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  • 1.
    Amoudruz, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Holmlund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Schollin, Jens
    Sverremark-Ekström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Montgomery, Scott M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Maternal country of birth and previous pregnancies are associated with breast milk characteristics2009In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 19-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Populations in high infectious exposure countries are at low risk of some immune-mediated diseases such as Crohn’s disease and allergy. This low risk is maintained upon immigration to an industrialized country, but the offspring of such immigrants have a higher immune-mediated disease risk than the indigenous population. We hypothesize that early life exposures in a developing country shape the maternal immune system, which could have implications for the offspring born in a developed country with a low infectious load. The aim of this study was to investigate if exposures in childhood (indicated by country of origin) and subsequent exposures influence immunologic characteristics relevant to stimulation of offspring. Breast milk components among 64 mothers resident in Sweden, 32 of whom immigrated from a developing country, were examined using the ELISA and Cytometric Bead Array methods. Immigrants from a developing country had statistically significantly higher levels of breast milk interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and transforming growth factor-β1. A larger number of previous pregnancies were associated with down-regulation of several substances, statistically significant for soluble CD14 and IL-8. The results suggest that maternal country of birth may influence adult immune characteristics, potentially relevant to disease risk in offspring. Such a mechanism may explain the higher immune-mediated disease risk among children of migrants from a developing to developed country. Older siblings may influence disease risk through the action of previous pregnancies on maternal immune characteristics.

  • 2.
    Backlund, Lars G.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bring, Johan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Skånér, Ylva
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Strender, Lars-Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Center for Family and Community Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Improving Fast and Frugal Modeling in Relation to Regression Analysis: Test of 3 Models for Medical Decision Making2009In: Medical decision making, ISSN 0272-989X, E-ISSN 1552-681X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 140-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. A matching heuristic (MH) model of decision makinghas been evaluated previously in a series of studies on medicaldecision making. The authors' purpose is to evaluate an extendedMH model that considers the prevalence of cue values. Methods.Data from 2 previous studies were reanalyzed, one on judgmentsregarding drug treatment of hyperlipidemia and the other ondiagnosing heart failure. The original MH model and the extendedMH model were compared with logistic regression (LR) in termsof fit to actual judgments, number of cues, and the extent towhich the cues were consistent with clinical guidelines. Results. There was a slightly better fit with LR compared with MH. Theextended MH model gave a significantly better fit than the originalMH model in the drug treatment task. In the diagnostic task,the number of cues was significantly lower in the MH modelscompared to LR, whereas in the therapeutic task, LR could beless or more frugal than the matching heuristic models dependingon the significance level chosen for inclusion of cues. Forthe original MH model, but not for the extended MH model orLR, the most important cues in the drug treatment task wereoften used in a direction contrary to treatment guidelines.Conclusions. The extended MH model represents an improvementin that prevalence of cue values is adequately taken into account,which in turn may result in better fit and in better agreementwith medical guidelines in the evaluation of cues.

  • 3. Brun, Wibecke
    et al.
    Keren, Gideon
    Kirkeboen, Geir
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perspectives on thinking, judging, and decision making2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book gives insights into the most recent developments in research on judgement and decision-making. It contains contributions from some of the best-known experts in this broad field. The book is written for a wide audience and is of interest for anyone who wants to understand and improve his or her ability to make appropriate judgements and decisions. The different chapters cover a great variety of topics related to probability judgements and risk perception, cognitive and emotional processes underlying judgement, and the pragmatics of choice behaviour along with related aspects of social cognition. The different chapters, written by researchers from many countries and from different domains including psychology, linguistics, business administration and marketing, reflect the multi-disciplinary character of the book.

  • 4.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Dimdins, Girts
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stavlöt, Ulrika
    SIEPS.
    Trade in services and in goods with low-wage countries: how do attitudes differ and how are they formed?2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om låglönekonkurrens med utstationerad arbetskraft ska tillåtas inom EU eller om denna arbetskraft ska betalas samma löner som i värdlandet har de senaste åren varit flitigt omdebatterad i många EU-länder. I Sverige symboliseras denna debatt av Vaxholmskonflikten.

