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  • 1. Balvanera, Patricia
    et al.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gardner, Toby A.
    Martin-Lopez, Berta
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Speranza, Chinwe Ifejika
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Farfan, Michelle
    Hamann, Maike
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Kittinger, John N.
    Luthe, Tobias
    Maass, Manuel
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Perez-Verdin, Gustavo
    Key features for more successful place-based sustainability research on social-ecological systems: a Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS) perspective2017Ingår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, nr 1, artikel-id 14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging discipline of sustainability science is focused explicitly on the dynamic interactions between nature and society and is committed to research that spans multiple scales and can support transitions toward greater sustainability. Because a growing body of place-based social-ecological sustainability research (PBSESR) has emerged in recent decades, there is a growing need to understand better how to maximize the effectiveness of this work. The Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS) provides a unique opportunity for synthesizing insights gained from this research community on key features that may contribute to the relative success of PBSESR. We surveyed the leaders of PECS-affiliated projects using a combination of open, closed, and semistructured questions to identify which features of a research project are perceived to contribute to successful research design and implementation. We assessed six types of research features: problem orientation, research team, and contextual, conceptual, methodological, and evaluative features. We examined the desirable and undesirable aspects of each feature, the enabling factors and obstacles associated with project implementation, and asked respondents to assess the performance of their own projects in relation to these features. Responses were obtained from 25 projects working in 42 social-ecological study cases within 25 countries. Factors that contribute to the overall success of PBSESR included: explicitly addressing integrated social-ecological systems; a focus on solutionand transformation-oriented research; adaptation of studies to their local context; trusted, long-term, and frequent engagement with stakeholders and partners; and an early definition of the purpose and scope of research. Factors that hindered the success of PBSESR included: the complexities inherent to social-ecological systems, the imposition of particular epistemologies and methods on the wider research group, the need for long periods of time to initiate and conduct this kind of research, and power asymmetries both within the research team and among stakeholders. In the self-assessment exercise, performance relating to team and context-related features was ranked higher than performance relating to methodological, evaluation, and problem orientation features. We discuss how these insights are relevant for balancing place-based and global perspectives in sustainability science, fostering more rapid progress toward inter-and transdisciplinary integration, redefining and measuring the success of PBSESR, and facing the challenges of academic and research funding institutions. These results highlight the valuable opportunity that the PECS community provides in helping build a community of practice for PBSESR.

  • 2. Bennett, Elena M.
    et al.
    Solan, Martin
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, Australia.
    McPhearson, Timon
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Pereira, Laura
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara
    Biermann, Frank
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Ellis, Erle C.
    Hichert, Tanja
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lahsen, Myanna
    Milkoreit, Manjana
    López, Berta Martin
    Nicholas, Kimberly A.
    Preiser, Rika
    Vince, Gaia
    Vervoort, Joost M.
    Xu, Jianchu
    Bright spots: seeds of a good Anthropocene2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 14, nr 8, s. 441-448Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The scale, rate, and intensity of humans' environmental impact has engendered broad discussion about how to find plausible pathways of development that hold the most promise for fostering a better future in the Anthropocene. However, the dominance of dystopian visions of irreversible environmental degradation and societal collapse, along with overly optimistic utopias and business-as-usual scenarios that lack insight and innovation, frustrate progress. Here, we present a novel approach to thinking about the future that builds on experiences drawn from a diversity of practices, worldviews, values, and regions that could accelerate the adoption of pathways to transformative change (change that goes beyond incremental improvements). Using an analysis of 100 initiatives, or seeds of a good Anthropocene, we find that emphasizing hopeful elements of existing practice offers the opportunity to: (1) understand the values and features that constitute a good Anthropocene, (2) determine the processes that lead to the emergence and growth of initiatives that fundamentally change human-environmental relationships, and (3) generate creative, bottom-up scenarios that feature well-articulated pathways toward a more positive future.

