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  • 1.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Environmentally relevant chemical disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation in Baltic Sea biota: Exposure and toxic potentials2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on toxicity and occurrence of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) in Baltic Sea biota. The aims were to assess OH-PBDEs potency for disruption of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and determine their and related compounds exposure in Baltic blue mussel, herring and long-tailed duck. A method for analysis of OH-PBDEs in herring and long-tailed duck plasma was also evaluated.

    Relevant OH-PBDEs were tested in vitro for OXPHOS disruption, using a classic rat mitochondrial respiration assay and a cell mitochondrial membrane potential assay. All compounds were found to disrupt OXPHOS either by protonophoric uncoupling and/or via inhibition of the electron transport chain. 6-OH-BDE47 and 6-OH-BDE85, were identified as particularly potent OXPHOS disruptors. Strong synergism was observed when OH-PBDEs were tested as a mixture corresponding to what is present in Baltic blue mussels.

    Baltic blue mussel is main feed for several species of mussel feeding sea ducks which have decreased dramatically in numbers. To assess long-tailed ducks exposure to brominated substances, liver tissue from long-tailed ducks wintering in the Baltic Sea and blue mussels were analysed. The result confirms that long-tailed duck are exposed to OH-PBDEs via their diet. However, low concentrations were found in the duck livers, which suggest low retention of these compounds despite daily intake. How the nutritional value of blue mussels as feed for sea ducks are affected by OH-PBDE exposure still needs further studies. Other species of sea ducks foraging on Baltic blue mussels during summer months can also be more exposed due to seasonal variation in primary production.

    Herring sampled in the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea, were found to contain OH-PBDEs and high levels of their methylated counterpart, MeO-PBDEs. As demethylation of MeO-PBDEs is known to occur in fish, MeO-PBDEs may pose as additional source for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe.

  • 2.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Legradi, Jessica
    Legler, Juliette
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) from two sites in the Baltic SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Legradi, Jessica
    Legler, Juliette
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from two sites in the Baltic Sea2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 2408-2414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Asko, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Angskarsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Asko and Angskarsklubb were; Sigma(2)PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, Sigma 2PBAs: 34 and 20, Sigma 6OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, Sigma 7MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, Sigma 6PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Asko) and 91% (Angskarsklubb) of the Sigma OH-PBDEs. At Angskarsklubb the mean concentration of Sigma MeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than Sigma OH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe.

  • 4.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lindberg Chen, Vivian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Bergman, Åke
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) and their main food, Baltic blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lindberg Chen, Vivian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox), Sweden.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and their main food, Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis).2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 1475-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) that breed in northern Europe and western Siberia and commonly winter in the Baltic Sea, are threatened by a significant population decrease. The ducks are, by primarily feeding on Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis) while wintering in the Baltic Sea, potentially subjected to high levels of toxic hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). To assess long-tailed ducks exposure to polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), livers of ten long-tailed ducks wintering in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Pattern and levels of analytes in long-tailed ducks (liver) and blue mussels sampled in March and May at nine sites in the Baltic Sea were compared. The geometric mean concentration (ng/g l.w.) in livers of long-tailed ducks and Baltic blue mussels were: Sigma(2)PBPs: 0.57 and 48; Sigma 2PBAs: 0.83 and 11; Sigma 7OH-PBDEs: 6.1 and 45; Sigma 7MeO-PBDEs: 3.8 and 69; Sigma 7PBDEs: 8.0 and 7.2, respectively. Based on an estimated daily intake of 450 g fresh blue mussel meat, long-tailed ducks daily dietary intake of brominated substances while foraging in the Baltic Sea in March-May was estimated to; 390 ng Sigma(2)PBPs, 90 ng Sigma 2PBAs, 370 ng Sigma 7OH-PBDEs, 590 ng Sigma 7MeO-PBDEs and 59 ng Sigma 7PBDEs. The low levels of PBPs, PBAs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in the long-tailed duck livers compared to blue mussel, despite a continuous daily intake, suggest that these compounds are poorly retained in long-tailed ducks.

  • 6.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Norrgran, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Recovery discrepancies of OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols in human plasma and cat serum versus herring and long-tailed duck plasma2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 94, p. 97-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been identified as metabolites of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or as natural products. The OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols have come into focus over the last decade due to their abundance in biota and their potential adverse health effects. The present recovery study aims to validate a commonly used method (published by Hovander et al. 2000) for OH-PBDE analysis in human plasma. Further, the authors intended to determine the method's applicability to serum/plasma matrices from other species than humans. The investigated matrices were human plasma, cat serum, herring- and long-tailed duck plasma. The recovery study included nine OH-PBDEs, four polybromophenols and three methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). Five replicates of each matrix were spiked with these compounds at two dose levels; a low dose (0.5 ng) and a high dose (5 ng) and were cleaned up according to the Hovander method. The recovery of OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols in human plasma and cat serum were high and reproducible at both dose levels whereas the recovery for herring and long-tailed duck plasma were low and insufficient with great variability amongst OH-PBDE congeners at both dose levels. Our data show that the method can be fully applied to matrices like human plasma and cat serum but not for herring and long-tailed duck plasma without further method development. Hence care needs to be taken when applying the method onto other blood matrices without validation since the present study have demonstrated that the recoveries may differ amongst OH-PBDE congeners and specie.

  • 7. Legradi, Jessica
    et al.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Cenijn, Peter
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Legler, Juliette
    Disruption of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) present in the marine environment2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 24, p. 14703-14711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are of growing concern, as they have been detected in both humans and wildlife and have been shown to be toxic. Recent studies have indicated that OH-PBDEs can be more toxic than PBDEs, partly due to their ability to disrupt oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), an essential process in energy metabolism. In this study, we determined the OXPHOS disruption potential of 18 OH-PBDE congeners reported in marine wildlife using two in vitro bioassays, namely the classic rat mitochondrial respiration assay, and a mitochrondrial membrane potential assay using zebrafish PAC2 cells. Single OH-PBDE congeners as well as mixtures were tested to study potential additive or synergistic effects. An environmental mixture composed of seven OH-PBDE congeners mimicking the concentrations reported in Baltic blue mussels were also studied. We report that all OH-PBDEs tested were able to disrupt OXPHOS via either protonophoric uncoupling and/or inhibition of the electron transport chain. Additionally we show that OH-PBDEs tested in combinations as found in the environment have the potential to disrupt OXPHOS. Importantly, mixtures of OH-PBDEs may show very strong synergistic effects, stressing the importance of further research on the in vivo impacts of these compounds in the environment

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