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  • 1.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Aspects of the passive and semantic roles2007Ingår i: Parasession on Passive, Reflexive, Impersonal and Related Constructions (parasession to ICLC 10), Sopot, Poland, July 12–13, 2007., 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Heading for witty poeticity: wordplay in headlines in The Times Literary Supplement2010Ingår i: Humour in language: textual and linguistic aspects / [ed] Anders Bengtsson & Victorine Hancock, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2010, s. 15-29Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Iconicity and poeticity in the discourse functions of figures of speech2011Ingår i: Selected papers from the 2008 Stockholm Metaphor Festival / [ed] Christina Alm-Arvius, Nils-Lennart Johannesson & David Minugh, Stockholm: Department of English, 2011, s. 95-137Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study deals with the nature of poeticity and iconicity and their role in the discourse functions of figures of speech: schemes and tropes. The concept of poeticity is that of Roman Jakobson. The poetic function is a particular kind of meaning which is created from language-internal material. It is found in rhythmic schematic repetition and more deliberate tropes whose poetic qualities seem foregrounded and aesthetically designed. Accordingly, they will have rhetorical and mnemonic potential. Moreover, poetic uses will have a monistic character, as their form and meaning will fuse, and this may make it difficult to translate and paraphrase them. Metonymic instantiations and conventional, entrenched metaphors will not be noticeably poetic, but the semantic status of a given use will be a result of more specific discourse factors. The poetic function can interact with factually descriptive, affective, and interpersonal meanings, which are extra-linguistically oriented, as well as with meaningful textual structuring. Poeticity is found in many different text types. It will be a global organisational feature in poetry, but tends only to occur locally in prose. In addition, prototypical iconicity concerns motivated similarity between a linguistic form and the kind of phenomenon out in the world that it represents. However, iconicity has also been used about the similarity relation between e.g. a metaphorical meaning and its source. Iconicity and poeticity often occur together, and they will strengthen and help to foreground each other’s characters.

  • 4.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Metaphor and Metonymy2008Ingår i: Selected Papers from the 2006 and 2007 Stockholm Metaphor Festivals / [ed] N.-L. Johannesson & D. Minugh, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis , 2008, 2, s. 3-24Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    In this article metonymy and metaphor are described in relation to the notion of poetic meaning, the definitional feature shared by all types of figurative uses. Even if both these types of tropes will draw on encyclopaedic experiences, or pre- or extra-linguistic cognitive complexes, they are also formed in relation to established structures in a language system. In other words, their occurrence shows how intertwined linguistic knowledge and experientially based cognition will be. Moreover, it is arguable that at least “fully alive” metaphors will have a more noticeable poetic and figurative character than metonymic uses. The reason for this is that a metaphor brings together domains that are felt to be similar in some respect, although they are also clearly different. In this imaginative coalescence many features in the source are suppressed, and a kind of “fake” superordinate category is created: the generalised target meaning. It spans both the ordinarily concrete source and some other phenomenon, often something more abstract. The poetic or figurative character of metonymies is by comparison more inconspicuous, presumably because they constitute descriptive or referential shortcuts in relation to just one meronymically structured domain or chain of contiguous domains.

  • 5.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Poetic figurative-literal meaning reversals in puns2007Ingår i: The Stockholm 2007 Metaphor Festival, Sept. 20–21, 2007, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper metonymy and metaphor are described in relation to the notion of poetic meaning, the definitional feature shared by all types of figurative uses. Even if both these types of tropes will draw on encyclopaedic experiences, or pre- or extra-linguistic cognitive complexes, they are also formed in relation to established structures in a language system. In other words, their occurrence shows how intertwined linguistic knowledge and experientially based cognition will be. Moreover, it is arguable that at least “fully alive” metaphors will have a more noticeable poetic and figurative character than metonymic uses. The reason for this is that a metaphor brings together domains that are felt to be similar in some respect, although they are also clearly different. In this imaginative coalescence many features in the source are suppressed, and a kind of ‘fake’ superordinate category is created: the generalised target meaning. It spans both the ordinarily concrete source and some other phenomenon, often something more abstract. The poetic or figurative character of metonymies is by comparison more inconspicuous, presumably because they constitute descriptive or referential shortcuts in relation to just one meronymically structured domain or chain of contiguous domains.

