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  • 1.
    Aronsson, Vanda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Can a poor psychosocial work environment and insufficient organizational resources explain the higher risk of ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations? Evidence from a Swedish national cohort2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 310-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in burnout, self-rated health (SRH) and sickness absence between human service occupations (HSOs) and other occupations, and whether they can be attributed to differences in psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. Methods: Data were derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population (n = 4408). Employment in HSOs, psychosocial work environment and organizational resources in 2012 predicted relative risks of sickness absence, burnout and suboptimal SRH in 2014 using modified Poisson regressions. The psychosocial work factors' and organizational resource variables' relative importance were estimated by adding them to the models one by one, and with population attributable fractions (PAFs). Results: Employment in HSOs was associated with a higher risk of sickness absence and the risk was explained by psychosocial and organizational factors, particularly high emotional demands, low work-time control and exposure to workplace violence. Employment in HSOs was not associated with burnout after sociodemographic factors were adjusted for, and furthermore not with SRH. A lower risk of suboptimal SRH was found in HSOs than in other occupations with equivalent psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. PAFs indicated that psychosocial work environment and organizational resource improvements could lead to morbidity reductions for all outcomes; emotional demands were more important in HSOs. Conclusions: HSOs had higher risks of sickness absence and burnout than other occupations. The most important work factors to address were high emotional demands, low work-time control, and exposure to workplace violence.

  • 2.
    Cerdas, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Johansson, Gun
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Development of job demands, decision authority and social support in industries with different gender composition - Sweden, 1991-20132019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This study aims to explore the development of job demands, decision authority and social support within and between industries with different gender composition in Sweden between 1991 and 2013.

    Methods

    Cross-sectional data from 12 waves of the Swedish Work Environment Surveys (1991 to 2013), comprising in total 109,698 respondents, were used. Industries were classified in 7 categories according to its gender composition and main activity, comprising two female-dominated, three gender-mixed and two male-dominated industries. Proportions of workers reporting high job demands, low decision authority and poor social support between 1991 and 2013 were calculated. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate variation across time, using 1991 as the reference category, and between industries, using knowledge intensive services as the reference category. Estimates for high job demands, low decision authority and poor social support were presented as average marginal effects (AMEs).

    Results

    The probabilities of reporting low decision authority were higher in education and health and social care during the whole study period, for both genders, compared with the reference category of knowledge intensive services. The probability of having high job demands were higher for men and women in education, and women in health and social care, compared with the reference category. Men in the male dominated industries had increased job demands over time, compared to the beginning of the study period (1991). The probability of reporting poor social support was higher in the later than in the earliest time period for women in the female-dominated industry health and social care as well as in the gender-mixed labour intensive services industry.

    Conclusions

    There has been a negative development of job demands and decision authority in the female-dominated industries education and health and social care in Sweden, whereas social support has developed more negatively for women in health and social care and in labour intensive services.

  • 3.
    Cerdas, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Johansson, Gun
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Development of Organisational and Psychosocial Work Factors Across Industries with Different Gender Composition in Sweden, 2003-20132018In: Book of proceedings: 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today's workplace / [ed] Kevin Teoh, Nathalie Saade, Vlad Dediu, Juliet Hassard, Luis Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, p. 34-35, article id S2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, the development of mental ill-health and sickness absence has been poorer in female-dominated industries compared to others. One possible explanation is the different developments of psychosocial working conditions across industries. Men and women appear to react similarly to the same psychosocial exposures at work, but differences in exposure patterns may prevail. There is to date a lack of studies on the extent to which psychosocial work exposures are associated with the gender segregation on the Swedish labour market at the industry level. This study aims to investigate how organisational and psychosocial work factors have developed over time across industries with different gender composition in Sweden from 2003 to 2013, and to what extent these factors differ between industries.

    Methods: The present study is based on repeated cross-sectional data from the Swedish Work Environment Survey (SWES). SWES is conducted biennially by Statistics Sweden (SCB) and includes Swedish workers aged 16-64 years. Six waves from 2003 to 2013, comprising a study sample of 45,631 subjects, were analysed, Industries were categorised according to gender composition and divided into seven categories: 1) Goods and energy production; 2) Machine handling; 3) Manual services; 4) Public administration; 5) Knowledge intensive services; 6) Education; 7) Health and social care. Proportions of men and women in each industry who were exposed to adverse or positive organisational and psychosocial work factors were calculated for each of the six waves. Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, educational level and year of response to SWES were performed on the full sample (all six waves), in order to estimate the odds of being exposed to organisational and psychosocial work factors in each industry using the knowledge intensive service industry as the reference category.