    I rapporten Trade in Services and in Goods with Low-Wage Countries - How Do Attitudes Differ and How Are They Formed? analyserar ekonomer och psykologer attityderna till olika typer av låglönekonkurrens. Resultaten bekräftar att attityderna är mer negativa till låglönekonkurrens i tjänstehandel som innefattar utstationerad arbetskraft än till "vanlig" import av varor från låglöneländer. Attitydbildningen verkar ha såväl "rationella" som "irrationella" komponenter. Detta gäller både de som förespråkar fri lönekonkurrens och de som är emot, även om analysen visar att det rationella inslaget tycks vara större för den förra gruppen.

  • 5.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Dimdins, Girts
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stavlöt, Ulrica
    Trade in goods, trade in services and outsourcing - How do attitudes differ?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free trade in goods has become more or less generally accepted. On the other hand, the debates on wages for posted workers in several EU countries as well as the controversy around the new EU Service Directive show that there are much more hostile attitudes towards free trade in services. However, for economists it is natural to analyze trade in services – and their labour market implications – in a similar way as trade in goods. The objective of the project is to document to what extent attitudes towards trade in goods, trade in services and offshoring (outsourcing) differ and to explain what factors that could account for this. First, we examine the “rational” (conscious) arguments that people may have against free trade in services and offshoring. Some of these arguments deal with people’s perceptions of the changes in expected utility that would result from the opening up of international trade in services and offshoring, whereas others deal with the perceptions of the effects on broader “values” such as fairness and social cohesion. Second, we look at a number of “psychological” (unconscious) factors that are known to affect people’s judgments in public policy issues. Such factors are usually related to people’s motivation to maintain psychological and emotional comfort and coherent self-image. Two studies are presented in this report. The results from a nation wide survey with 1000 respondents showed that free trade in services and offshoring is more negatively evaluated than free trade. The results also show that “rational” factors cannot account for the difference in attitudes to different types of trade. Our conclusion was that there must exist some psychological mechanisms that cause this overall more negative attitude towards trade in services and offshoring. The result from experiments showed that it was possible to separate more permanent specific attitudes underlying the attitude towards free trade in goods from unstable and contextual specific attitudes that are constructed on the spot in order to make one’s position more coherent. It was also found that the attitude may depend on personality oriented factors (prevention or promotions focus) as well as social psychological factors (ingroup favoritism). We hope that the results of the present investigation may be useful in the area of trade politics for improving the communication between economists and people in general.

  • 6.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Dimdins, Girts
    Department of Psychology, University of Latvia, och SSE Riga.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stavlöt, Ulrika
    (SIEPS).
    Uppfattas tjänstehandel som mindre rättvis än varuhandel?: En studie av attityder till låglönekonkurrens i utrikeshandel2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett antal arbetsmarknadskonflikter relaterade till låglönekonkurrens med utstationerad arbetskraft har blivit livligt uppmärksammade i den offentliga debatten runt om i EU:s medlemsländer. Av debatten att döma tycks de flesta medborgare ha en mer negativ inställning till låglönekonkurrens när det gäller import av tjänster innefattande utstationerad arbetskraft än när det gäller import av varor. Vår rapport studerar hur attityderna till låglönekonkurrens skiljer sig åt mellan olika former av handel genom att kombinera ekonomisk och psykologisk forskning. Resultaten bekräftar att attityderna är mer negativa till låglönekonkurrens i tjänstehandel och till offshoring än till varuimport från låglöneländerna. Demografiska, socioekonomiska och politisk-ideologiska bakgrundsfaktorer påverkar attityderna till handel i linje med resultaten från tidigare studier av handelsattityder. Däremot förefaller bakgrundsvariabler ha liten betydelse för skillnader i attityder mellan olika typer av handel. Vi genomförde även experiment för att klargöra i vilken grad attityden till tjänstehandel bildas utifrån rationella överväganden runt olika aspekter, det vill säga från underliggande attityddimensioner, eller om dessa attityddimensioner på grund av koherenssökande i stället anpassas till den generella attityden. Resultaten ger starkt stöd för att koherenssökande spelar stor roll i attitydbildningen till låglönekonkurrens med utstationerad arbetskraft. Tendensen till koherenssökande tycks vara kraftigare för dem som har en negativ inställning till sådan låglönekonkurrens än för dem som är positiva. Det skulle kunna tolkas som att den negativa gruppen bildar sina attityder på ett mindre rationellt sätt än den positiva gruppen. En alternativ tolkning är att den positiva gruppen ser sig som utmanare av den existerande ordningen, vilket enligt psykologisk forskning kan göra den mindre benägen att nyansera sin inställning.

