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  • 1.
    Alam, Rauful
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Mihai, Raducan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Szabo, Kalman J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Selective Formation of Adjacent Stereocenters by Allylboration of Ketones under Mild Neutral Conditions2013In: Organic Letters, ISSN 1523-7060, E-ISSN 1523-7052, Vol. 15, no 10, p. 2546-2549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allylboronic acids readily react with a broad variety of ketones, affording homoallylic alcohols with adjacent quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. The reaction proceeds with very high anti stereoselectivity even if the substituents of the keto group have a similar size. a-Keto acids react with syn stereoselectivity probably due to the formation of acyl boronate intermediates. The allylation reactions proceed without added acids/bases under mild conditions. Because of this, many functionalities are tolerated even with in situ generated allylboronic acids.

  • 2.
    Alam, Rauful
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Pilarski, Lukasz T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Pershagen, Elias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Szabo, Kalman J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Stereoselective intermolecular allylic C-H trifluoroacetoxylation of functionalized alkenes2012In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 134, no 21, p. 8778-8781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pd-catalyzed allylic C-H trifluoroacetoxylation of substituted alkenes was performed using PhI(OCOCF3)(2) as the oxidant and acyloxy source. Trifluoroacetoxylation of monosubstituted cyclopentenes and cyclohexenes proceeds with excellent regio- and diastereoselectivity. Studies with one of the possible (eta(3)-allyl)Pd(II) intermediates suggest that the reaction proceeds via stereoselective formation of Pd(IV) intermediates and subsequent stereo- and regioselective reductive elimination of the product.

  • 3.
    Szabo, Attila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Matematikundervisning för begåvade elever – en forskningsöversikt2017In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 21-44Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article offers an overview of those main methodological and pedagogical approaches associated with gifted pupils’ education in mathematics which are focused in the research literature. Furthermore, the article discusses gender differences, motivation and some central aspects of mathematically gifted pupils’ social situation in the classroom. The analysis shows that there are some pedagogical and organizational approaches, e.g. voluntary acceleration where the teaching is adapted to the knowledge and the capacity of the participants or working with challenging mathematical problems in performance-homogenous groups, which may have good effects on gifted pupils’ mathematical achievement. The overview also indicates that mathematically gifted adolescents are facing difficulties in their social interaction and that gifted female and male pupils are experiencing certain aspects of their mathematics education differently.

  • 4.
    Szabo, Attila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Matematiska förmågors interaktion och det matematiska minnets roll vid lösning av matematiska problem2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis deals with the interaction of mathematical abilities and the mathematical memory's role in problem-solving. To examine those phenomena, I analyzed the expression of mathematical abilities for high achieving students from upper secondary school. The study shows that the mathematical memory accounts for a relatively small proportion of time of the problem-solving process and that the mathematical memory emerges mainly during the initial phase of the process. Although the mathematical memory accounts for a small percentage of the time of the problem-solving process, the mathematical memory has a decisive role for the choice of problem-solving methods, because the students choose their solution methods in the initial phase of their problem-solving activity. The study shows that the choice of problem-solving method has significant consequences for the students' problem-solving activity; if the chosen methods did not lead to the desired outcome, so the students found it very difficult to change their initially chosen problem-solving methods. The study also shows that students who use general problem-solving methods perform better than students who use numerical methods.

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  • 5.
    Szabo, Attila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Mathematical abilities and mathematical memory during problem solving and some aspects of mathematics education for gifted pupils2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis reports on two different investigations.

    The first is a systematic review of pedagogical and organizational practices associated with gifted pupils’ education in mathematics, and on the empirical basis for those practices. The review shows that certain practices – for example, enrichment programs and differentiated instructions in heterogeneous classrooms or acceleration programs and ability groupings outside those classrooms – may be beneficial for the development of gifted pupils. Also, motivational characteristics of and gender differences between mathematically gifted pupils are discussed. Around 60% of analysed papers report on empirical studies, while remaining articles are based on literature reviews, theoretical discourses and the authors’ personal experiences – acceleration programs and ability groupings are supported by more empirical data than practices aimed for the heterogeneous classroom. Further, the analyses indicate that successful acceleration programs and ability groupings should fulfil some important criteria; pupils’ participation should be voluntary, the teaching should be adapted to the capacity of participants, introduced tasks should be challenging, by offering more depth and less breadth within a certain topic, and teachers engaged in these practices should be prepared for the characteristics of gifted pupils.

    The second investigation reports on the interaction of mathematical abilities and the role of mathematical memory in the context of non-routine problems. In this respect, six Swedish high-achieving students from upper secondary school were observed individually on two occasions approximately one year apart. For these studies, an analytical framework, based on the mathematical ability defined by Krutetskii (1976), was developed. Concerning the interaction of mathematical abilities, it was found that every problem-solving activity started with an orientation phase, which was followed by a phase of processing mathematical information and every activity ended with a checking phase, when the correctness of obtained results was controlled. Further, mathematical memory was observed in close interaction with the ability to obtain and formalize mathematical information, for relatively small amounts of the total time dedicated to problem solving. Participants selected problem-solving methods at the orientation phase and found it difficult to abandon or modify those methods. In addition, when solving problems one year apart, even when not recalling the previously solved problem, participants approached both problems with methods that were identical at the individual level. The analyses show that participants who applied algebraic methods were more successful than participants who applied particular methods. Thus, by demonstrating that the success of participants’ problem-solving activities is dependent on applied methods, it is suggested that mathematical memory, despite its relatively modest presence, has a pivotal role in participants’ problem-solving activities. Finally, it is indicated that participants who applied particular methods were not able to generalize mathematical relations and operations – a mathematical ability considered an important prerequisite for the development of mathematical memory – at appropriate levels.

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    Mathematical abilities and mathematical memory during problem solving and some aspects of mathematics education for gifted pupils
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  • 6.
    Szabo, Attila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Mathematical memory revisited: mathematical problem solving by high achieving students2017In: Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (CERME10, February 1-5, 2017) / [ed] Thérèse Doole, Ghislaine Gueudet, Dublin: DCU Institute of Education, ERME , 2017, p. 1202-1209Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study deals with the role of the mathematical memory in problem solving. To examine that, two problem-solving activities of high achieving students from secondary school were observed one year apart - the proposed tasks were non-routine for the students, but could be solved with similar methods. The study shows that even if not recalling the previously solved task, the participants’ individual ways of approaching both tasks were identical. Moreover, the study displays that the participants used their mathematical memory mainly at the initial phase and during a small fragment of the problem-solving process, and indicates that students who apply algebraic methods are more successful than those who use numerical approaches.

  • 7.
    Szabo, Attila
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Andrews, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Examining the interaction of mathematical abilities and mathematical memory: A study of problem-solving activity of high-achieving Swedish upper secondary students2017In: The Mathematics Enthusiast, ISSN 1551-3440, Vol. 14, no 1-3, p. 141-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the abilities that six high-achieving Swedish upper secondary students demonstrate when solving challenging, non-routine mathematical problems. Data, which were derived from clinical interviews, were analysed against an adaptation of the framework developed by the Soviet psychologist Vadim Krutetskii (1976). Analyses showed that when solving problems students pass through three phases, here called orientation, processing and checking, during which students exhibited particular forms of ability. In particular, the mathematical memory was principally observed in the orientation phase, playing a crucial role in the ways in which students' selected their problem-solving methods; where these methods failed to lead to the desired outcome students were unable to modify them. Furthermore, the ability to generalise, a key component of Krutetskii's framework, was absent throughout students' attempts. These findings indicate a lack of flexibility likely to be a consequence of their experiences as learners of mathematics.

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    fulltext
  • 8.
    Szabo, Attila
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Stockholm City Education Department, Sweden.
    Andrews, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Uncovering the Relationship Between Mathematical Ability and Problem Solving Performance of Swedish Upper Secondary School Students2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 555-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the interactions of mathematical abilities when 6 high achieving Swedish upper-secondary students attempt unfamiliar non-routine mathematical problems. Analyses indicated a repeating cycle in which students typically exploited abilities relating to the ways they orientated themselves with respect to a problem, recalled mathematical facts, executed mathematical procedures, and regulated their activity. Also, while the nature of this cyclic sequence varied little across problems and students, the proportions of time afforded the different components varied across both, indicating that problem solving approaches are informed by previous experiences of the mathematics underlying the problem. Finally, students’ whose initial problem formulations were numerical typically failed to complete the problem, while those whose initial formulations were algebraic always succeeded.

  • 9.
    Szabo, Kalman J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Pincer complexes as catalysts in organic chemistry2013In: Organometallic pincer chemistry / [ed] VanKoten, G., Milstein, D., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 203-241Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of pincer complexes in catalytic applications is a rapidly expanding field in organic synthesis. This chapter is mainly focused on selective formation of carbon carbon, carbon nitrogen, and carbon metal (C B, C Si, and S-Sn) bonds, as well as transfer hydrogenation reactions. The described pincer-complex catalyzed processes are more efficient and more selective than the corresponding transformations catalyzed by metal salts and added ligands. Some of the described pincer-complex catalyzed reactions are not amenable by traditional metal catalysts at all. It has been demonstrated that the superiority of pincer-complex catalysts over the traditional ones is based on the high stability and well-defined structure and stoichiometry of these species. These properties of pincer complexes allow a rational design of active and highly selective catalysts.

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