    Results: Preliminary results show that in female dominated industries (Education and Health and social care), many organisational and psychosocial work factors developed poorly over the study period. Higher odds of exposure to adverse or positive organisational and psychosocial work factors were found for several industries when using the industry of Knowledge intensive services as the reference category.

    Conclusion: This study is one of the first of its kind analysing the development of organisational and psychosocial work factors, as well as differences in these factors between industries with different gender compositions in Sweden.

  • 4.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Eib, Constanze
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Interactional justice at work is related to sickness absence: a study using repeated measures in the Swedish working population2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research has shown that perceived unfairness contributes to higher rates of sickness absence. While shorter, but more frequent periods of sickness absence might be a possibility for the individual to get relief from high strain, long-term sickness absence might be a sign of more serious health problems. The Uncertainty Management Model suggests that justice is particularly important in times of uncertainty, e.g. perceived job insecurity. The present study investigated the association between interpersonal and informational justice at work with long and frequent sickness absence respectively, under conditions of job insecurity.

    Methods: Data were derived from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final analytic sample consisted of 19,493 individuals. We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations (GEE), a method for longitudinal data that simultaneously analyses variables at different time points. We calculated risk of long and frequent sickness absence, respectively in relation to interpersonal and informational justice taking perceptions of job insecurity into account.

    Results: We found informational and interpersonal justice to be associated with risk of long and frequent sickness absence independently of job insecurity and demographic variables. Results from autoregressive GEE provided some support for a causal relationship between justice perceptions and sickness absence. Contrary to expectations, we found no interaction between justice and job insecurity.

    Conclusions: Our results underline the need for fair and just treatment of employees irrespective of perceived job insecurity in order to keep the workforce healthy and to minimize lost work days due to sickness absence.

  • 5.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Eib, Constanze
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Trajectories in Effort-Reward Imbalance Over Time and their Associations with Health Complaints2018In: Book of Proceedings 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today’s workplace / [ed] K. Teoh, N. Saade, V. Dediu, J. Hassard, L. Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, p. 223-223, article id O23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model is one of the predominant models in contemporary stress research. It defines stress as a combination of high efforts at work and low work-related rewards. While ERI has been found to be related to a range of health outcomes, little is known about developments in ERI over time. The aim of this study is to (i) identify long- term patterns (trajectories) of effort-reward imbalance in the Swedish working population, to (ii) describe these trajectories with respect to background and work-related factors, and to (iii) evaluate health complaints associated with these trajectories.

    Methods: The study was based on panel data with four measurement points (2010, 2012, 2014, 2016) collected within the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Latent class growth modelling was conducted and differences in background and work factors as well as differences in health outcomes, covering self-rated health, sickness absence, depression, musculoskeletal disorder, migraine, cardiovascular heart disease, and blood pressure between trajectories, were analysed.

    Results: Four trajectories were found. A low imbalance trajectory characterised by moderate values of effort and reward comprised the majority of the study population (90%). The next largest trajectory, comprising 4% of all participants, showed the highest baseline value of effort and the lowest baseline value of reward. This trajectory was characterised by a decrease in ERI score followed by an increase and labelled as U-shaped imbalance. The third trajectory, which we called inverted U-shaped, represented 3% of all participants. It was characterised by moderate values of effort matched with moderate values of reward. Its development showed an increase in ERI followed by a decrease. The last trajectory also represented 3% of all participants and was characterised by a rather high mean value in effort in combination with a moderate mean value of reward. This trajectory showed an accelerating increase in ERI over time. We labelled it the increasing imbalance trajectory. The most favourable trajectory was dominated by men working in the private sector, while women were overrepresented in the less favourable ERI trajectories. Also, being in a less favourable trajectory was found to be associated with health complaints and diseases. For the increasing imbalance trajectory, this association remained stable also after controlling for baseline health.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that about 10% of all employees experience an imbalance between efforts and received rewards at work. To a large extent, these workers are women working in the public sector. As effort-reward imbalance is a contributing factor to these workers’ill-health, measures should be taken to increase balance between efforts and rewards, particularly in the most vulnerable groups identified in this study.

  • 6.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Det goda chefskapet: Organisatorisk effektivitet och anställdas hälsa, En kunskapsöversikt2008In: Chefskapets former och resultat: Två kunskapsöversikter om arbetsplatsens ledarskap, VINNOVA, 2008 , 2008, p. 113-221Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernin, Peggy
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leadership and health in four European countries – Sweden, Poland, Italy and Germany2008Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hanson Magnusson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Gender differences in psychosocial work factors, work-personal life interface, and well-being among Swedish managers and non-managers2015In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 88, no 8, p. 1149-1164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To explore differences in psychosocial work factors, work-personal life interface, and well-being between managers and non-managers, female and male managers, and managers in the public and private sectors.