  • 3.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Regime Shifts2011Ingår i: Sourcebook in Theoretical Ecology / [ed] A Hastings, L Gross, University of California Press, 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4. Carpenter, Stephen R.
    et al.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Agarwal, Bina
    Balvanera, Patricia
    Campbell, Bruce
    Carlos Castilla, Juan
    Cramer, Wolfgang
    DeFries, Ruth
    Eyzaguirre, Pablo
    Hughes, Terry P.
    Polasky, Stephen
    Sanusi, Zainal
    Scholes, Robert
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Program on ecosystem change and society: an international research strategy for integrated social-ecological systems2012Ingår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 134-138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Program on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS), a new initiative within the ICSU global change programs, aims to integrate research on the stewardship of social-ecological systems, the services they generate, and the relationships among natural capital, human wellbeing, livelihoods, inequality and poverty. The vision of PECS is a world where human actions have transformed to achieve sustainable stewardship of social-ecological systems. The goal of PECS is to generate the scientific and policy-relevant knowledge of social-ecological dynamics needed to enable such a shift, including mitigation of poverty. PECS is a coordinating body for diverse independently funded research projects, not a funder of research. PECS research employs a range of transdisciplinary approaches and methods, with comparative, place-based research that is international in scope at the core.

  • 5.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, UK.
    Swartz, Wilf
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Masked, diluted and drowned out: how global seafood trade weakens signals from marine ecosystems2016Ingår i: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 1175-1182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nearly 40% of seafood is traded internationally and an even bigger proportion is affected by international trade, yet scholarship on marine fisheries has focused on global trends in stocks and catches, or on dynamics of individual fisheries, with limited attention to the link between individual fisheries, global trade and distant consumers. This paper examines the usefulness of fish price as a feedback signal to consumers about the state of fisheries and marine ecosystems. We suggest that the current nature of fisheries systems and global markets prevent transmission of such price signals from source fisheries to consumers. We propose several mechanisms that combine to weaken price signals, and present one example - the North Sea cod - to show how these mechanisms can be tested. The lack of a reliable price feedback to consumers represents a challenge for sustainable fisheries governance. We therefore propose three complimentary approaches to address the missing feedback: (i) strengthening information flow through improved traceability and visibility of individual fishers to consumers, (ii) capitalizing on the changing seafood trade structures and (iii) bypassing and complementing market mechanisms by directly targeting citizens and political actors regarding marine environmental issues through publicity and information campaigns. These strategies each havelimitations and thus need to be pursued together to address the challenge of sustainability in global marine fisheries.

  • 6.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cornell, Sarah
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Öhman, Marcus C.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hermansson Török, Ellika
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Global sustainability & human prosperity: contribution to the Post-2015 agenda and the development of Sustainable Development Goals2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7. Fischer, Joern
    et al.
    Gardner, Toby A.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Balvanera, Patricia
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Carpenter, Stephen
    Daw, Tim
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Hill, Rosemary
    Hughes, Terry P.
    Luthe, Tobias
    Maass, Manuel
    Meacham, Megan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Seppelt, Ralf
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Tenhunen, John
    Advancing sustainability through mainstreaming a social–ecological systems perspective2015Ingår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 14, s. 144-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of social-ecological systems is useful for understanding the interlinked dynamics of environmental and societal change. The concept has helped facilitate: (1) increased recognition of the dependence of humanity on ecosystems; (2) improved collaboration across disciplines, and between science and society; (3) increased methodological pluralism leading to improved systems understanding; and (4) major policy frameworks considering social-ecological interactions. Despite these advances, the potential of a social-ecological systems perspective to improve sustainability outcomes has not been fully realized. Key priorities are to: (1) better understand and govern social-ecological interactions between regions; (2) pay greater attention to long-term drivers; (3) better understand the interactions among power relations, justice, and ecosystem stewardship; and (4) develop a stronger science-society interface.