  • 7.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Dimdins, Girts
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stavlöt, Ulrika
    Why Do People Dislike Low-Wage Trade Competition with Posted Workers in the Service Sector?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of low-wage competition in services trade involving posted workers is controversial in the EU. Using Swedish survey data, people’s attitudes are found to be more negative to such trade than to goods trade. The differences depend on both a preference for favouring social groups to which individuals belong (here the domestic population) and altruistic justice concerns for foreign workers. In small-group experiments we find a tendency for people to adjust their evaluations of various aspects of trade to their general attitude. This tendency is stronger for those opposed to than those in favour of low-wage trade competition. This may indicate that the former group forms its attitudes in a less rational way than the latter group.

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  • 8.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Dimdins, Girts
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stavlöt, Ulrika
    Why do people dislike low-wage trade competition with posted workers in the service sector?2013In: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, E-ISSN 1879-1239, Vol. 47, p. 82-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of low-wage competition in services trade involving posted workers is controversial in the EU. Using Swedish survey data, people's attitudes are found to be more negative to such trade than to goods trade. The differences depend on both a preference for favouring social groups to which individuals belong (the domestic population) and altruistic justice concerns for foreign workers. In small-group experiments, we find a tendency for people to adjust their evaluations of various aspects of trade to their general attitude. This tendency is stronger for those opposed to than those in favour of low-wage trade competition. This may indicate that the former group forms its attitudes in a less rational way than the latter group.

  • 9. Carlstedt, Y.
    et al.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Har vi nolltolerans mot politiker?2008In: Samtalets mekanismer, Liber, Stockholm , 2008, p. 244-259Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The participants (100 psychology students or job seekers) in this study were presented with statements about immigrants made by politicians in the Swedish television in the fall of 2002 ( in a program called Valstugor (“Polling huts”). Some statements were taken from conventional political speeches and conveyed antiracist, equalitarian views on immigrants. Other statements were recorded from the same politicians in a hidden camera condition, where the politicians in a supposedly private conservation with a citizen, made seemingly racist statements. It was found that the participants were more understanding and tolerant to the fact that the same persons had made these contradictory statements in a condition where it only was said that the statements came from an ordinary conservations as compared to a condition when the actual context of the statements was revealed. It was concluded that people may have much greater understanding for ambivalence and lack of political correctness among ordinary people than among politicians. This was seen as a problem for deliberative democracy.

  • 10.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kognition i ett rättspsykologiskt perspektiv2008In: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Liber, Stockholm , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This chapter gives an overview of a number of central fields in cognitive psychology: information processing mechanisms and modes, memory processes, and judgment and decision making. Throughout is discussed and exemplified how theories and findings in cognitive psychology may be applied in forensic contexts.

  • 11.
    Dalkvist, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, William
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reanalyses of group telepathy data with a focus on variability2010In: Journal of parapsychology, ISSN 0022-3387, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 143-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reanalyses of data from experiments on telepathic communication of emotions, as evoked by slide pictures, between groups of senders and groups of receivers are reported. In the present study, variability in performance rather than level of performance was in focus. Fits between variability in distributions of hits expected by chance and variability in empirical distributions were explored. The expected distributions were derived by means of the hypergeometric distribution, which provides the number of successes in a sequence of n draws from a finite population without replacement. Session level analyses showed that the variability in hit-rate was smaller than that expected by chance, particularly when the session groups who started as senders and those who started as receivers were analyzed separately and when the geomagnetic activity was low. Monte Carlo analyses indicated that these results could not be explained by stacking effects. Individual level analyses did not show any effects. In a second part of the study, the variability of responses to the individual target pictures was explored. The variability differed significantly among the pictures. Simulation showed that this effect was not attributable to stacking effects. Two predictions to be tested in an ongoing replication experiment are presented.