    METHODS: Data were drawn from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2010, including 602 female managers, 4174 female non-managers, 906 male managers, and 2832 male non-managers. Psychosocial work factors, work-personal life interface, satisfaction, and well-being were investigated among non-managers and managers and male and female managers, using logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, educational level, staff category, and labour market sector.

    RESULTS: Both female and male managers reported high job demands and interference between work and personal life, but also high influence, high satisfaction with work and life, and low amount of sickness absence more often than non-managers of the same sex. However, female managers reported high quantitative and emotional demands, low influence, and work-personal life interference more frequently than male managers. More psychosocial work stressors were also reported in the public sector, where many women work. Male managers more often reported conflicts with superiors, lack of support, and personal life-work interference. Female managers reported poor well-being to a greater extent than male managers, but were more satisfied with their lives.

    CONCLUSION: Lack of motivation due to limited increase in satisfaction and organisational benefits is not likely to hinder women from taking on managerial roles. Managerial women's higher overall demands, lower influence at work, and poorer well-being relative to men's could hinder female managers from reaching higher organisational levels.

  • 9.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Occupational gender composition and mild to severe depression in a Swedish cohort: The impact of psychosocial work factors2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 425-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between occupational gender composition, psychosocial work factors and mild to severe depression in Swedish women and men with various educational backgrounds.

    Methods: The study included 5560 participants from two waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals of mild to severe depression in 2014 were estimated for five strata of occupational gender composition with >20-40%, >40-60%, >60-80% and >80-100% women, using 0-20% women as the reference. Analyses were stratified by gender and education. Job strain, organisational injustice, poor social support and effort-reward imbalance in 2012 were added in separate models, and changes in OR of mild to severe depression for strata of occupational gender composition were evaluated.

    Results: Among women, the odds of mild to severe depression did not vary by occupational gender composition. Among men with low to intermediate education, the odds were higher in the stratum with >80-100% women, and among men with high education, the odds were higher in strata with >20-40% and >60-80% women. Psychosocial work factors affected the odds ratios of mild to severe depression, but most of the variation remained unexplained.

    Conclusions: Odds of mild to severe depression appeared to vary by occupational gender composition among Swedish men but not women. This variation seemed only to a small extent to be explained by psychosocial work factors.

  • 10.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Johansson, Gunn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Do Predictors of Career Success Differ between Swedish Women and Men? Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH)2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 10, article id e0140516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this prospective study was to explore predictors of objective career success among Swedish women and men, focussing on gender differences. Data were drawn from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) with a total of 3670 female and 2773 male participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for job promotion and an above-average salary increase between 2008 and 2010 were obtained through binary logistic regression analyses. Individual and organisational factors measured in 2008 were used as predictors in analyses stratified by sex. Mutual adjustment was performed for these variables, as well as for labour market sector and staff category at baseline. In both sexes, younger age predicted both job promotion and an above-average salary increase. Job promotion was also in both sexes predicted by being part of decision-making processes, having conflicts with superiors, and being eager to advance. Furthermore, promotion was predicted by, among men, being educated to post-graduate level and having an open coping strategy and, among women, working >60 hours/week. An above-average salary increase was predicted in both sexes by having a university education. Postgraduate education, having children living at home, and being very motivated to advance predicted an above-average salary increase among women, as did working 51-60 hours/week and being part of decision-making processes in men. Gender differences were seen in several predictors. In conclusion, the results support previous findings of gender differences in predictors of career success. A high level of education, motivation to advance, and procedural justice appear to be more important predictors of career success among women, while open coping was a more important predictor among men.

  • 11.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Does Work-Personal Life Interference Predict Turnover Among Male and Female Managers, and do Depressive Symptoms Mediate the Association?2018In: Book of Proceedings 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today’s workplace / [ed] K. Teoh, N. Saade, V. Dediu, J. Hassard, L. Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, p. 308-309, article id O135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To increase possibilities for women and men to remain in leadership positions a better understanding of turnover processes among female and male managers appears important. Although the interface between work and personal life has been recognised as a key issue for managers, it has seldom been empirically investigated in relation to turnover. In the present study we used a longitudinal multi-group design to examine associations between work- personal life interference, managerial turnover and depressive symptoms, and their differences with respect to gender. We hypothesised that 1) work-personal life interference predict managerial turnover, 2) depressive symptoms mediate the association, which 3) differ by gender. 

