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  • 1.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olfactory Cognition: The Case of Olfactory Imagery2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity to form olfactory images has received less attention than the formation of visual and auditory images. The evidence in favor of such ability is also inconsistent. This thesis explored some of the characteristics of olfactory imagery through three empirical studies. Study I investigated the effects of blocking spontaneous sniffing during olfactory imagery. The results indicated that the prevention of spontaneous sniffing reduced olfactory but not visual imagery capacity. Study II studied the relation between olfactory awareness (as indexed by olfactory dreams, olfactory imagery, and olfactory interest) and olfactory functions (i.e., odor threshold, episodic odor memory, and odor identification). The main findings were that compared to low, high olfactory awareness was associated with better episodic odor memory and identification, but not with higher olfactory sensitivity. Study III investigated the neural correlates of odor evoked autobiographical memories (OEAMs) as (a) a function of cue modality (i.e., odors and their verbal referents), and (b) a function of memory remoteness. The results from Study III showed that OEAMs activated regions generally associated with autobiographical memory. In addition, verbally cued OEAMs were associated with activity linked to olfactory imagery. Odor cues activated the limbic and temporal polar regions more than verbal cues; a result that may explain the phenomenological differences found between the cued memories. Moreover, OEAMs from the first decade of life were associated with higher activity in the secondary olfactory cortex, whereas memories from young adulthood were related to areas linked to semantic memory processing. Taken together these studies favor the notion of a human capacity to form olfactory images. 

  • 2.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Iannilli, Emilia
    Gerber, Johannes C.
    Willander, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Persson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Seo, Han-Seok
    Hummel, Thomas
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The functional neuroanatomy of odor evoked autobiographical memories cued by odors and words2013In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral evidence indicates that odor evoked autobiographical memories (OEAMs) are older, more emotional, less thought of and induce stronger time traveling characteristics than autobiographical memories (AMs) evoked by other modalities. The main aim of this study was to explore the neural correlates of AMs evoked by odors as a function of retrieval cue. Participants were screened for specific OEAMs and later presented with the odor cue and its verbal referent in an fMRI paradigm. Because the same OEAM was retrieved across both cue formats (odor and word), potential cue dependent brain activations were investigated. The overall results showed that odor and word cued OEAMs activated regions typically associated with recollection of autobiographical information. Although no odors were presented, a verbal cuing of the OEAMs activated areas associated with olfactory perception (e.g., piriform cortex). However, relative to word cuing, an odor cuing of OEAMs resulted in more activity in MTL regions such as the parahippocampus, and areas involved in visual vividness (e.g., occipital gyrus and precuneus). Furthermore, odor cues activated areas related to emotional processing, such as limbic and tempopolar regions significantly more. In contrast, word cues relative to odor cues recruited a more widespread and bilateral prefrontal activity. Hippocampus activity did not vary as function of the remoteness of the memory, but recollection of OEAMs from the 1st vs the 2nd decade of life showed specific activation in the right OFC, whereas the 2nd reflected a higher activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

  • 3.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, The Netherlands; Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Iravani, Behzad
    Majid, Asifa
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Respiration Modulates Olfactory Memory Consolidation in Humans2018In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 38, no 48, p. 10286-10294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In mammals respiratory-locked hippocampal rhythms are implicated in the scaffolding and transfer of information between sensory and memory networks. These oscillations are entrained by nasal respiration and driven by the olfactory bulb. They then travel to the piriform cortex where they propagate further downstream to the hippocampus and modulate neural processes critical for memory formation. In humans, bypassing nasal airflow through mouth-breathing abolishes these rhythms and impacts encoding as well as recognition processes thereby reducing memory performance. It has been hypothesized that similar behavior should be observed for the consolidation process, the stage between encoding and recognition, were memory is reactivated and strengthened. However, direct evidence for such an effect is lacking in human and nonhuman animals. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of respiration on consolidation of episodic odor memory. In two separate sessions, female and male participants encoded odors followed by a 1 h awake resting consolidation phase where they either breathed solely through their nose or mouth. Immediately after the consolidation phase, memory for odors was tested. Recognition memory significantly increased during nasal respiration compared with mouth respiration during consolidation. These results provide the first evidence that respiration directly impacts consolidation of episodic events, and lends further support to the notion that core cognitive functions are modulated by the respiratory cycle.

  • 4.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Same same but different: the case of olfactory imagery2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, p. UNSP 34-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work we present an overview of experimental findings corroborating olfactory imagery observations with the visual and auditory modalities. Overall, the results indicate that imagery of olfactory information share many features with those observed in the primary senses although some major differences are evident. One such difference pertains to the considerable individual differences observed, with the majority being unable to reproduce olfactory information in their mind. Here, we highlight factors that are positively related to an olfactory imagery capacity, such as semantic knowledge, perceptual experience, and olfactory interest that may serve as potential moderators of the large individual variation.

  • 5.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Laska, Matthias
    Gordon, Amy R.
    Norberg, Matilda
    Lahger, Christian
    Porada, Danja K.
    Jelvez Serra, Nadia
    Johansson, Emilia
    Schaefer, Martin
    Amundin, Mats
    Melin, Harald
    Olsson, Andreas
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Stensmyr, Marcus
    Lundström, Johan N.
    A mammalian blood odor component serves as an approach-avoidance cue across phylum border - from flies to humans2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 13635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemosignals are used by predators to localize prey and by prey to avoid predators. These cues vary between species, but the odor of blood seems to be an exception and suggests the presence of an evolutionarily conserved chemosensory cue within the blood odor mixture. A blood odor component, E2D, has been shown to trigger approach responses identical to those triggered by the full blood odor in mammalian carnivores and as such, is a key candidate as a food/alarm cue in blood. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we demonstrate that E2D holds the dual function of affecting both approach and avoidance behavior in a predator-prey predicted manner. E2D evokes approach responses in two taxonomically distant blood-seeking predators, Stable fly and Wolf, while evoking avoidance responses in the prey species Mouse. We extend this by demonstrating that this chemical cue is preserved in humans as well; E2D induces postural avoidance, increases physiological arousal, and enhances visual perception of affective stimuli. This is the first demonstration of a single chemical cue with the dual function of guiding both approach and avoidance in a predator-prey predicted manner across taxonomically distant species, as well as the first known chemosignal that affects both human and non-human animals alike.

  • 6.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sniff Your Way to Clarity: The Case of Olfactory Imagery2008In: CHEMOSENSORY PERCEPTION, ISSN 1936-5802, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 242-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed the effects of blocking spontaneous sniffing during olfactory imagery. A group of subjects (n=40) who scored high in olfactory focus and imagery ability rated the vividness in olfactory and visual imagery content under conditions of blocked sniffing, blocked vision, and a nonblocked control. The imagery stimuli consisted of 90 common words that could represent either an odor or a visual object. Blocked sniffing was expected to impair olfactory imagery vividness, but since visual imagery entails eye movements, which was not affected by the ""blocked vision"" manipulation, visual imagery ratings were effectively used as a placebo control. Confirming our hypotheses, the results showed that preventing sniffing resulted in a selectively poorer olfactory but not visual vividness, whereas blocked vision showed no effect on either the visual or olfactory vividness ratings. These observations confirm that sensorimotor activity is an important aspect for the quality of evoked olfactory images.

  • 7.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Willander, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olfactory awareness is positively associated to odour memory2011In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 220-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the relationship between olfactory awareness and olfactory proficiency as determined by a set of standardised olfactory tasks. Olfactory awareness was indexed by scores in questionnaires focusing on odour interest, imagery ability, and prevalence of olfactory dreams. Nineteen subjects with high and 20 subjects with low odour awareness were presented with a set of standardised olfactory tasks: odour threshold, episodic odour recognition, and odour identification. The results showed that individuals with high odour awareness excelled in odour memory and identified more odours as compared with the low awareness group. Interestingly, odour naming ability exerted no influence on odour memory. Furthermore, high odour awareness was not related to a more sensitive olfactory sensory system as determined by olfactory threshold measurements.

  • 8.
    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Radboud University, Netherlands.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    From Perception to Metacognition: Auditory and Olfactory Functions in Early Blind, Late Blind, and Sighted Individuals2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15), late blind (n = 15), and sighted (n = 30) participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity.

  • 9.
    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Radboud University, Netherlands.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    The Effect of Blindness on Long-Term Episodic Memory for Odors and Sounds2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We recently showed that compared with sighted, early blind individuals have better episodic memory for environmental sounds, but not odors, after a short retention interval (similar to 8 - 9 min). Few studies have investigated potential effects of blindness on memory across long time frames, such as months or years. Consequently, it was unclear whether compensatory effects may vary as a function of retention interval. In this study, we followed-up participants (N = 57 out of 60) approximately 1 year after the initial testing and retested episodic recognition for environmental sounds and odors, and identification ability. In contrast to our previous findings, the early blind participants (n = 14) performed at a similar level as the late blind (n = 13) and sighted (n = 30) participants for sound recognition. Moreover, the groups had similar recognition performance of odors and identification ability of odors and sounds. These findings suggest that episodic odor memory is unaffected by blindness after both short and long retention intervals. However, the effect of blindness on episodic memory for sounds may vary as a function of retention interval, such that early blind individuals have an advantage over sighted across short but not long time frames. We speculate that the finding of a differential effect of blindness on auditory episodic memory across retention intervals may be related to different memory strategies at initial and follow-up assessments. In conclusion, this study suggests that blindness does not influence auditory or olfactory episodic memory as assessed after a long retention interval.

  • 10.
    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Willander, Johan
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The reminiscence bump is blind to blindness: Evidence from sound- and odor-evoked autobiographical memory2020In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 78, article id 102876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reminiscence bump is the disproportionally high reporting of autobiographical memories from adolescence and early adulthood and is typically observed when memories are evoked by cues, such as words, pictures, and sounds. However, when odors are used the bump shifts to early childhood. Although these findings indicate that sensory modality affects the bump, the influence of the individual's sensory function on the reminiscence bumps is unknown. We examined the reminiscence bumps of sound- and odor-evoked autobiographical memories of early blind and sighted individuals, since early blindness implies considerable effects on sensory experience. Despite differences in sensory experience between blind and sighted individuals, the groups displayed similar age distributions of both sound- and odor-evoked memories. The auditory bump spanned the first two decades of life, whereas the olfactory bump was once again found in early childhood. These results demonstrate that the reminiscence bumps are robust to fundamental differences in sensory experience.

  • 11. Croijmans, Ilja
    et al.
    Speed, Laura J.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Radboud University, The Netherlands; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Majid, Asifa
    Measuring Multisensory Imagery of Wine: the Vividness of Wine Imagery Questionnaire2019In: Multisensory Research, ISSN 2213-4794, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 179-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When we imagine objects or events, we often engage in multisensory mental imagery. Yet, investigations of mental imagery have typically focused on only one sensory modality - vision. One reason for this is that the most common tool for the measurement of imagery, the questionnaire, has been restricted to unimodal ratings of the object. We present a new mental imagery questionnaire that measures multisensory imagery. Specifically, the newly developed Vividness of Wine Imagery Questionnaire (VWIQ) measures mental imagery of wine in the visual, olfactory, and gustatory modalities. Wine is an ideal domain to explore multisensory imagery because wine drinking is a multisensory experience, it involves the neglected chemical senses (smell and taste), and provides the opportunity to explore the effect of experience and expertise on imagery (from wine novices to experts). The VWIQ questionnaire showed high internal consistency and reliability, and correlated with other validated measures of imagery. Overall, the VWIQ may serve as a useful tool to explore mental imagery for researchers, as well as individuals in the wine industry during sommelier training and evaluation of wine professionals.

  • 12. Flohr, E. L. R.
    et al.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Wieser, M. J.
    Hummel, C.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Muehlberger, A.
    Hummel, T.
    THE FATE OF THE INNER NOSE: ODOR IMAGERY IN PATIENTS WITH OLFACTORY LOSS2014In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 268, p. 118-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cerebral activations during olfactory mental imagery are fairly well investigated in healthy participants but little attention has been given to olfactory imagery in patients with olfactory loss. To explore whether olfactory loss leads to deficits in olfactory imagery, neural responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and self-report measures were investigated in 16 participants with acquired olfactory loss and 19 control participants. Participants imagined both pleasant and unpleasant odors and their visual representations. Patients reported less vivid olfactory but not visual images than controls. Results from neuroimaging revealed that activation patterns differed between patients and controls. While the control group showed stronger activation in olfactory brain regions for unpleasant compared to pleasant odors, the patient group did not. Also, activation in critical areas for olfactory imagery was correlated with the duration of olfactory dysfunction, indicating that the longer the duration of dysfunction, the more the attentional resources were employed. This indicates that participants with olfactory loss have difficulties to perform olfactory imagery in the conventional way. Regular exposure to olfactory information may be necessary to maintain an olfactory imagery capacity.

  • 13. Iannilli, Emilia
    et al.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Seo, Han-Seok
    A spatiotemporal comparison between olfactory and trigeminal event-related potentials2013In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 77, p. 254-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study compared the temporal and spatial aspects of human olfactory and trigeminal processing. A relatively selective trigeminal stimulus, CO2, and a relatively selective olfactory stimulus, H2S, were delivered with an olfactometer to young, healthy volunteers. The analysis was performed in a classical (5-electrode, main ERPs peaks) and modern approach (high topographical resolution, inverse solution, source localization). Results of microstate segmentation highlighted 5 maps that generally described the two processes at cerebral level. The trigeminal response differed from the olfactory response up to 300 ms after stimulus onset. In this time range, source analysis pointed out that the olfactory stimulation involved olfactory related areas, while trigeminal stimulation involved noxious/somatosensoiy specific brain areas. Moreover, from 300 ms on our data showed a similarity between the two processes. Statistical parametrical mapping of the differences between conditions suggested greater activation in a specific motor/sniffing network for the CO2 stimulation (probably related to a regulation of the potential noxious stimulus) and a greater activation of the ipsilateral primary olfactory cortex for H2S.

  • 14. Iravani, Behzad
    et al.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ohla, Kathrin
    Wilson, Donald A.
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Non-invasive recording from the human olfactory bulb2020In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures of neural processing can be obtained non-invasively from all areas of the human brain but one, the olfactory bulb. Here, the authors show that signals obtained from EEG electrodes at the nasal bridge represent responses from the human olfactory bulb, the so-called Electrobulbogram. Current non-invasive neuroimaging methods can assess neural activity in all areas of the human brain but the olfactory bulb (OB). The OB has been suggested to fulfill a role comparable to that of V1 and the thalamus in the visual system and have been closely linked to a wide range of olfactory tasks and neuropathologies. Here we present a method for non-invasive recording of signals from the human OB with millisecond precision. We demonstrate that signals obtained via recordings from EEG electrodes at the nasal bridge represent responses from the human olfactory bulb - recordings we term Electrobulbogram (EBG). The EBG will aid future olfactory-related translational work but can also potentially be implemented as an everyday clinical tool to detect pathology-related changes in human central olfactory processing in neurodegenerative diseases. In conclusion, the EBG is localized to the OB, is reliable, and follows response patterns demonstrated in non-human animal models.

  • 15. Knez, Igor
    et al.
    Ljunglöf, Louise
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Willander, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Self-grounding visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories2017In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 52, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that autobiographical memory provides a cognitive foundation for the self, we investigated the relative importance of visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories for the self. Thirty subjects, with a mean age of 35.4 years, participated in a study involving a three x three within-subject design containing nine different types of autobiographical memory cues: pictures, sounds and odors presented with neutral, positive and negative valences. It was shown that visual compared to auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories involved higher cognitive and emotional constituents for the self. Furthermore, there was a trend showing positive autobiographical memories to increase their proportion to both cognitive and emotional components of the self, from olfactory to auditory to visually cued autobiographical memories; but, yielding a reverse trend for negative autobiographical memories. Finally, and independently of modality, positive affective states were shown to be more involved in autobiographical memory than negative ones.

  • 16.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Willander, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olfactory LOVER: behavioral and neural correlates of autobiographical odor memory2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, article id 312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autobiographical memories (AMs) are personally experienced events that may be localized in time and space. In the present work we present an overview targeting memories evoked by the sense of smell. Overall, research indicates that autobiographical odor memory is different than memories evoked by our primary sensory systems; sight, and hearing. Here, observed differences from a behavioral and neuroanatomical perspective are presented. The key features of an olfactory evoked AM may be referred to the LOVER acronym-Limbic, Old, Vivid, Emotional, and Rare.

  • 17. Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando
    et al.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Tirado, Carlos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Ospina, Raydonal
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    The Allocation of Valenced Percepts Onto 3D Space2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the metaphorical mapping of valenced concepts onto space indicates that positive, neutral, and negative concepts are mapped onto upward, midward, and downward locations, respectively. More recently, this type of research has been tested for the very first time in 3D physical space. The findings corroborate the mapping of valenced concepts onto the vertical space as described above but further show that positive and negative concepts are placed close to and away from the body; neutral concepts are placed midway. The current study aimed at investigating whether valenced perceptual stimuli are positioned onto 3D space akin to the way valenced concepts are positioned. By using a unique device known as the cognition cube, participants placed visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory stimuli on 3D space. The results mimicked the placing of valenced concepts onto 3D space; i.e., positive percepts were placed in upward and close-to-the-body locations and negative percepts were placed in downward and away-from-the-body locations; neutral percepts were placed midway. These pattern of results was more pronounced in the case of visual stimuli, followed by auditory, tactile, and olfactory stimuli. Significance Statement Just recently, a unique device called the cognition cube (CC) enabled to find that positive words are mapped onto upward and close-to-the-body locations and negative words are mapped onto downward and away-from-the-body locations; neutral words are placed midway. This way of placing words in relation to the body is consistent with an approach-avoidance effect such that good and bad things are kept close to and away from one's body. We demonstrate for the very first time that this same pattern emerges when visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory perceptual stimuli are placed on 3D physical space. We believe these results are significant in that the CC can be used as a new tool to diagnose emotion-related disorders.

  • 18. Seo, Han-Seok
    et al.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schemmer, Kerstin
    Scheer, Ingeborg
    Sander, Thorsten
    Ritter, Guido
    Hummel, Thomas
    Cross-modal integration between odors and abstract symbols2010In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 478, no 3, p. 175-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate the cross-modal association of an ""abstract symbol,"" designed for representation of an odor, with its corresponding odor. First, to explore the associations of abstract symbols with odors, participants were asked to match 8 odors with 19 different abstract symbols (Experiment 1). Next, we determined whether congruent symbols could modulate olfactory perception and olfactory event-related potentials (ERPs) (Experiment 2). One of two odors (phenylethanol (PEA) or 1-butanol) was presented with one of three conditions (congruent or incongruent symbol, no-symbol), and participants were asked to rate odor intensity and pleasantness during olfactory ERP recordings. Experiment 1 demonstrated that certain abstract symbols could be paired with specific odors. In Experiment 2 congruent symbol enhanced the intensity of PEA compared to no-symbol presentation. In addition, the respective congruent symbol increased the pleasantness of PEA and the unpleasantness of 1-butanol. Finally, compared to the incongruent symbol, the congruent symbol produced significantly higher amplitudes and shorter latencies in the N1 peak of olfactory ERPs. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that abstract symbols may be associated with specific odors.

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