Change search
Refine search result
1 - 14 of 14
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Uhrig, Emily J.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Favati, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Almberg, Johan
    Dahlbom, Josefin
    Winberg, Svante
    Løvlie, Hanne
    The Influence of Rearing on Behavior, Brain Monoamines, and Gene Expression in Three-Spined Sticklebacks2018In: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 201-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology, and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.

  • 2.
    Favati, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Social dominance and personality in male fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus)2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals in social species commonly form dominance relationships among each other, and

    are often observed to differ in behaviour depending on their social status. However, whether

    such behavioural differences are a consequence of dominance position, or also a cause to it,

    remains unclear. In this thesis I therefore investigated two perspectives of the relationship

    between social dominance and personality in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), a

    social species that forms relatively stable dominance hierarchies. In paper I I investigated the

    influence of social status on the expression and consistency of behaviours by experimentally

    changing status between repeated personality assays. The level of vigilance, activity and

    exploration changed with social status, while boldness and territorial crows appeared as

    stable individual properties, independent of status. These results showed that social status

    contribute to both variation and consistency in behavioural responses. Social status should

    therefore be taken into account when investigating and interpreting variation in personality.

    In paper II I showed that behaviour in a novel arena test and during encounter with an

    opponent can predict social status, more specifically that fast exploration and aggressiveness

    predicted a dominant social position. Together, these results highlight the dynamics of the

    two-way relationship between social position and individual behaviour and indicate that

    individual behaviour can both be a cause and a consequence of social status.

  • 3.
    Favati, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    The relationship between personality and social dominance in the domestic fowl – a critical perspective2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social dominance relationships are formed within numerous animal species and reduce costly fights over resources. Dominant individuals often enjoy greater access to important resources such as food and mating partners, and are generally more aggressive, bold, active and explorative compared to subdominant individuals. These behavioural traits can differ among individuals, but they can also be consistent within the individual, thereby describing the individual’s personality type. However, the causal direction of the observed correlation between dominance and personality is not well studied. One possibility is that some personality types have higher chances of obtaining a dominant social position. This would suggest that personality has consequences for fitness. Another possible explanation is that possessing different social positions gives rise to consistent behavioural differences among individuals on various timescales. If social status has a lasting effect on behaviour, social status would constitute a ‘stable state’ that explains some of the diversity of personality types that has been observed in a multitude of animal species. Dominance and personality may also share underlying proximate factors. In this thesis, I investigate the relationship between social dominance and personality using male domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus. The species is group-living with pronounced dominance hierarchies, and dominance increases male access to mating partners. I show that some aspects of personality, exploration, vigilance and in particular aggressiveness, increased a male’s chances of obtaining dominance (paper III, IV, V), and that aggressiveness can be even more important than body weight and ornament size (comb size, paper V) or recent experience of winning or losing (paper IV). Winning a social interaction resulted in an increase in aggressiveness, while a decrease was seen in males that experienced a loss (paper IV). By observing behaviour before and after changes in male dominance relationships, I further show that a recent (2 days earlier) change in social status induced behavioural adjustments to the new social status in activity, exploration and vigilance (paper I). By extending the time of the new social relationship to 3 weeks, I show that such behavioural changes did not continue (paper II). Finally, I show that the social environment during juvenile development had little impact on adult male competitiveness (paper V). Social interactions appear to have several short-term effects on behaviour, but did not contribute significantly to variation and long-term consistency of personality in male fowl. Instead, a male's personality, and in particular his aggressiveness, affected the outcome of dominance interactions. Overall, my studies reveal important consequences of individual differences in behaviour, and contribute to the highly sought-after empirical testing of hypotheses explaining variation in animal personality.

  • 4.
    Favati, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Personality predicts social dominance in male domestic fowl2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 7, article id e103535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals in social species commonly form dominance relationships, where dominant individuals enjoy greater access to resources compared to subordinates. A range of factors such as sex, age, body size and prior experiences has to varying degrees been observed to affect the social status an individual obtains. Recent work on animal personality (i.e. consistent variation in behavioural responses of individuals) demonstrates that personality can co-vary with social status, suggesting that also behavioural variation can play an important role in establishment of status. We investigated whether personality could predict the outcome of duels between pairs of morphologically matched male domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), a species where individuals readily form social hierarchies. We found that males that more quickly explored a novel arena, or remained vigilant for a longer period following the playback of a warning call were more likely to obtain a dominant position. These traits were uncorrelated to each other and were also uncorrelated to aggression during the initial part of the dominance-determining duel. Our results indicate that several behavioural traits independently play a role in the establishment of social status, which in turn can have implications for the reproductive success of different personality types.

