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  • 1.
    Dunlavy, Andrea C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Educational mismatch and health status among foreign-born workers in Sweden2016In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 154, p. 36-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreign-born workers have been shown to experience poorer working conditions than native-born workers. Yet relationships between health and educational mismatch have been largely overlooked among foreign-born workers. This study uses objective and self-reported measures of educational mismatch to compare the prevalence of educational mismatch among native (n = 2359) and foreign born (n = 1789) workers in Sweden and to examine associations between educational mismatch and poor self-rated health. Findings from weighted multivariate logistic regression which controlled for social position and individual-level demographic characteristics suggested that over-educated foreign-born workers had greater odds ratios for poor-self rated health compared to native-born matched workers. This association was particularly evident among men (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.04-4.39) and women (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.12-4.03) from countries outside of Western Europe, North America, and Australia/New Zealand. Associations between under-education and poor-self rated health were also found among women from countries outside of Western Europe, North America, and Australia/New Zealand (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.27-3.18). These findings suggest that educational mismatch may be an important work-related social determinant of health among foreign-born workers. Future studies are needed to examine the effects of long-term versus short-term states of educational mismatch on health and to study relationships over time.

  • 2.
    Garcy, Anthony
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    High expense: Disability severity and charter school attendance in Arizona.2011In: Education Policy Analysis Archives, ISSN 1068-2341, E-ISSN 1068-2341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the literature related to the skimming or cropping of students by charter schools has ignored special education students. This article examines the relationship between the severity of student disabilities and their likelihood of having attended an Arizona charter school in the 2002-2003 school year. After adjusting for student traits, local education agency characteristics, and the mix of available special education services, a multilevel logistic regression analysis suggests that students who had more severe and thus more expensive disabilities were less likely to attend an Arizona charter school. Findings from an ancillary set of hierarchical linear models suggested that special education students enrolled in charter schools were less expensive on average than similar traditional public-school special education students.

  • 3.
    Garcy, Anthony
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The effects of health insurance coverage on the math achievement trajectories of school children in Yuma County, Arizona: implications for education accountability policy2013In: Education Policy Analysis Archives, ISSN 1068-2341, E-ISSN 1068-2341, Vol. 21, no 80, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    U.S. Federal and state education policies place considerable emphasis on assessing the effects that schools and teachers have on student test score performance. It is important for education policy makers to also consider other factors that can affect student achievement. This study finds that an exogenous school factor, discontinuous health insurance coverage, leads to a deficit in math achievement over time. A sample of Yuma County, Arizona public school students who experienced an illness or injury and whose health insurance coverage status was known were selected for inclusion into the study over five consecutive school years (1999 – 2003). The longitudinal math achievement trajectory of students who had private health insurance coverage was compared to students who had discontinuous coverage. Net of a student’s poverty status and other background characteristics the findings suggest that students who experienced a health event when they had no healthcare insurance had the same growth rate but lower overall math achievement. The average achievement gap was a constant -8.84 scale score points. However, separate analyses for specific types of illness/injury suggest the achievement deficit varied considerably and is typically larger.

  • 4.
    Garcy, Anthony
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The Longitudinal Link Between Student Health and Math Achievement Scores2009In: Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, ISSN 1082-4669, E-ISSN 1532-7671, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 283-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the relationship between health conditions suffered over time and student scores on the Stanford Achievement Test 9 in Yuma County, Arizona, public grade schools. The majority of children in Yuma County were of Hispanic origin. The poverty and low income status of most of these children placed them at greater risk for health problems. The primary purpose of the study was to ascertain how the rate of math achievement of students who suffered from an illness or injury prior to testing compared to those students who had no known illness or injury. Findings suggested that physical illness influenced math achievement trajectories adversely. Importantly, the achievement gaps associated with several health conditions attenuated over time. However, children who experienced an injury or poisoning, or an endocrine, nutritional, or metabolic disease developed permanent math achievement deficits.

