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  • 1.
    Albrecht, James
    et al.
    Georgetown University.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Vroman, Susan
    Georgetown University.
    Unionization and the Evolution of the Wage Distribution in Sweden: 1968 to 20002011In: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271X, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 1039-1057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the 1968, 1981, and 2000 Swedish Level of Living Surveys, the authors examine the evolution of the wage distribution in Sweden over the periods 1968–1981 and 1981–2000. The first period was the heyday of the Swedish solidarity wage policy with strong equalization clauses in the central wage agreements. During the second period, there was more flexibility for firms to adjust wages to reflect conditions such as labor shortages in particular fields. The authors find a remarkable narrowing of the wage distribution in the first period, but in the second period, wages grew more equally across the distribution. The authors decompose these changes in wages across the distribution into two components—those due to changes in the distribution of characteristics such as education and experience and those due to changes in the distribution of returns to those characteristics. They find that the wage compression between 1968 and 1981 was driven by changes in the distribution of returns, but between 1981 and 2000, the change in the distribution of returns had less of an effect on wage compression. 

  • 2. Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Early Health and School Outcomes for Children with Lesbian Parents: Evidence from Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was early to legalize same-sex partnership (1995), to allow same-sex couples to adopt children (2003), and to offer same-sex couples fertility treatment through the national health system (2005). Using population data, we identify children of lesbian parents as those whose biological mother was a registered same-sex partner no later than six months after the child's birth. The number of such children increased markedly from 1995 to 2010 with a total of 750 children for the whole period. We find that boys and girls with lesbian parents had 2.4 percent lower birth weight than other children, a difference that is statistically significant from zero at the 5 percent level. Girls, but not boys, also have a higher probability of having a low birth weight. We follow these children until age ten and observe diseases of the respiratory system. Boys with lesbian parents have a significantly lower probability of such diseases (-3.4 percentage points), and girls with lesbian parents an insignificantly higher probability (+2.4 percentage points). Our analysis of school outcomes at age ten uses a small sample so precision is low. The point estimates show that boys with lesbian parents outperform other children by around 10 percentiles higher test scores in Math and Swedish. These differences are barely significant, while estimates for girls are lower and not significant. For all outcomes, we find that children with lesbian parents benefit from their mother's socio-economic status, whereas they suffer in terms of birth weight from having been exposed to fertility treatment.

  • 3.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Comment by Anders Björklund: to: Alison L. Booth's "The glass ceiling in Europe: Why are women doing badly in the labour market?"2007Other (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Does a family-friendly policy raise fertility levels?2007Other (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Family Background and Outcomes Later in Life: A (Partial and Personal) Survey of Recent Research Using Swedish Register Data2007Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Från doktorsexamen till professor – mina år på IUI 1981-19902014In: IFN 1939—2014 - 75 år av ekonomisk forskning / [ed] Magnus Henrekson och Göran Albinsson Bruhner, Ekerlids förlag, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Inkomstfördelningen och den ekonomiska politiken2015In: Svensk ekonomisk politik - då, nu och i framtiden: festskrift tillägnad Hans Tson Söderström / [ed] Birgitta Swedenborg, Dialogos Förlag, 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nationalekonomisk toppforskning i Sverige - omfattning, lokalisering och inriktning2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 5, p. 6-19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Fertility of Japan and Sweden - Role of family policy2008In: Welfare Policy and Labour Markets - The Japanese and Swedish Models under Transition, Japan: Norudikku Shuppan (Nordic (Förlag)) , 2008, p. 135-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Bratsberg, B.
    Eriksson, T.
    Jäntti, M.
    Raaum, O.
    Interindustry Wage Differentials and Unobserved Ability: Siblings Evidence from Five Countries2007In: Industrial Relations, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 171-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the role of unobserved ability in explaining interindustry wage differentials. By using data on brothers, we account for unmeasured abilities shared by siblings. The data came from four Nordic countries and the United States. In the Nordic countries, only a moderate proportion of the variability in industry wages can be attributed to unobserved ability, while unmeasured factors explain as much as half of the U.S. industry-wage variation. Accounting for such differences, we show that the U.S. interindustry wage dispersion is similar with that in the Nordic countries.

