current reproduction, will have a greater tendency to evolve enlarged fins, compared to killifishes with slow life-histories. Indeed, we found that species with fast life-histories had more pronounced sexual size dimorphism, with males from these species having exaggerated dorsal and anal fins, compared to species with slow life-histories. Furthermore, males from species with fast life-histories and larger ornaments exhibited lower swimming performances compared to both conspecific females, and individuals from species with slow life-histories. Our results indicate that the trade-off between current and future reproduction, can be an evolutionary driver of costly sexual ornaments.

  • 20.
    Sowersby, Will
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Osaka City University, Japan.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Rogell, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sex ratios deviate across killifish species without clear links to life history2020Ingår i: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 411-426Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex ratios can differ from an expected equal proportion of males and females, carrying substantial implications for our understanding of how mating systems evolve. Typically, macro-evolutionary studies have been conducted without assessing how deviations from an equal sex ratio could be explained by sex-biased mortality or dispersal. Our understanding of sex ratio evolution independent of these confounds, in addition to any putative links between skewed sex ratios and other factors (e.g. life history), therefore remains largely unexplored. Here, we conducted an exploratory study investigating differences in sex ratios across closely related species while controlling for extrinsic mortality. We also tested two factors, non-overlapping/overlapping generations and the social environment, which have both been hypothesised to affect sex ratios. Specifically, we raised 15 species of killifish, which have either overlapping or discrete generations, under both solitary and social treatments. We found substantial divergences in sex ratios across closely related species, which exhibited both male and female biases. In conjunction with a low phylogenetic signal, our results suggest that sex ratios can evolve rapidly in this group. However, we found no evidence that overlapping generations or the social environment affected sex biases, suggesting that other factors drive the rapid evolution of sex ratios in killifishes.

  • 21.
    Tsuboi, Masahito
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Zooekologi.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Uppsala universitet, Zooekologi.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Zooekologi.
    Ecology and mating competition influence sexual dimorphism in Tanganyikan cichlids2012Ingår i: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 171-185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual selection contributes strongly to the evolution of sexual dimorphism among animal taxa. However, recent comparative analyses have shown that evolution of sexual dimorphism can be influenced by extrinsic factors like mating system and environment, and also that different types of sexual dimorphism may present distinct evolutionary pathways. Investigating the co-variation among different types of sexual dimorphism and their association with environmental factors can therefore provide important information about the mechanisms generating variation in sexual dimorphism among contemporary species. Using phylogenetic comparative analyses comparing 49 species of Tanganyikan cichlid fishes, we first investigated the pairwise relationship between three types of sexual dimorphism [size dimorphism (SSD), colour dimorphism (COD) and shape dimorphism (SHD)] and how they were related to the strength of pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection. We then investigated the influence of ecological features on sexual dimorphism. Our results showed that although SSD was associated with the overall strength of sexual selection it was not related to other types of sexual dimorphism. Also, SSD co-varied with female size and spawning habitat, suggesting a role for female adaptations to spawn in small crevices and shells influencing SSD in this group. Further, COD and SHD were positively associated and both show positive relationships with the strength of sexual selection. Finally, the level of COD and SHD was related to habitat complexity. Our results thus highlight distinct evolutionary pathways for different types of sexual dimorphism and further that ecological factors have influenced the evolution of sexual dimorphism in Tanganyikan cichlid fishes.

  • 22. Tsuboi, Masahito
    et al.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för etologi. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för etologi.
    Functional coupling constrains craniofacial diversification in Lake Tanganyika cichlids2015Ingår i: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, nr 5, artikel-id 20141053Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional coupling, where a singlemorphological trait performs multiple functions, is a universal feature of organismal design. Theory suggests that functional coupling may constrain the rate of phenotypic evolution, yet empirical tests of this hypothesis are rare. In fish, the evolutionary transition from guarding the eggs on a sandy/rocky substrate (i.e. substrate guarding) to mouthbrooding introduces a novel function to the craniofacial system and offers an ideal opportunity to test the functional coupling hypothesis. Using a combination of geometric morphometrics and a recently developed phylogenetic comparative method, we found that head morphology evolution was 43% faster in substrate guarding species than in mouthbrooding species. Furthermore, for species in which females were solely responsible for mouthbrooding the males had a higher rate of head morphology evolution than in those with biparental mouthbrooding. Our results support the hypothesis that adaptations resulting in functional coupling constrain phenotypic evolution.

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