  • 8.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden,.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-ecological resilience and biosphere-based sustainability science2016Ingår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, nr 3, artikel-id 41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere. The focus is shifting from the environment as externality to the biosphere as precondition for social justice, economic development, and sustainability. In this article, we exemplify the intertwined nature of social-ecological systems and emphasize that they operate within, and as embedded parts of the biosphere and as such coevolve with and depend on it. We regard social-ecological systems as complex adaptive systems and use a social-ecological resilience approach as a lens to address and understand their dynamics. We raise the challenge of stewardship of development in concert with the biosphere for people in diverse contexts and places as critical for long-term sustainability and dignity in human relations. Biosphere stewardship is essential, in the globalized world of interactions with the Earth system, to sustain and enhance our life-supporting environment for human well-being and future human development on Earth, hence, the need to reconnect development to the biosphere foundation and the need for a biosphere-based sustainability science.

  • 9. Graham, Nicholas A. J.
    et al.
    Bellwood, David R.
    Cinner, Joshua E.
    Hughes, Terry P.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Managing resilience to reverse phase shifts in coral reefs2013Ingår i: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 11, nr 10, s. 541-548Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Both coral-dominated and degraded reef ecosystems can be resistant to change. Typically, research and management have focused on maintaining coral dominance and avoiding phase shifts to other species compositions, rather than on weakening the resilience of already degraded reefs to re-establish coral dominance. Reversing degraded coral-reef states will involve reducing local chronic drivers like fishing pressure and poor water quality. Reversals will also require management of key ecological processes - such as those performed by different functional groups of marine herbivores - that both weaken the resilience of the degraded state and strengthen the coral-dominated state. If detrimental human impacts are reduced and key ecological processes are enhanced, pulse disturbances, such as extreme weather events, and ecological variability may provide opportunities for a return to a coral-dominated state. Critically, achieving these outcomes will necessitate a diverse range of integrated approaches to alter human interactions with reef ecosystems.

  • 10. Graham, Nicholas A. J.
    et al.
    Cinner, Joshua E.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Coral reefs as novel ecosystems: embracing new futures2014Ingår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 7, s. 9-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition and functions of many ecosystems are changing, giving rise to the concept of novel ecosystems. Although some coral reefs are becoming non-coral systems, others are becoming novel coral-dominated ecosystems driven principally by differential species responses to climate change and other drivers, but also due to species range shifts at higher latitudes, and in some cases introduced species. Returning many coral reefs to pristine baselines is unrealistic, whereas embracing novel futures enables more pragmatic approaches to maintaining or re-building the dominance of corals. Coral reefs are changing in unprecedented ways, providing the impetus to improve our understanding of reef compositions that may dominate in the future, explore new management approaches, assess changes in ecosystem services, and investigate how human societies can adapt and respond to novel futures.

  • 11.
    Lokrantz, Jerker
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Muhando, Christopher
    Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam.
    Jiddawi, Narriman
    Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam.
    A comparison of functional groups in coral reefs around Zanzibar Island (Tanzania)Manuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Species’ traits determine how biodiversity interacts with ecosystem processes and influence the capacity of ecosystems to respond to and recover from disturbances. Classifying species with regards to their traits, i.e. functional groups, and analyzing their distribution provides a mechanistic approach to investigate the resilience in ecosystems. This study investigates the status of functional groups of coral, fish and sea urchins on reefs on the west coast of Zanzibar Island, Tanzania. The classification of functional groups is based on traits reflecting important community processes or properties which underpin ecosystem resilience. The results show that reefs with high accessibility, i.e. close to shore and open to fisheries, have lower abundance and diversity of functional groups of both coral and fish compared to more remote or protected reefs. More specifically, highly accessible reefs display lower abundances of herbivorous fish (macroalgae browsers in particular), large-bodied fish, structurally complex corals and corals with certain reproduction strategies. Based on these findings we speculate what this means in terms of ecosystem functioning and vulnerability. This study also provides a first “baseline” of functional group distribution and although it represents an already degraded state it may serve as an important comparison when evaluating further degradation and effects of impending management interventions.