  • 5.
    Favati, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Radesäter, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Social status and personality: stability in social state can promote consistency of behavioural responses2014In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1774, article id 20132531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stability of 'state' has been suggested as an underlying factor explaining behavioural stability and animal personality (i.e. variation among, and consistency within individuals in behavioural responses), but the possibility that stable social relationships represent such states remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the influence of social status on the expression and consistency of behaviours by experimentally changing social status between repeated personality assays. We used male domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), a social species that forms relatively stable dominance hierarchies, and showed that behavioural responses were strongly affected by social status, but also by individual characteristics. The level of vigilance, activity and exploration changed with social status, whereas boldness appeared as a stable individual property, independent of status. Furthermore, variation in vocalization predicted future social status, indicating that individual behaviours can both be a predictor and a consequence of social status, depending on the aspect in focus. Our results illustrate that social states contribute to both variation and stability in behavioural responses, and should therefore be taken into account when investigating and interpreting variation in personality.

  • 6.
    Favati, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Effects of social experience during development on competitive ability and personality traits in male domestic fowlManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to dominate conspecifics and thereby gain access to important resources depends on a number of traits and skills that may be both heritable and influenced by the environment. Experience of dominance relationships during development is a potential source of learning such skills. We here study the relative importance of social experience, personality, and morphological traits on competitive ability in male domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). By letting males grow up as either a single (dominant) male, as the dominant male of a pair, or as an intermediate ranked male in a group of males, we investigate if competitiveness in social interactions (winning duels) is mainly due to individual qualities or also influenced by social experience. We found that males were consistent over time in their competitive ability. Single raised males were inferior to pair dominant males and group-raised males in competitive ability, while pair dominant and group males did not differ significantly. This indicates that social training is important for future fighting success, but that the social position during development does not have a decisive influence on male fighting success in adulthood. Aggression and comb size, the latter possibly being a proxy for testosterone levels, had a marked effect on competitive ability. Together, our results indicate that certain behavioural and morphological traits are more important than experience of a social position in shaping competitive ability. These findings elucidate the relationship between social dominance and personality.

  • 7.
    Favati, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Individual aggression, but not winner–loser effects, predicts social rank in male domestic fowl2017In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 874-882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many factors can affect the probability for an individual to obtain a high social rank, including size, weaponry, and behavioral attributes such as aggression. Recent experiences of winning or losing can also affect the chances of winning future contests, commonly referred to as “winner–loser effects”. Individuals often differ in behavior in a consistent way, including in aggression, thereby showing differences in personality. However, the relative importance of recent experience and aspects of personality in determining rank, as well as the extent to which winning or losing affects aggression, has rarely been studied. Here, we investigate these questions using male domestic fowl. We matched males for body size, comb size, and aggression in pair-wise duels to: 1) study the effect of contest outcome on aggression and 2) compare the effect of individual aggression and contest experience on future social status in small groups. We found that aggression was a highly repeatable personality trait and that aggression increased after winning and decreased after losing. Nevertheless, such winner–loser effects were not enough to increase the odds of becoming dominant in a small group. Instead, aggressiveness measured prior to a contest experience best predicted future rank. Boldness and exploration did not predict rank and of the 2, only boldness was positively correlated with aggressiveness. We conclude that for male domestic fowl in contests among phenotypically matched contestants, aggressiveness is more important for obtaining high rank than winner–loser effects, or other aspects of personality.

  • 8.
    Favati, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Udén, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Personality remains: no effect of 3-week social status experience on personality in male fowl2018In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 312-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral responses of male fowl did not depend on social rank after 3 weeks in stable groups, but were consistent over time for an individual. Theory suggests that stable social states, for example, stable social hierarchies, may lead to consistent variation in behavior, that is, variation in personality. Our results suggest that variation in personality is not a consequence of variation in social status and that personality is more important than current social position in determining individual behavior in stable groups.Individuals often differ in behavior in a consistent way, that is, they show variation in personality. Understanding the processes explaining the emergence and maintenance of this variation is a current major topic in the field of animal behavioral research. Recent theoretical models predict that differences in various states can generate individual variation in behavior. Previous studies have mainly focused on endogenous states like metabolic rate or energy reserves, but theory also suggests that states based on social interactions could play important roles in shaping personality. We have earlier demonstrated short-term status-dependent variation in behavior in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), but whether such behavioral variation remains also after a longer period of time, is unknown. Therefore, we examine the influence of social status on variation in behavior, using experimental manipulation of social status in pairs of male domestic fowl. We scored males in 3 personality assays (novel arena test, novel object test, and aggression test) before and after 3 weeks in pairs as either dominant or subordinate. We observed individual consistency of behavior despite alteration of social status. We further found no support for social status acting as a state that generates variation in personality over the used time interval: social status had no significant effect on the change in behavioral responses between repeated personality tests. Our results suggest that personality is more important than current social situation for describing individual behavior in stable groups.