  • 6.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Polysemy: conventional and incidental cases2011Ingår i: Linguistics Applied, ISSN 1689-7765, Vol. 4, s. 11-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polysemy is a key question in the field of semantics. Empirical observations, analysis and description of polysemy are important for theoretical considerations and development as well as for applied linguistics, e.g. lexicography.

    Polysemy occurs when a lexical unit or a construction is used to represent different but also related meanings. Polysemous variation is either conventional and systematic or the result of merely incidental, contextually induced meaning shifts. A polyseme has one or more distinct and entrenched sense potentials, but they sometimes combine or fuse in actual language use. In addition, there are more general types of regular polysemy that are only pragmatically instantiated, as well as idiosyncratic and unpredictable meaning changes. By comparison, a monosemic element has only one conventional sense, while homonyms just happen to be formally identical although their meanings are not related.

    Important factors in polysemous variation are (i) the occurrence of different types of meaning, or language functions, (ii) differences in experiential domain connections, and (iii) differences in sense relations. The following types of polysemous variation have been recognised: collocational tailoring, domain shift, metaphor, metonymy, perspective shift, value reversal, irony, emotive colouring, interpersonal signal, and idiom breaking.  

  • 7.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Semantics and pragmatics2008Ingår i: Linguistics Applied, ISSN 1689-7765, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 29-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Christina Alm-Arvius

    English Department,

    Stockholm University

    SE106 91 Stockholm

    Sweden

    Christina.Alm-Arvius@English.su.se

    http://www.english.su.se/

     

     

    Semantics and Pragmatics

     

    Abstract:

    Meanings in natural language use can be either systematic or incidental, but all the same it does not appear possible to identify a set of consistent and non-contradictory criteria for distinguishing two general contrasting meaning categories termed semantics and pragmatics respectively. Instead the most valid theoretical description seems to be to include any possible meanings of a language, or its use, in the qualitative notion of semantics, and, in addition, recognise the occurrence of incidental pragmatic meaning variations and additions. In other words, semantics is the wider or superordinate category, encompassing all and any language meanings, while pragmatics is a smaller, subordinate category, including only situationally induced or personally variable meaning aspects.

     

    Key words: deixis, implicatures, pragmatics, presuppositions, reference, semantics, semantics of understanding, speech acts, truth-conditional semantics

  • 8.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The Word-Class Status of Worth1995Ingår i: Studies in Anglistics, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International , 1995Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Trolls2012Ingår i: Metaphor in Use: Context, culture, and communication / [ed] Fiona MacArthur, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, s. 309-327Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The persistent occurrence of the noun troll in Swedish indicates that it is a culturally entrenched notion in Sweden as well as in other Scandinavian countries. The aim of this chapter is to explore the use of troll in modern Swedish and to show how culturally-entrenched concepts, and the attitudes that are associated with them, are integrated in the language of a speech community as part of its heritage. The noun has a complex and variable sense potential, and both literal and metaphorical uses of the noun are attitudinally coloured, although these attitudes may be ambiguous and even contradictory. Using linguistic evidence gathered from dictionaries and Internet sources, this chapter describes and discusses the rich and partly antithetical set of attitudes expressed by the conventional and novel metaphorical expressions that draw on this Scandinavian mythological concept, and briefly compares Swedish uses of troll with those found in English, finding that even though the word is used also in this comparatively closely related language, it is devoid of the rich cultural associations of the donor term.

  • 10.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Universal and Language-­‐specific Components of Cultural Metaphors2012Ingår i: RaAM 9 Conference: Metaphor in Mind and Society: Book of Abstracts, 2012, s. 43-44Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation examines two lexicalised compounds in Swedish with at least basically metaphorical senses connected with the Swedish Social Democratic vision and attempted practical construction of a modern egalitarian welfare state: folkhemmet: ‘’the people’s home’ and klassresa: ‘class journey’.

    We are going to consider the experiential and conceptual grounding of the compounds folkhemmet and klassresa i) within a specific, Swedish cultural and ideological discourse complex as well as in relation to ii) a set of presumably universal meaning dimensions or functions, and iii) some embodied, also presumably universal image schemas.

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