  • 12.
    Lokrantz, Jerker
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Cinner, Joshua
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University.
    Assessing potential vulnerability of coral reefs through functional groups of herbivoresManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fishing can have major influences on ecological processes on coral reefs. Overfishing of herbivores is particularly detrimental, generating ecosystem-wide impacts where algae overgrow corals and become the dominant benthic organism. This can result in altered ecosystem functioning and subsequently, loss of important ecosystem services. Knowing when important processes, such as herbivory, are becoming fragile is important because it can provide an opportunity for managers to avoid such undesirable ecosystem changes. This study investigates the impact of artisanal fishing on three important functional groups of herbivores (grazers, scrapers and bioeroders) on five coral-dominated reefs outside Zanzibar, Tanzania. Fishing pressure was assessed through interviews with households and fishermen and compared with ecological data for each of the three focal functional groups. The ecological status of the groups were assessed through analysis of species richness, -abundance, -biomass and demographic structure; variables relating to functional performance and in a wider sense ecosystem resilience. The results showed a negative correlation between fishing pressure and fish biomass, -abundance, and diversity. Moreover, fishing had a negative influence on the demographic structure of functional groups, particularly for bioeroders, manifesting as a skewness towards smaller individuals within species populations. Fishing pressure also correlated positively with sea urchin abundances suggesting a compensatory response within the guild of herbivores, which could explain the low abundances of macro algae on all of the investigated reefs. This study shows that artisanal fishing can have significant impacts on herbivores which may erode the resilience on coral reefs. Moreover, it illustrates how functional groups may help to expose potential vulnerability of coral reefs by mechanistically linking the diversity and identity of species to ecosystem processes.

  • 13.
    Lokrantz, Jerker
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cinner, Joshua E.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University.
    Impacts of artisanal fishing on key functional groups and the potential vulnerability of coral reefs2010Ingår i: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, E-ISSN 1469-4387, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 327-337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fishing can have major impacts on the structure of coral reef ecosystems. Overfishing of herbivores is particularly detrimental, as it makes the coral system more likely to undergo shifts to macroalgal dominance in the event of coral mass mortality. Knowing when important processes, such as herbivory, are becoming brittle is important because it can provide an opportunity for managers to avoid undesirable ecosystem-level changes. This study investigates the impact of artisanal fishing on three important functional groups of herbivores (grazers, scrapers and excavators) on five coral-dominated reefs outside Zanzibar (Tanzania). There was a negative correlation between fishing pressure and fish biomass, abundance, diversity and species richness. Moreover, fishing had a negative influence on the demographic structure of functional groups, particularly excavators, manifesting itself as a skewness towards smaller individuals within populations. Artisanal fishing can have significant impacts on key functional groups of herbivorous reef fishes which may increase the vulnerability of coral reefs to undesirable ecosystem shifts.

  • 14.
    Meacham, Megan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-ecological drivers of multiple ecosystem services: what variables explain patterns of ecosystem services across the Norrstrom drainage basin?2016Ingår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, nr 1, artikel-id 14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In human dominated landscapes many diverse, and often antagonistic, human activities are intentionally and inadvertently determining the supply of various ecosystem services. Understanding how different social and ecological factors shape the availability of ecosystem services is essential for fair and effective policy and management. In this paper, we evaluate how well alternative social-ecological models of human impact on ecosystems explain patterns of 16 ecosystem services (ES) across the 62 municipalities of the Norrstrom drainage basin in Sweden. We test four models of human impact on ecosystems, land use, ecological modernization, ecological footprint, and location theory, and test their ability to predict both individual ES and bundles of ES. We find that different models do best to predict different types of individual ES. Land use is the best model for predicting provisioning services, standing water quality, biodiversity appreciation, and cross-country skiing, while other models work better for the remaining services. However, this range of models is not able to predict some of the cultural ES. ES bundles are predicted worse than individual ES by these models, but provide a clear picture of variation in multiple ecosystem services based on limited information. Based on our results, we offer suggestions on how social-ecological modeling and assessments of ecosystems can be further developed.

  • 15. Moore, Michele-Lee
    et al.
    Tjornbo, Ola
    Enfors, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Knapp, Corrie
    Hodbod, Jennifer
    Baggio, Jacopo A.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biggs, Duan
    Studying the complexity of change: toward an analytical framework for understanding deliberate social-ecological transformations2014Ingår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 54-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES) that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.