  • 9.
    Favati, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Thorpe, Hanne
    Jensen, Per
    Løvlie, Hanne
    The ontogeny of personality traits in the red junglefowl, Gallus gallus2016In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 484-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consistent behavioral differences among individuals, that is, personality, are described in numerous species. Nevertheless, the development of behavioral consistency over ontogeny remains unclear, including whether the personality of individuals is consistent throughout life, and if adult personality can be predicted already at young age. We investigated the ontogeny of personality in the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) by scoring personality of hatchlings at 5 time points through adulthood, including before and after the major developmental stages of becoming independent and sexual mature. We use the conceptual framework laid out by Stamps and Groothuis (2010a) to holistically investigate the observed changes in behavioral response over ontogeny. We demonstrate that mean values of behavioral responses changed across ontogeny and stabilized after independence. Rank-order consistencies of behavioral responses were overall low across independence and sexual maturation. Only in 1 case could low rank-order consistencies potentially be explained by different phenotypes displaying different amounts of change in behavior; more explorative individuals decreased in exploration after independence, while less explorative individuals remained so. Correlations among behavior varied across ontogeny and weakened after sexual maturation. Our results demonstrate that both absolute values and consistency of behavioral traits may change across ontogeny and that individual developmental trajectories and adult personality only to some extent can be predicted early in life. These results have implications for future studies on personality, highlighting that the life stage at which individuals are scored affects the observed consistency of behavioral responses.

  • 10.
    Olofsson, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram, India.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Favati, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    On the deterring effect of a butterfly's eyespot in juvenile and sub-adult chickens2015In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 749-757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular patterns, or eyespots, are common anti-predator features in a variety of animals. Two defensive functions have been documented: large eyespots may intimidate predators, whereas smaller marginal eyespots may divert attacks. However, a given eyespot potentially serves both functions, possibly depending on the predator's size and/or experience. Naive predators are potentially more likely to misdirect their attacks towards eyespots; alternatively, their typically smaller size would make them more intimidated by the same eyespots. Here we test how juvenile and sub-adult naive chickens respond to a single eyespot on a butterfly's wing. We presented the birds with dead wall brown butterflies, Lasiommata megera, that had their apical eyespot visible or painted over. We assessed the birds' responses' by (i) scoring their intimidation reaction, (ii) whether they uttered alarm calls and, (iii) if they attacked the butterfly and where they targeted their attacks. Results show that both age categories received higher intimidation scores when offered a butterfly with a visible eyespot. Juveniles were more intimidated by the butterfly than the sub-adults: they received higher intimidation scores and were more prone to utter alarm calls. Moreover, only sub-adults attacked and did so by preferentially attacking the butterfly's anterior. We demonstrate an intimidating effect of the type of eyespot that has previously been shown only to divert attacks. We suggest that one and the same eyespot may serve two functions relative to different predators; however, further experiments are needed to disentangle the role of predator identity and its link to size, ontogeny and experience.

  • 11. Rosher, Charlotte
    et al.
    Favati, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Dean, Rebecca
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Relatedness and age reduce aggressive male interactions over mating in domestic fowl2017In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 760-766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Altruistic behaviour represents a fundamental challenge in evolutionary biology. It is often best understood through kin selection, where favourable behaviour is directed towards relatives. Kin selection can take place when males cooperate to enhance the reproductive success of relatives. Here, we focus on reduced male-male competition over mating as a case of cooperation, by examining male tolerance of matings by related and unrelated competitors. A suitable model for exploring whether relatedness affects male-male interactions over mating is the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus. In this species, males form social hierarchies and dominant males commonly interrupt subdominant males' copulation attempts. We investigated whether dominant male fowl differentially direct aggressive interactions towards unrelated and related subordinate males during mating attempts. Dominant male fowl were found to interrupt mating attempts of male relatives less often than those of unrelated males. We further tested whether male age mediates the magnitude of kin tolerance behaviour. However, we found no support for this as both young and old dominant males were less likely to interrupt related, compared to unrelated, subdominant males' copulations during male-male interactions. Our results, consistent with kin selection, provide a rare experimental demonstration of relatedness relaxing male-male competition over mating.