    Methods: Data were drawn from four waves (2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a cohort of the Swedish working population. Participants who in any wave reported to have a managerial or other leading position were included (n=717 men and 741 women). Mediation models within a multilevel SEM framework, in which repeated measures were nested within individuals, were fitted. First, bivariate autoregressive and cross-lagged paths between the variables (t and t-1) were fitted in gender stratified models. Secondly, a full longitudinal gender stratified mediation model was built to estimate if the association between work-personal life interference (t-2) and turnover (t) was mediated through depressive symptoms (t-1). Gender differences in cross-lagged paths were estimated with multiple-group analysis. All analyses were adjusted for age, education, labour market sector, civil status and children living at home, and conducted in MPLUS 7.

    Results: In accordance with our first hypothesis, significant prospective paths between work- personal life interference and turnover were found among both male and female managers. In line with our second hypothesis, there were furthermore significant prospective associations between work-personal life interference and depressive symptoms as well as between depressive symptoms and turnover in both genders. However, no significant intermediate effect of depressive symptoms in the longitudinal association between work-personal life interference and turnover was found in any gender, and therefore our second hypothesis was not supported. We found gender differences in several of the estimated associations, lending partial support for our third hypothesis.

    Conclusions: Establishing organisational prerequisites for good work-personal life balance among managers may be a means to retain male and female managerial talent.

  • 12.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Does work-personal life interference predict turnover among male and female managers, and do depressive symptoms mediate the association? A longitudinal study based on a Swedish cohort2018In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, article id 828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the present study we used a longitudinal design to examine if work-personal life interference predicted managerial turnover, if depressive symptoms mediated the association, and if the relationships differed by gender.

    Methods: Data were drawn from four waves (2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a cohort of the Swedish working population. Participants who in any wave reported to have a managerial or other leading position were included (n = 717 men and 741 women). Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models within a multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) framework, in which repeated measures (level 1) were nested within individuals (level 2), were fitted to data. First, bivariate autoregressive and cross-lagged paths between the variables were fitted in gender stratified models. Secondly, a full gender stratified mediation model was built to estimate if the association between work-personal life interference and turnover was mediated through depressive symptoms. Gender differences in cross-lagged paths were estimated with multiple-group analysis. All analyses were adjusted for age, education, labour market sector, civil status and children living at home, and conducted in MPLUS 7.

    Results: In both genders there were significant paths between work-personal life interference and turnover. Depressive symptoms were, however, not found to mediate in the relationship between work-personal life interference and turnover. The models differed significantly between genders.

    Conclusions: Establishing organisational prerequisites for good work-personal life balance among managers may be a means to retain both male and female managerial talent.

  • 13.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Socio-economic predictors of depressive symptoms around old age retirement in Swedish women and men2019In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 558-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To estimate trajectories of depression around old age retirement in Swedish women and men and examine if socio-economic status predicted the trajectoriesMethods: The analytic sample comprised 907 women and 806 men from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. B-spline smoothers and group-based trajectory modelling were used to identify groups of individuals with similar trajectories of depressive symptoms around retirement. Multinomial regression analyses were conducted to investigate if socio-economic factors were associated with odds of belonging to trajectory groups with higher depression scores.Results: Four depressive symptoms trajectories were identified in both genders, all showing similar symptom levels across the retirement transition. Low levels of depressive symptoms were observed in the three largest groups. In the last trajectory group among women (2.5%) depression scores were moderate to severe and among men (3.3%) depression scores were persistent moderate. Higher educational level and lower subjectively rated social status were associated with higher odds of belonging to trajectory groups with higher levels of depressive symptoms in both genders. Conclusion: Retirement transition was not associated with symptoms of depression. Higher educational level and lower subjective social status may predict higher depressive symptom levels the years around old age retirement.

  • 14.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Johansson, Gunn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Does job promotion affect men's and women's health differently? Dynamic panel models with fixed effects2017In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 1137-1146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Higher occupational status has consistently been shown to be associated with better health, but few studies have to date examined if an upward change in occupational status is associated with a positive change in health. Furthermore, very little is known about whether this association differs by sex. Methods: Data were derived from four waves (2008-14) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a follow-up study of a nationally representative sample of the Swedish working population. The present study comprises 1410 men and 1926 women. A dynamic panel model with fixed effects was used to analyse the lagged association between job promotion on the one hand and self-rated health (SRH) and symptoms of depression on the other. This method allowed controlling for unobserved time-invariant confounders and determining the direction of causality between the variables. Multigroup comparisons were performed to investigate differences between the sexes. Results: The results showed that job promotion was associated with decreased subsequent SRH and increased symptoms of depression among both men and women. Women reported a larger relative worsening of self-rated health following a job promotion than men and men reported a larger relative worsening of depression symptoms. There was limited evidence that SRH and symptoms of depression were associated with subsequent job promotion. Conclusions: The present study indicates that a job promotion could lead to decreased SRH and increased symptoms of depression in a 2-4-year perspective. Associations appear to differ for women and men.