  • 16.
    Norstrom, Albert
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sandstrom, M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Lipid content of Favia fragum larvae: changes during planulation2010Ingår i: Coral reefs (Print), ISSN 0722-4028, E-ISSN 1432-0975, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 793-795Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipid content of planula larvae of the brooding scleractinian coral Favia fragum was analysed through a monthly planulation period. The average lipid content per dry weight of F. fragum planulae was 39%, which is low compared with other scleractinian coral species. Lipid content of planulae was significantly affected by the day of release and decreased during the planulation period.

  • 17.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Upholding the coral loop: Resilience, alternative stable states and feedbacks in coral reefs2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Coral reefs are suffering unprecedented declines in coral cover and species diversity. These changes are often associated with  substantial shifts in community structure to new dominant organisms. Ultimately, these “phase shifts” can be persistent and very difficult to return from. Building insurance against degradation and decreasing the likelihood of reefs undergoing shifts to undesirable states will require sustainable management practices that uphold coral reef resilience. This thesis consists of five papers that contribute new knowledge useful for managing the resilience of coral reefs, and other marine ecosystems. Paper I shows how the morphology of natural substrate (dead coral colonies) can significantly influence coral recruitment patterns. Paper II focuses on larval lipid levels, a key determinant of coral dispersal potential, in a common Caribbean coral (Favia fragum). It shows that i) lipid levels exhibit a significant, non-linear reduction throughout the larval release period of F. fragum and ii) exposure to a common pollutant (copper) could potentially lead to a more rapid lipid consumption in the larvae. Paper III presents a broader analysis of the different undesirable states a coral reef can shift to as a consequence of reef degradation. It concludes that different states are caused by different driving factors and that management must explicitly acknowledge this. Paper IV proposes a suite of resilience indicators that can help managers assess when a coral-dominated reef might be moving towards a shift to an undesirable state. These indicators capture key-processes occuring on different temporal and spatial scales and signal resilience loss early enough for managers to take appropriate measures. Finally, Paper V reviews the feedback loops that reinforce the undesirable states of five important marine ecosystems and suggests certain strategies that can ease the restoration back to healthier conditions. Managing these critical feedbacks will recquire monitoring the processes underpinning these feedbacks, breaking already established feedbacks loops through large-scale management trials and acknowledging transdisciplinary solutions that move management beyond the discipline of ecology

  • 18.
    Norström, Albert
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Lokrantz, Jerker
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Yap, HT
    Influence of dead coral substrate morphology on patterns of juvenile coral distribution2007Ingår i: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 150, nr 6, s. 1145-1152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the abundances of three morphological categories of juvenile corals (massive, branching and encrusting) on two different types of natural substratum, dead massive and dead branching corals. The overall results show that the morphological characteristics of dead coral substratum have a significant influence on the coral recruitment patterns with respect to the morphology of the recruits: juvenile corals of massive and branching types were more abundant on substrates of corresponding morphology. The results obtained from this study suggest that dead coral might attract coral larvae that are morphologically similar. On the other hand, it may be the result of post-settlement mortality. Whatever the mechanism shaping the patterns is, it seems that the physical morphology of the dead coral substrate has a significant influence on the coral recruit assemblage. Hence, we suggest that substrate morphology can be an important qualitative factor for coral settlement and a possible determinant of community structure.