  • 5.
    Garcy, Anthony
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Whitehead, M
    The relationship between school quality, educational quality, and health inequalities: A critical review. In: Developing Methodologies to Reduce Inequalities in the Determinants of Health (DEMETRIQ),2014Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Educational mismatch and mortality among native-born workers in Sweden. A 19-year longitudinal study of 2.5 million over-educated, matched and under-educated individuals, 1990–20082015In: Sociology of Health and Illness, ISSN 0141-9889, E-ISSN 1467-9566, Vol. 37, no 8, p. 1314-1336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests the hypothesis that a disjuncture between an individual's attained level of education and that held by average workers in the individual's occupation leads to higher mortality among those with a prolonged mismatched status. Swedish register data are used in a 19-year longitudinal mortality follow-up study of all causes and specific causes of mortality. Participants were all men and women born between 1926 and 1985 who were alive on 1 September 1990, who had concurrent information on their attained level of education and the specific occupation or industry they were employed in during this period for at least a consecutive year. An objective measure of educational and occupational mismatch was constructed from these data. Those with a stable, over-educated matched, or under-educated employment status are included in the final analysis (N=2,482,696). Independent of social, family, employers' characteristics and prior health problems, the findings from a multivariate, stratified Cox regression analysis suggest there is excessive mortality among the over-educated, and a protective effect of under-education among native-born Swedish men and women.

  • 7.
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Extending the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study Database With a New Collection From Archival Sources: Collection and Error Correction Strategies When Problems Arise2018Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study is an account of the 2014-2016 effort to expand a Swedish research database called the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study. The research project collected and photographed available data on school quality from local, regional, and national Swedish archives. The discovery of a widespread data quality issue in the existing database ultimately prevented the completion of the data collection and the execution of the planned research. A narrative is given about the challenges of conducting a complex, multistage archival data collection. Some of the problems that were encountered are mentioned. Practical methods and strategies that were used to collect the relevant data from the archival material are discussed. The methods used in the conversion and entry of some of this material into an electronic, numerical database format are also reviewed.

  • 8.
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Berliner, David C.
    A critical review of the literature on the relationship between school quality and health inequalities2018In: Review of Education/Pedagogy/Cultural Studies, ISSN 1071-4413, E-ISSN 1556-3022, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 40-66Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robust evidence suggesting a strong association between greater educational attainment, betterhealth and lower mortality, has led to speculation that the quality of schooling can also have effectson health. This review critically summarises findings from 15 studies in a growing area of researchconcerning the effects of school quality on health. Findings suggested positive, long-term benefits ofhigh-quality pre-school. Other findings suggested that higher teacher wages, lower pupil–teacherratios, a longer school year, and higher college selectivity had mostly positive long-term effects onhealth and mortality. Several studies found that school quality modified the effect of years of completededucation on various health outcomes. Some measures of school quality including smallerclass size in relation to mortality, and higher college selectivity in the case of smoking were not consistentlyrelated to better health. While studies varied in their consistency and significance, theweight of the evidence together, suggests that some health inequalities over the life course wereexplained partly by differences in school quality. This may be related to improved cognition, occupationalcharacteristics, and the incomes of those exposed to better quality schooling. Direct healthknowledge and behaviour may also play a role.

  • 9.
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Berliner, David C.
    Context and Implications Document for: A critical review of the literature on the relationship between school quality and health inequalities2018In: Review of Education, ISSN 2049-6613, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 67-68Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The length of unemployment predicts mortality, differently in men and women, and by cause of death: A six year mortality follow-up of the Swedish 1992-1996 recession2012In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 74, no 12, p. 1911-1920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the relationship between the total amount of accumulated unemployment during the deep Swedish recession of 1992-1996 and mortality in the following 6 years. Nearly 3.4 million Swedish men and women, born between 1931 and 1965 who were gainfully employed at the time of the 1990 census were included. Almost 23% of these individuals were unemployed at some point during the recession. We conduct a prospective cohort study utilizing Cox proportional hazard regression with a mortality follow-up from January 1997 to December 2002. We adjust for health status (1982-1991), baseline (1991) social, family, and employer characteristics of individuals before the recession. The findings suggest that long-term unemployment is related to elevated all-cause mortality for men and women. The excess mortality effects were small for women and attributable to a positive, linear increase in the hazard of alcohol disease-related mortality and external causes-of-death not classified as suicides or transport accidents. For men, the excess hazard of all-cause mortality was best represented by a cubic, non-linear shape. The predicted hazard increases rapidly with the shortest and longest accumulated levels of unemployment. However, the underlying pattern differed by cause-of-death. The cancer, circulatory, and alcohol disease-related analyses suggest that mortality peaks with mid-levels of accumulated unemployment and then declines with longer duration unemployment. For men, we observed a positive, linear increase in the hazard ratios associated with transport and suicide mortality, and a very steep non-linear increase in the excess hazard ratio associated with other external causes of death that were not classified as suicide or transport accidents. In conclusion, mortality risk increases with the duration of unemployment among men and women. This was best described by a cubic function for men and a linear function for women. Behind this pattern, different causes-of-death varied in their relation to the accumulation of unemployment.