  • 12. Zidar, Josefina
    et al.
    Balogh, Alexandra
    Favati, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Jensen, Per
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    A comparison of animal personality and coping styles in the red junglefowl2017In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 130, p. 209-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased focus in biology on consistent behavioural variation. Several terms are used to describe this variation, including animal personality and coping style. Both terms describe between individual consistency in behavioural variation; however, they differ in the behavioural assays typically used, the expected distribution of response variables, and whether they incorporate variation in behavioural flexibility. Despite these differences, the terms are often used interchangeably. We conducted experiments using juvenile and adult red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, as subjects to explore the degree to which animal personality and coping styles overlap. We demonstrate that animal personality and coping styles can be described in this species, and that shyer individuals had more flexible responses, as expected for coping styles. Behavioural responses from both personality and coping style assays had continuous distributions, and were not clearly separated into two types. Behavioural traits were not correlated and, hence, there was no evidence of a behavioural syndrome. Further, behavioural responses obtained in personality assays did not correlate with those from coping style tests. Animal personality and coping styles are therefore not synonymous in the red junglefowl. We suggest that the terms animal personality and coping style are not equivalent and should not be used interchangeably.

  • 13. Zidar, Josefina
    et al.
    Balogh, Alexandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Favati, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Jensen, Per
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Sorato, Enrico
    Løvlie, Hanne
    The relationship between learning speed and personality is age- and task-dependent in red junglefowl2018In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 72, no 10, article id 168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognition is fundamental to animals’ lives and an important source of phenotypic variation. Nevertheless, research on individual variation in animal cognition is still limited. Further, although individual cognitive abilities have been suggested to be linked to personality (i.e., consistent behavioral differences among individuals), few studies have linked performance across multiple cognitive tasks to personality traits. Thus, the interplays between cognition and personality are still unclear. We therefore investigated the relationships between an important aspect of cognition, learning, and personality, by exposing young and adult red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) to multiple learning tasks (discriminative, reversal, and spatial learning) and personality assays (novel arena, novel object, and tonic immobility). Learning speed was not correlated across learning tasks, and learning speed in discrimination and spatial learning tasks did not co-vary with personality. However, learning speed in reversal tasks was associated with individual variation in exploration, and in an age-dependent manner. More explorative chicks learned the reversal task faster than less explorative ones, while the opposite association was found for adult females (learning speed could not be assayed in adult males). In the same reversal tasks, we also observed a sex difference in learning speed of chicks, with females learning faster than males. Our results suggest that the relationship between cognition and personality is complex, as shown by its task- and age-dependence, and encourage further investigation of the causality and dynamics of this relationship.

  • 14. Zidar, Josefina
    et al.
    Sorato, Enrico
    Malmqvist, Ann-Marie
    Jansson, Emelie
    Rosher, Charlotte
    Jensen, Per
    Favati, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Early experience affects adult personality in the red junglefowl: A role for cognitive stimulation?2017In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 134, p. 78-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite intense research efforts, biologists are still puzzled by the existence of animal personality. While recent studies support a link between cognition and personality, the directionality of this relationship still needs to be clarified. Early-life experiences can affect adult behaviour, and among these, cognitive stimulation has been suggested theoretically to influence personality. Yet, the influence of early cognitive stimulation has rarely been explored in empirical investigations of animal behaviour and personality. We investigated the effect of early cognitive stimulation on adult personality in the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). To this end, we assessed adult behaviour across a number of personality assays and compared behaviour of individuals previously exposed to a series of learning tasks as chicks, with that of control individuals lacking this experience. We found that individuals exposed to early stimulation were, as adults, more vigilant and performed fewer escape attempts in personality assays. Other behaviours describing personality traits in the fowl were not affected. We conclude that our results support the hypothesis that early stimulation can affect aspects of adult behaviour and personality, suggesting a hitherto underappreciated causality link between cognition and personality. Future research should aim to confirm these findings and resolve their underlying dynamics and proximate mechanisms.

1 - 14 of 14
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf