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  • 1.
    Asplund, L
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Löfstrand, K
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Malmvärn, A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Nylund, K
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, U
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in swedish marine and fresh water environment- an overview2010In: Organohalogen Compounds, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2. Haglund, P.
    et al.
    Malmvärn,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bergek, S.
    Bignert, A.
    Kautsky, L.
    Nakano, T.
    Wiberg, K.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    On the sources of polybrominated dibezo-p- dioxins found in the Baltic proper fish and shellfish.2007In: Organohalogen Compd.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Haglund, P.
    et al.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bergek, S.
    Bignert, A.
    Kautsky, L.
    Nakano, T.
    Wiberg, K.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Are the sources of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins found in the Baltic Proper fish and shellfish anthropogenic of natural?2007In: BRF2007: April 25-27, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Kemiska institutionen.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Miljögiftsforskning.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Temporal Variations of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin and Methoxylated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Fish Revealing Large Differences in Exposure and Metabolic Stability2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 2466-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and polybrominated methoxylated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were investigated in perch (Perca fluviatilis) collected from a Baltic Sea background contaminated area between 1990 and 2005. No temporal trend was found, but large variations were observed - up to 5-fold and 160-fold differences in MeO-PBDE and PBDD concentrations, respectively - between consecutive years, suggesting that retention of these compounds, particularly the PBDDs, is limited. Examination of the congener profiles using principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis indicated that MeO-PBDEs without adjacent substituents (6-MeO-BDE47) or with two adjacent substituents (2'-MeO-BDE68 and 6-MeO-BDE90) are retained more than MeO-PBDEs with three adjacent substituents (6-MeO-BDE85 and 6-MeO-BDE99) and that 1,3,6,8-tetraBDD and 1,3,7,9-tetraBDD are retained more than the other PBDDs which have vicinal hydrogen. Debromination could explain the limited retention of 6-MeO-PBDE85 and 6-MeO-BDE99 and the absence of 2-MeO-BDE123 and 6-MeO-BDE137, and cytochrome P-450 mediated oxidation could explain the limited retention of PBDDs containing vicinal hydrogen. The levels of organobromines, especially MeO-PBDEs, were found to covary with water conditions related to primary production, for example temperature, depth visibility, and inorganic nutrient concentrations, which also favor fish productivity. The results suggest natural production of MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs and imply that they fluctuate considerably over time, as do common marine toxins in fish. Thus, assessments of human and environmental risk should consider both the average and peak concentrations of these contaminants in marine biota.

  • 5. Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergek, Sture
    Bignert, Anders
    Kautsky, Lena
    Nakano, Takeshi
    Wiberg, Karin
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Are the sources of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins found in Baltic Proper fish and shellfish anthropogenic or natural?2007In: 4th International Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants: BFR 2007 Amsterdam, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6. Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergek, Sture
    Bignert, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Kautsky, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Nakano, Takeshi
    Wiberg, Karin
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins - A new class of marine toxins?2007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 9, p. 3069-3074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) were measured in marine fish, mussels, and shellfish. PBDDs were nondetectable in samples from freshwater environments, and their levels were successively higher in samples from the marine environments of the Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea, the West Coast of Sweden, and the Baltic Proper. In Baltic Proper littoral fish the levels of PBDDs generally exceeded those of their chlorinated analogues (PCDDs). This is alarming as some Baltic fish species already are contaminated by chlorinated dioxins to such an extent that they cannot be sold on the European market. By comparing spatial trends in PBDD and PCDD distributions, and PBDD patterns in fish, mussels, and algae, we show that the PBDDs are probably produced naturally, and we propose a route for their biosynthesis. We further show that the levels of PBDDs are high (ng/g wet weight) in mussels, and that the levels increase over time. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the PBDDs have adverse biological effects, and that the levels are increasing as a result of global warming and eutrophication.

  • 7. Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bergek, Sture
    Bignert, Anders
    Kautsky, Lena
    Nakano, Takeshi
    Wiberg, Karin
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins: A new class of marine toxins?2007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 9, p. 3069-3074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) were measured in marine fish, mussels, and shellfish. PBDDs were nondetectable in samples from freshwater environments, and their levels were successively higher in samples from the marine environments of the Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea, the West Coast of Sweden, and the Baltic Proper. In Baltic Proper littoral fish the levels of PBDDs generally exceeded those of their chlorinated analogues (PCDDs). This is alarming as some Baltic fish species already are contaminated by chlorinated dioxins to such an extent that they cannot be sold on the European market. By comparing spatial trends in PBDD and PCDD distributions, and PBDD patterns in fish, mussels, and algae, we show that the PBDDs are probably produced naturally, and we propose a route for their biosynthesis. We further show that the levels of PBDDs are high (ng/g wet weight) in mussels, and that the levels increase over time. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the PBDDs have adverse biological effects, and that the levels are increasing as a result of global warming and eutrophication.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Allkvist, Annika
    Erixon, Klaus
    Stockholm University.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University.
    Nilsson, Robert
    Stockholm University.
    Bergman, Ake
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stockholm University.
    Jenssen, Dag
    Stockholm University.
    Screening for genotoxicity using the DRAG assay: investigation of halogenated environmental contaminants.2004In: Mutat Res, ISSN 0027-5107, Vol. 563, no 1, p. 35-47Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Löfstrand, K.
    et al.
    Malmvärn,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Haglund, P.
    Bignert, A.
    Bergman, Å.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    PBDD, MeO-PBDE, OH-PBDE and brominated phenols in blue mussels from the Swedish coast line.2007In: Organohalogen Compd.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Löfstrand, K
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Malmvärn, A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Asplund, L
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Trends and exposure of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDEs in baltic BIOTA2010In: Organohalogen Compounds, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Bignert, Anders
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    PBDD, MeO-PBDE, OH-PBDE and brominated phenols in blue mussels from the Swedish coast line2007In: Organohalogen Compounds: Dioxin 2007, 2007, p. 287-290Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå Universitet, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bignert, Anders
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Miljögiftsforskning.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Brominated phenols, anisoles, and dioxins present in blue mussels from the Swedish coastline2010In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 1460-1468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction  

    Naturally occurring hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methoxylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs), and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), together with their potential precursors polybrominated phenols (PBPs) and polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), were analyzed in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) gathered along the east coast (bordering the Baltic Sea) and west coast of Sweden (bordering the North Sea). Brown algae (Dictyosiphon foenicolaceus) and cyanobacteria (Nodularia spumigena) from the Baltic Sea, considered to be among the primary producers of these compounds, were also analyzed for comparison.

    Materials and methods  

    The samples were liquid–liquid extracted, separated into a phenolic and a neutral fraction, and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GS-MS).

    Results and discussion  

    The levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs were significantly higher in Baltic Sea mussels than in those from the west coast, whereas the levels of PBPs and PBAs displayed the opposite pattern. The blue mussels from the Baltic Sea contained high levels of all analyzed substances, much higher than the levels of, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers. In addition, the GC-MS chromatogram of the phenolic fraction of the west coast samples was dominated by four unknown peak clusters, three of which were tentatively identified as dihydroxy-PBDEs and the other as a hydroxylated-methyl-tetraBDE.

    Conclusions  

    Clearly, all of the compounds analyzed are natural products, both in the Baltic and the North Sea. However, the geographical differences in composition may indicate different origin, e.g., due to differences in the occurrence and/or abundance of various algae species along these two coasts or possibly a more extensive dilution on the west coast.

  • 13.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kautsky, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins in red alga and cyanobacteria living in the Baltic Sea2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 910-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) are present in the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea. OH-PBDEs are known to be both natural products from marine environments and metabolites of the anthropogenic polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), whereas, MeO-PBDEs appear to be solely natural in origin. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) are by-products formed in connection with the combustion of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), but are also indicated as natural products in a red alga (Ceramium tenuicorne) and blue mussels living in the Baltic Sea. The aims of the present investigation were to quantify the OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs present in C. tenuicorne; to verify the identities of PBDDs detected previously in this species of red alga and to investigate whether cyanobacteria living in this same region of the Baltic Sea contain OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and/or PBDDs. The red alga was confirmed to contain tribromodibenzo-p-dioxins (triBDDs), by accurate mass determination and additional PBDD congeners were also detected in this sample. This is the first time that PBDDs have been identified in a red alga. The SigmaOH-PBDEs and SigmaMeO-PBDEs concentrations, present in C. tenuicorne were 150 and 4.6ngg(-1) dry weight, respectively. In the cyanobacteria 6 OH-PBDEs, 6 MeO-PBDEs and 4 PBDDs were detected by mass spectrometry (electron capture negative ionization (ECNI)). The PBDDs and OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs detected in the red alga and cyanobacteria are most likely of natural origin.

1 - 13 of 13
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