  • 11.
    Garcy, Anthony
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Unemployment and suicide during and after a deep recession: a longitudinal study of 3.4 million Swedish men and women2013In: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 103, no 6, p. 1031-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. We tested 2 hypotheses found in studies of the relationship between suicide and unemployment: causal (stress and adversity) and selective interpretation (previous poor health).

    Methods. We estimated Cox models for adults (n = 3 424 550) born between 1931 and 1965. We examined mortality during the recession (1993–1996), postrecession (1997–2002), and a combined follow-up. Models controlled for previous medical problems, and social, family, and employer characteristics.

    Results. During the recession there was no excess hazard of mortality from suicide or events of undetermined intent. Postrecession, there was an excess hazard of suicide mortality for unemployed men but not unemployed women. However, for unemployed women with no health-problem history there was a modest hazard of suicide. Finally, there was elevated mortality from events of undetermined intent for unemployed men and women postrecession.

    Conclusions. A small part of the relationship may be related to health selection, more so during the recession. However, postrecessionary period findings suggest that much of the association could be causal. A narrow focus on suicide mortality may understate the mortality effects of unemployment in Sweden.

  • 12.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Does unemployment cause long-term mortality? Selection and causation after the 1992–96 deep Swedish recession2016In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 778-783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mass unemployment in Europe is endemic, especially among the young. Does it cause mortality? Methods: We analyzed long-term effects of unemployment occurring during the deep Swedish recession 1992–96. Mortality from all and selected causes was examined in the 6-year period after the recession among those employed in 1990 (3.4 million). Direct health selection was analyzed as risk of unemployment by prior medical history based on all hospitalizations 1981–91. Unemployment effects on mortality were estimated with and without adjustment for prior social characteristics and for prior medical history. Results: A prior circulatory disease history did not predict unemployment; a history of alcohol-related disease or suicide attempts did, in men and women. Unemployment predicted excess male, but not female, mortality from circulatory disease, both ischemic heart disease and stroke, and from all causes combined, after full adjustment. Adjustment for prior social characteristics reduced estimates considerably; additional adjustment for prior medical history did not. Mortality from external and alcohol-related causes was raised in men and women experiencing unemployment, after adjustment for social characteristics and medical history. For the youngest birth cohorts fully adjusted alcohol mortality HRs were substantial (male HR = 4.44; female HR = 5.73). The effect of unemployment on mortality was not uniform across the population; men, those with a low education, low income, unmarried or in urban employment were more vulnerable. Conclusions: Direct selection by medical history explains a modest fraction of any increased mortality risk following unemployment. Mass unemployment imposes long-term mortality risk on a sizeable segment of the population.

  • 13.
    Yu, Bing
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    A longitudinal study of cognitive and educational outcomes of those born small for gestational age2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 86-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    This study examined the long-term cognitive and educational outcomes of being born small for gestational age (SGA) and assessed whether the family's attitude towards education modified the effect of being born SGA on educational attainment.

    Methods

    We used anonymised data on 9598 individuals from the Stockholm Birth Cohort. This study focused on babies born in 1953 in the Stockholm metropolitan area, who were followed up for 50 years, and included educational data at the age of 13 and 48. Ordinary least squares regression analyses, modification analyses and logistic regression analyses were conducted.

    Results

    The findings suggested that individuals who were born SGA (n = 798) had lower mean verbal, spatial and numerical test scores than those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) (n = 7364) and large for gestational age (n = 1436). The SGA/AGA differences were small, but statistically significant, and the effects of being born SGA on the test scores was modified by the family's attitude towards education. The findings also suggested that attaining higher education was largely, but not entirely, explained by the family's attitude towards education.

    Conclusion

    The detrimental effects of being born SGA were limited on cognitive and educational outcomes, but may have been reduced by positive family attitudes.

1 - 13 of 13
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