  • 19.
    Norström, Albert V.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Balvanera, Patricia
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Bouamrane, Meriem
    Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society: Knowledge for sustainable stewardship of social-ecological systems2017Ingår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, nr 1, artikel-id 47Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Norström, Albert V.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dannenberg, Astrid
    McCarney, Geoff
    Milkoreit, Manjana
    Diekert, Florian
    Engström, Gustav
    Fishman, Ram
    Gars, Johan
    Kyriakopoolou, Efthymia
    Manoussi, Vassiliki
    Meng, Kyle
    Metian, Marc
    Sanctuary, Mark
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schoon, Michael
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sjöstedt, Martin
    Three necessary conditions for establishing effective Sustainable Development Goals in the Anthropocene2014Ingår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 8-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the United Nations-guided process to establish Sustainable Development Goals is to galvanize governments and civil society to rise to the interlinked environmental, societal, and economic challenges we face in the Anthropocene. We argue that the process of setting Sustainable Development Goals should take three key aspects into consideration. First, it should embrace an integrated social-ecological system perspective and acknowledge the key dynamics that such systems entail, including the role of ecosystems in sustaining human wellbeing, multiple cross-scale interactions, and uncertain thresholds. Second, the process needs to address trade-offs between the ambition of goals and the feasibility in reaching them, recognizing biophysical, social, and political constraints. Third, the goal-setting exercise and the management of goal implementation need to be guided by existing knowledge about the principles, dynamics, and constraints of social change processes at all scales, from the individual to the global. Combining these three aspects will increase the chances of establishing and achieving effective Sustainable Development Goals.

  • 21.
    Norström, Albert V.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Graham, Nicholas A. J.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Williams, Gareth J.
    Guiding coral reef futures in the Anthropocene2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 14, nr 9, s. 490-498Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic changes to the Earth now rival those caused by the forces of nature and have shepherded us into a new planetary epoch - the Anthropocene. Such changes include profound and often unexpected alterations to coral reef ecosystems and the services they provide to human societies. Ensuring that reefs and their services endure during the Anthropocene will require that key drivers of coral reef change fishing, water quality, and anthropogenic climate change - stay within acceptable levels or safe operating spaces. The capacity to remain within these safe boundaries hinges on understanding the local, but also the increasingly global and cross-scale, socioeconomic causes of these human drivers of change. Consequently, local and regional management efforts that are successful in the short term may ultimately fail if current decision making and institution-building around coral reef systems remains fragmented, poorly coordinated, and unable to keep pace with the escalating speed of social, technological, and ecological change.

  • 22.
    Norström, Albert V.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lokrantz, Jerker
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Alternative states on coral reefs: beyond coral-macroalgal phase shifts2009Ingår i: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 376, s. 295-306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of coral reefs is often associated with changes in community structure where macroalgae become the dominant benthic life form. These phase shifts can be difficult to reverse. The debate on coral reef phase shifts has not focused on reports of coral reefs becoming dominated by other life forms following disturbance. A review of the primary and grey literature indicates that reefs dominated by corallimorpharia, soft corals, sponges and sea urchins can enter an alternative state as a result of a phase shift. Shifts can be triggered by pulse disturbances that cause large-scale coral mortality, and may become stable as a result of positive feedback mechanisms. However, they may differ from the archetypical coral-macroalgae shift, depending on the factors driving the shift; whereas coral-macroalgae and coral-urchin shifts seem to be driven by loss of top-down control through overfishing, shifts to corallimorpharian, soft coral and sponge dominance seem more associated with changes in bottom-tip dynamics. Understanding the differences and similarities in mechanisms that cause and maintain this variety of alternative states will aid management aimed at preventing and reversing phase shifts of coral reefs.

  • 23.
    Nyström, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Graham, N. A. J.
    Lokrantz, Jerker
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Capturing the cornerstones of coral reef resilience: linking theory to practice2008Ingår i: Coral reefs (Print), ISSN 0722-4028, E-ISSN 1432-0975, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 795-809Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coral reefs can undergo unexpected and dramatic changes in community composition, so called phase shifts. This can have profound consequences for ecosystem services upon which human welfare depends. Understanding of this behavior is in many aspects still in its infancy. Resilience has been argued to provide insurance against unforeseen ecosystem responses in the face of environmental change, and has become a prime goal for the management of coral reefs. However, diverse definitions of resilience can be found in the literature, making its meaning ambiguous. Several studies have used the term as a theoretical framework and concern regarding its practical applicability has been raised. Consequently, operationalizing theory to make resilience observable is an important task, particularly for policy makers and managers dealing with pressing environmental problems. Ultimately this requires some type of empirical assessments, something that has proven difficult due to the multidimensional nature of the concept. Biodiversity, spatial heterogeneity, and connectivity have been proposed as cornerstones of resilience as they may provide insurance against ecological uncertainty. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the divergent uses of the concept and to propose empirical indicators of the cornerstones of coral reef resilience. These indicators include functional group approaches, the ratios of "good" and "bad" colonizers of space, measurements of spatial heterogeneity, and estimates of potential space availability against grazing capacity. The essence of these operational indicators of resilience is to use them as predictive tools to recognize vulnerability before disturbance occurs that may lead to abrupt phase shifts. Moving toward operationalizing resilience theory is imperative to the successful management of coral reefs in an increasingly disturbed and human-dominated environment.

  • 24.
    Nyström, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Bleckner, Thorsten
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    de la Torre Castro, Maricela
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Eklöf, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Steneck, Robert
    School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Troell, Max
    The Beijer Institute, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Steering feedbacks toward healthier marine ecosystemsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine ecosystem decline is accelerating. At some point degradation may pass a tipping point beyond which ecosystems become trapped in alternative degraded states, as a result of changes in critical feedbacks. Self-reinforcing feedbacks pose a major challenge for managers and policy-makers seeking remedial actions to curb the marine crisis. Here we synthesize the dynamics of critical feedbacks of the degraded states in five socio-economically important marine ecosystems; coral reefs, kelp forests, seagrass beds, shallow unvegetated soft-bottom habitats, and coastal pelagic food webs. A better understanding of the way human actions influence the strength and direction of feedbacks, how different feedbacks interact and at what scales they operate, is crucial for successful implementation of marine ecosystem management. We advocate a critical-feedback management approach that ventures beyond traditionally discipline boundaries, as an essential element of marine ecosystem management.

  • 25.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Meacham, Megan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Richter, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mapping bundles of ecosystem services reveals distinct types of multifunctionality within a Swedish landscape2015Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, s. s89-S101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem services (ES) is a valuable concept to be used in the planning and management of social-ecological landscapes. However, the understanding of the determinant factors affecting the interaction between services in the form of synergies or trade-offs is still limited. We assessed the production of 16 ES across 62 municipalities in the Norrstrom drainage basin in Sweden. We combined GIS data with publically available information for quantifying and mapping the distribution of services. Additionally, we calculated the diversity of ES for each municipality and used correlations and k-means clustering analyses to assess the existence of ES bundles. We found five distinct types of bundles of ES spatially agglomerated in the landscape that could be explained by regional social and ecological gradients. Human-dominated landscapes were highly multifunctional in our study area and urban densely populated areas were hotspots of cultural services.

  • 26. Sandström, Miriam
    et al.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Lipid contents of Favia fragum larvae: changes during planulation period and effects of copper exposureArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipid contents of the planulae larvae of the brooding scleractinian coral Favia fragum were analysed throughout a monthly planulation period. Lipid levels exhibited a significant non-linear decrease during the planulation period, with a significant drop occurring between the 5th and 6th planulation day. The mean lipid content of F. fragum planulae released during the first 5 days of the planulation period was 47% by dry weight, compared to 34% during the final 4 days. Larval lipid content was also used to investigate the physiological response of F. fragum larvae to sub-lethal copper exposure (20 μg l-1) for 4 days. Copper exposure resulted in a faster rate of lipid consumption (6% day-1) compared to control treatments (1.3% day-1).

  • 27.
    Sellberg, My M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara T.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Improving participatory resilience assessment by cross-fertilizing the Resilience Alliance and Transition Movement approaches2017Ingår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, nr 1, artikel-id 28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of resilience is currently being widely promoted and applied by environmental and development organizations. However, their application of resilience often lacks theoretical backing and evaluation. This paper presents a novel cross-fertilization of two commonly used approaches for applying resilience thinking: the grassroots movement of Transition Towns and the Resilience Alliance's Resilience Assessment. We compared these approaches through a text analysis of their key handbooks and combined them in a series of participatory workshops with a local partner active in the Transition Movement. Our results demonstrate that despite sharing a number of key features, these two approaches have complementary strengths and weaknesses. Strengths of the Transition Movement include its motivating overarching narrative of the need to transform in response to global sustainability challenges, as well as practical tools promoting learning and participation. The Resilience Assessment's conceptual framework and structured process generated context-specific understanding of resilience, but provided little guidance on navigating transformation processes. Combining the Resilience Assessment's theory on complex systems with the Transition Movement's methods for learning also generated synergies in fostering complexity thinking. Based on these findings, we believe that integrating strengths from both approaches could be widely useful for practitioners seeking to apply resilience for sustainable development. Our study also highlights that methods for assessing resilience can be improved by combining insights from science and practice.

  • 28.
    Sellberg, My M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ryan, P.
    Borgstrom, S. T.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Gary D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    From resilience thinking to Resilience Planning: Lessons from practice2018Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 217, s. 906-918Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience thinking has frequently been proposed as an alternative to conventional natural resource management, but there are few studies of its applications in real-world settings. To address this gap, we synthesized experiences from practitioners that have applied a resilience thinking approach to strategic planning, called Resilience Planning, in regional natural resource management organizations in Australia. This case represents one of the most extensive and long-term applications of resilience thinking in the world today. We conducted semi-structured interviews with Resilience Planning practitioners from nine organizations and reviewed strategic planning documents to investigate: 1) the key contributions of the approach to their existing strategic planning, and 2) what enabled and hindered the practitioners in applying and embedding the new approach in their organizations. Our results reveal that Resilience Planning contributed to developing a social-ecological systems perspective, more adaptive and collaborative approaches to planning, and that it clarified management goals of desirable resource conditions. Applying Resilience Planning required translating resilience thinking to practice in each unique circumstance, while simultaneously creating support among staff, and engaging external actors. Embedding Resilience Planning within organizations implied starting and maintaining longer-term change processes that required sustained multi-level organizational support. We conclude by identifying four lessons for successfully applying and embedding resilience practice in an organization: 1) to connect internal entrepreneurs to interpreters and networkers who work across organizations, 2) to assess the opportunity context for resilience practice, 3) to ensure that resilience practice is a learning process that engages internal and external actors, and 4) to develop reflective strategies for managing complexity and uncertainty.

  • 29. Wedding, Lisa M.
    et al.
    Lecky, Joey
    Gove, Jamison M.
    Walecka, Hilary R.
    Donovan, Mary K.
    Williams, Gareth J.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crowder, Larry B.
    Erickson, Ashley
    Falinski, Kim
    Friedlander, Alan M.
    Kappel, Carrie V.
    Kittinger, John N.
    McCoy, Kaylyn
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden .
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden .
    Oleson, Kirsten L. L.
    Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.
    White, Crow
    Selkoe, Kimberly A.
    Advancing the integration of spatial data to map human and natural drivers on coral reefs2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 3, artikel-id e0189792Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge for coral reef conservation and management is understanding how a wide range of interacting human and natural drivers cumulatively impact and shape these ecosystems. Despite the importance of understanding these interactions, a methodological framework to synthesize spatially explicit data of such drivers is lacking. To fill this gap, we established a transferable data synthesis methodology to integrate spatial data on environmental and anthropogenic drivers of coral reefs, and applied this methodology to a case study location-the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). Environmental drivers were derived from time series (2002-2013) of climatological ranges and anomalies of remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a, irradiance, and wave power. Anthropogenic drivers were characterized using empirically derived and modeled datasets of spatial fisheries catch, sedimentation, nutrient input, new development, habitat modification, and invasive species. Within our case study system, resulting driver maps showed high spatial heterogeneity across the MHI, with anthropogenic drivers generally greatest and most widespread on O'ahu, where 70% of the state's population resides, while sedimentation and nutrients were dominant in less populated islands. Together, the spatial integration of environmental and anthropogenic driver data described here provides a first-ever synthetic approach to visualize how the drivers of coral reef state vary in space and demonstrates a methodological framework for implementation of this approach in other regions of the world. By quantifying and synthesizing spatial drivers of change on coral reefs, we provide an avenue for further research to understand how drivers determine reef diversity and resilience, which can ultimately inform policies to protect coral reefs.

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