  • 11.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Edin, Per-Anders
    Fredriksson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Arbetsmarknaden2014 (ed. 4)Book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Fredriksson, PeterStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Economics of Education2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Fredriksson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Economics of education: Policies and effects2012In: Nordic economic policy review, ISSN 1904-4526, no 1, p. 7-22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Freeman, Richard B.
    Harvard University, USA.
    Searching for Optimal Inequality/Incentives2010In: Reforming the Welfare State: Recovery and Beyond in Sweden / [ed] R. Freeman, B. Swedenborg, R. Topel, Chicago/London: The University of Chicago Press , 2010, p. 25-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ginther, Donna K.
    Dept. of Economics, University of Kansas, USA.
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Does Marriage Matter for Children? Assessing the Impact of Legal Marriage in Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether parental marriage confers educational advantages to children relative to cohabitation. We exploit a dramatic marriage boom in Sweden in late 1989 created by a reform of the Widow’s Pension System that raised the attractiveness of marriage compared to cohabitation to identify the effect of marriage and the effect of selection bias on marriage estimates. Sweden’s rich administrative data sources enable us to identify the children who were affected by parental marriage due to this marriage boom. Our analysis addresses the question of whether marginal marriages created by a policy initiative have an impact on children. Using grade point average at age 16 as the outcome variable, we first show the expected pattern that children with married parents do better than children with cohabiting parents. However, once we control for observable family background and compare the outcomes for children whose parents married due to the reform with those for children whose parents remained unmarried, the differences largely disappear. The results from a sibling difference analysis are consistent with the conclusion that the differentials among children of married and cohabiting parents reflect selection rather than causation.

  • 16.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ginther, Donna K.
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Family structure and child outcomes in the USA and Sweden2007In: Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 20, p. 183-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that living in a non-intact family is associated with educational disadvantages. This paper compares the relationships between childhood family structure, schooling, and earnings in Sweden and the USA. This comparison is interesting because both family structure and public policies differ significantly. We find a negative relationship between living in a non-intact family and child outcomes, and the estimates are remarkably similar in both countries. After using sibling-difference models, the correlation with family structure is no longer significant. These results cast doubt on the causal interpretation of the negative relationship between non-intact family structures and child outcomes.

  • 17.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hederos Eriksson, Karin
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    IQ and Family Background: Are Associations Strong or Weak?2010In: The B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, E-ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the purpose of understanding the underlying mechanisms behind intergenerational associations in income and education, recent studies have explored the intergenerational transmission of abilities. We use a large representative sample of Swedish men to examine both intergenerational and sibling correlations in IQ. Since siblings share both parental factors and neighbourhood influences, the sibling correlation is a broader measure of the importance of family background than the intergenerational correlation. We use IQ data from the Swedish military enlistment tests. The correlation in IQ between fathers (born 1951-1956) and sons (born 1966-1980) is estimated to 0.347. The corresponding estimate for brothers (born 1951-1968) is 0.473, suggesting that family background explains approximately 50% of a person's IQ. Estimating sibling correlations in IQ, we thus find that family background has a substantially larger impact on IQ than has been indicated by previous studies examining only intergenerational correlations in IQ.

  • 18.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hederos Eriksson, Karin
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Children of Unknown Fathers: Prevalence and Outcomes in Sweden2011Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, M.
    Solon, G.
    Nature and Nurture in the Intergenerational Transmission of Socioeconomic Status: Evidence from Swedish Children and Their Biological and Rearing Parents2007In: The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, Vol. 7, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Country case study Sweden2013In: The Great Recession and the distribution of household income / [ed] Stephen J Jenkins, Andrea Brandolini, John Micklewright and Brian Nolan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 153-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    How important is family background for labor-economic outcomes?2012In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 465-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses Swedish register data to examine four classical outcomes in empirical labor economics: IQ noncognitive skills, years of schooling and long-run earnings. We estimate sibling correlations - and the variance components that define the sibling correlation - in these outcomes. We also estimate correlations for MZ-twins, who share all genes. We also extend the variance-component decomposition by accounting for birth order. We find that conventional intergenerational approaches severely underestimate the role of family background, and that future research should follow a more multidimensional approach to the study of family background.

  • 22.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    SNS Välfärdsrapport 2011.: Inkomstfördelningen i Sverige2011Book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nybom, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Parental education gradients over the life cycle2012In: From Parents to Children: The Intergenerational Transmission of Advantage / [ed] Ermisch, John; Jäntti, Markus; Smeeding, Timothy, Russell Sage Foundation , 2012, p. 422-440Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nybom, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU), Sweden.
    The Contribution of Early-life Versus Labour Market Factors to Intergenerational Income Persistence: A Comparison of the UK and Sweden2017In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 127, p. F71-F94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore whether differences in intergenerational income mobility between the UK and Sweden show up early in life, finding stronger associations between parental income and birthweight, height and school performance in the UK. We investigate whether these differentials can account for the country difference in income mobility. While differences in the associations in birthweight and height are too weak to matter, school performance does account for a substantial part of this difference. However, country differences in the earnings returns to these skills are at least as important as the differences in the link between parental income and skills.

  • 25.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Roemer, John E.
    Equality of opportunity and the distribution of long-run income in Sweden2012In: Social Choice and Welfare, ISSN 0176-1714, E-ISSN 1432-217X, Vol. 39, no 2-3, p. 675-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equality of opportunity is an ethical goal with almost universal appeal. The interpretation taken here is that a society has achieved equality of opportunity if it is the case that what individuals accomplish, with respect to some desirable objective, is determined wholly by their choices and personal effort, rather than by circumstances beyond their control. We use data for Swedish men born between 1955 and 1967 for whom we measure the distribution of long-run income, as well as several important background circumstances, such as parental education and income, family structure and own IQ before adulthood. We address the question: in Sweden, given its present constellation of social policies and institutions, to what extent is existing income inequality due to circumstances, as opposed to 'effort'? Our results suggest that several circumstances, importantly both parental income and own IQ, are important for long-run income inequality, but that variations in individual effort account for the most part of that inequality.

  • 26.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lindahl, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    What More Than Parental Income, Education and Occupation? An Exploration of What Swedish Siblings Get from Their Parents: (Contributions), Article 1022010In: B. E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sibling correlations are broader measures of the impact of family and community influences on individual outcomes than intergenerational correlations. Estimates of such correlations in income show that more than half of the family and community influences that siblings share are uncorrelated with parental income. We employ a data set with rich family information to explore what factors in addition to traditional measures of parents' socio-economic status can explain sibling similarity in long-run income. Measures of family structure and social problems account for very little of sibling similarities beyond that already accounted for by income, education and occupation. However, when we add indicators of parental involvement in schoolwork, parenting practices and maternal attitudes, the explanatory power of our variables increases from about one-quarter (using only traditional measures of parents' socio-economic status) to nearly two-thirds.

  • 27.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Roine, Jesper
    SITE, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Intergenerational top income mobility in Sweden: Capitalist dynasties in the land of equal opportunity?2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents new evidence on intergenerational mobility in the top of the income and earnings distribution. Using a large dataset of matched father-son pairs in Sweden, we find that intergenerational transmission is very strong in the top, more so for income than for earnings. In the extreme top (top 0.1 percent) income transmission is remarkable with an IG elasticity above 0.9. We also study potential transmission mechanisms and find that sons’ IQ, non-cognitive skills and education are all unlikely channels in explaining this strong transmission. Within the top percentile, increases in fathers’ income are, if anything, negatively associated with these variables. Wealth, on the other hand, has a significantly positive association. Our results suggest that Sweden, known for having relatively high intergenerational mobility in general, is a society where transmission remains strong in the very top of the distribution and that wealth is the most likely channel.

  • 28.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Roine, Jesper
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Intergenerational top income mobility in Sweden: Capitalist dynasties in the land of equal opportunity?2012In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 96, no 5-6, p. 474-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents new evidence on intergenerational mobility at the top of the income and earnings distributions. Using a large dataset of matched father-son pairs in Sweden, we find that intergenerational transmission is very strong at the top, more so for income than for earnings. At the extreme top (top 0.1%) income transmission is remarkable with an intergenerational elasticity of approximately 0.9. We also study potential transmission mechanisms and find that IQ, non-cognitive skills and education of the sons are all unlikely channels in explaining the strong transmission. Within the top percentile, increases in the income of the fathers, if they are related at all, are negatively associated with these variables. Wealth, on the other hand, has a significantly positive association. Our results suggest that Sweden, known for having relatively high intergenerational mobility in general, is a society in which transmission remains strong at the very top of the distribution and wealth is the most likely channel.

  • 29.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Salvanes, Kjell G.
    Education and Family Background:  Mechanisms and Policies2011In: Handbook of the Economics of Education / [ed] Eric A. Hanushek, Stephen Machin, Ludger Woessmann, The Netherlands: North-Holland, Elsevier B.V. , 2011, 3, p. 201-247Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Parental Separation and Children's Educational Attainment: A Siblings Analysis on Swedish Register Data2004Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Lindquist, Matthew
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Family Background and Income during the Rise of the Welfare State: Brother Correlations in Income for Swedish Men Born 1932-19682009In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 93, no 5-6, p. 671-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate if the association between family background and income in Sweden has changed for men born between 1932 and 1968. Our main finding is that the share of the variance in long-run income that is attributable to family background, the so-called brother correlation in income, has fallen by some 17% from 0.49 for the cohorts of brothers born in the early 1930s to below 0.32 for the cohorts born around 1950. From then on, the correlations have inched back up to around 0.37. We report suggestive evidence that the decline is driven by changes in education.

1 - 31 of 31
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