  • 15.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Does social and professional establishment at age 30 mediate the association between school connectedness and family climate at age 16 and mental health symptoms at age 43?2019In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 246, p. 52-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The aim was to use a theoretical framework developed by Bronfenbrenner in order to investigate if the association between school connectedness and family climate at age 16 and mental health symptoms at age 43 is mediated by social and professional establishment at age 30.

    Methods

    Data were drawn from The Northern Swedish Cohort, a prospective population-based cohort. The present study included 506 women and 577 men who responded to questionnaires at age 16 (in year 1981), age 30 (in 1995) and age 43 (in 2008). Mediation was tested by fitting structural equation models (SEM) and estimating direct effects between proximal processes (school connectedness and family climate) and symptoms of depression and anxiety respectively, and indirect effects via social and professional establishment (professional activity, educational level, and civil status).

    Results

    The standardised estimate for the direct path from school connectedness to depression was -0.147 (p = .000) and the indirect effect mediated by professional activity -0.017 (p = .011) and by civil status -0.020 (p = .002). The standardised direct effect between school connectedness and anxiety was -0.147 (p = .000) and the indirect effect mediated by civil status -0.018 (p = .005). Family climate was not significantly associated with the outcomes or mediators.

    Limitations

    Self-reported data; mental health measures not diagnostic; closed cohort; intelligence, personality and home situation before age 16 not accounted for.

    Conclusions

    Professional and social establishment in early adulthood appear to partially mediate the association between adolescent school connectedness and mental health symptoms in middle-age.

  • 16. Romanowska, Julia
    et al.
    Döös, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karlsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Osika, Walter
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Vi kan vända trenden med ökad psykisk ohälsa2015In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 22 aprilArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Alternativa, innovativa metoder för ledarskapsutveckling kan vara väl så bra som traditionella chefskurser, som kan verka kontraproduktivt. Det visar en studie i en ny avhandling, skriver sju forskare om chefernas ansvar för den ökande psykiska ohälsan.

  • 17. Romanowska, Julia
    et al.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Developing Leadership and Employee Health Through the Arts: Improving Leader-Employee Relationships2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines the problems that a “laissez faire” attitude from managers can create in the workplace, as well as the ensuing illness such problems may cause among employees. The book offers new ideas for dealing with these problems and proposes the use of cultural experiences as an active component in leadership development programmes for managers. It presents the findings from a randomized trial to show how cultural experiences can be deployed, and what the effect on employees is. The book discusses health-promoting leadership and key components in cultural activities for the benefit of workplaces from several points of view, offering a historical, social, psychological, biological, educational and organizational perspective. Finally, it presents new theories on empathy in managers, and on employee effects of good/bad changes in manager behaviour.

  • 18.
    Theorell, Töres
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Romanowska, Julia
    Om ledarskap och de anställdas hälsa2013In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 90, no 6, p. 780-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Författarna diskuterar med utgångspunkt från sin egen forskning på vilket sätt ledaren på en arbetsplats kan påverka de anställdas hälsa och vilka faktorer som enligt forskningen tycks har störst betydelse. Passiva och auktoritära ledarstilar visar sig i epidemiologiska studier ha samband med dålig psykisk hälsa hos de anställda, särskilt upplevelse av mobbning, depressiva symptom, känslomässig utmattning och ökad sjukskrivning. I en prospektiv studie har man även visat samband mellan vad den anställde upplever som gott ledarskap (bedömt med en standardiserad skala) och minskad hjärtinfarktrisk hos de anställda under en uppföljningstid. I ett par kontrollerade interventionsstudier har det visat sig möjligt att påverka chefsbeteende så att hälsoeffekter för de anställda kan påvisas. Det är dock viktigt att utveckla den typ av interventioner som används. Om man vill öka känsla av ansvar och engagemang (med minskad låt-gå-mentalitet, ”laissez-faire”) hos chefen i relation till de anställda räcker förmodligen inte de pedagogiska metoder som för närvarande används i chefsutvecklingsprogram. Vi föreslår att man utnyttjar den emotionella och etiska potential att öka engagemang som finns i konstnärliga upplevelser.

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