  • 12. Dimdins, Girts
    et al.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stavlöt, Ulrica
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perspective taking and expression of attitudes in a political controversy2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Dimdins, Girts
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Attitudes to freedom and equality among Swedish and American students2005In: Democracy unbound - Basic explorations, 2005, p. 29-43Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study compared Swedish and American attitudes towards freedom and equality and examined the perceived trade-off between both concepts in the two groups. First-year students from Stockholm University and Stanford University took part in the study. The participants ranked ordered a number of values—among them equality of opportunity, freedom of lifestyle, economic freedom, and freedom of speech—and indicated to what extent they were prepared to increase freedom in their society at the expense of reducing equality, and vice versa. The participants also indicated their preferences for different options in public policy decision scenarios. There were no significant differences in terms of value preferences between both samples. But there was a difference in terms of readiness to compromise freedom for equality or equality for freedom. Participants with very strong preferences for either freedom or equality in the Swedish sample were more likely for compromise between both values than participants with strong preferences in the US sample. Participants with moderate preferences for freedom or equality in either sample were unlikely to give up freedom for equality or vice versa. The results are discussed in the context of previous cross-cultural studies comparing political value preferences in both countries.

  • 14.
    Dimdins, Girts
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Differentiating in-group favoritism from shared reality in intergroup perception.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 417-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two basic factors influence mutual ratings of social groups: in-group favoritism (related to the evaluative aspects of a rating) and the perception of shared reality (related to the descriptive aspects). In two studies, we examine the usefulness of Peabody's (1968) method of separating evaluative and descriptive aspects of rating in intergroup judgments. In Study 1, Latvian and Russian students made different evaluations of both groups, but the same groups agreed on the descriptive ratings. In Study 2, male and female psychology students rated each otter from own, in-group, and out-group perspectives. The participants did not show any in-group favoritism in their own ratings, but they expected their fellow students to be in-group biased. The participants agreed on the descriptive ratings of both groups. The results demonstrate that shared reality influences intergroup ratings, despite differences in evaluations.

  • 15.
    Dimdins, Girts
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of framing on perceptions of economic freedom, economic equality, and social justice.2006In: Viability and Desirability of Global Democracy., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine peoples’ perceptions of the economic dimension of the dilemma between individual freedom and collective equality in society. Our previous research in the frameworks of the project had suggested that the economic aspect—rather than political freedom and equality—elicit the strongest differences in people’s opinions. A tax reform proposed by a number of conservative parties in Sweden served as a background of the study. The proposed reform was aimed at improving the state budget by increasing the incentives for working and decreasing the incentives of receiving social benefits from the state. Seventy-two Stockholm University undergraduates participated in the study. Each participant read descriptions of several possible tax plans in an imaginary society. When presenting the plans, we manipulated several factors. First, the plans were formulated in a way that the tax reform would lead either to increase of income for working people (reward), or a decrease of income for those receiving benefits for the state (penalty). Second, the plans would either affect everyone (meritocratic), or would be aimed at benefiting the low-income groups in society (egalitarian). In addition, the plans were presented either as a change to an existing tax system, or as a new tax system to be introduced. The difference in tax size between workers and social benefit receivers was constant (in favor of workers) in all formulations. The participants evaluated the tax plans according to three criteria—how much each plan would contribute to social justice, to economic freedom, and to economic equality in the society.

    The wording of the tax plans mattered most for evaluations of equality; these evaluations also elicited strongest differences between liberal and conservative respondents. The wording mattered least for evaluations of social justice, and had moderate effects on evaluations of freedom. The results showed that different factors influenced judgments of economic freedom and equality. For example, whether plans were worded as reward or penalty had a stronger influence on evaluations of freedom than on evaluations of equality. On the other hand, meritocratic vs. egalitarian formulation had a much stronger effect on evaluations of equality than on evaluations of freedom. The results show that, although freedom and equality are often depicted as opposing ends of the same continuum, people think about different things when evaluating—at least in economic terms—these two concepts. This, in turn, suggests that by careful framing of social issues it may be possible to avoid juxtaposition of values of freedom and democracy, and to reduce controversy in society.

  • 16. Dimdins, Girts
    et al.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Negative and positive stakes in plural voting: An experimental study2009In: Baltic Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1407-768X, Vol. 10, no 1-2, p. 14-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reports the results of a study examining people’s attitudes towards plural voting (a system where voters with higher stakes in the decision are given multiple votes) in comparison to the traditional ”one person-one vote” principle. The participants (N = 102) were asked to evaluate various voting procedures that pre-assigned votes to different voter groups depending in the stakes of these groups in hypothetical scenarios regarding municipal-level decisions about construction work. Participants evaluated plural voting procedures more favorably when more information was available about the stakes of those involved in the voting process. Respondents’ preferences were independent of whether the stakes in question were positive or negative. The results show that, at least under experimental conditions, plural voting is acceptable to people, and in specific situations plural voting may be preferred to egalitarian voting.

  • 17.
    Dimdins, Girts
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Austers, Ivars
    Cognition and Neurosciences: Differentiating explanations of attitude-consistent behavior: The role of perspectives and mode of perspective taking.2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 97-106Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    We examined whether participants could differentiate between explanations of attitude-consistent behavior related to EU membership given from two perspectives (EU supporter and EU opponent) by means of three perspective taking modes (the explainer's own perspective, imagined in-group members' perspective, and imagined out-group members' perspective). Participants were presented with explanations provided from different perspectives and perspective taking modes, and they were asked to judge the extent to which they agreed with each explanation, to guess the attitude of the provider of each explanation, and to rate the quality of each explanation in various respects. Participants could not differentiate between explanations given by in-group members and out-group members who imagined the same perspective. They responded more favorably to explanations given from own perspective than from the imagined perspectives. The results suggest that there exists a shared understanding about how both sides should explain attitude-consistent behavior, but this understanding is measurably different from the actual explanations.

  • 18.
    Falk, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Developing traffic safety interventions from conceptions of risks and accidents2007In: Transportation Research Part F:: Traffic Psychology and behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, Vol. 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By means of investigating the mental background to young male drivers’ risky traffic behaviour, this explorative qualitative

    study outlines a framework for the construction of interventions that could mitigate risk-taking among young male

    drivers. Seven males, 20–23 years of age, demonstrating excessive speeding behaviour when driving, were interviewed indepth. Five themes, ‘‘Self-image as a good driver brings self-esteem’’, ‘‘Commanding high speed – a pleasurable sensation’’,

    ‘‘High awareness of risks, but notions of serious outcomes are not salient’’, ‘‘Imagined accident scenarios evoke outcome

    conceptions’’ and ‘‘Perceived cause of accident influences anticipated affective reactions’’, had central positions in their

    conceptions about risk-taking and accidents. The results were analysed in relation to previous literature on the concepts

    of Anticipated Regret and Imagining as antecedents to attitude and behaviour change, and it was concluded that interventions

    based on imagining the emotional aftermath of being the perpetrator of a serious accident should be developed and

    tested.

  • 19.
    Falk, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Developing traffic safety interventions from conceptions of risks and accidents2007In: Transportation research part F: Traffic psychology and behaviour, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 414-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By means of investigating the mental background to young male drivers’ risky traffic behaviour, this explorative qualitative

    study outlines a framework for the construction of interventions that could mitigate risk-taking among young male

    drivers. Seven males, 20–23 years of age, demonstrating excessive speeding behaviour when driving, were interviewed indepth.

    Five themes, ‘‘Self-image as a good driver brings self-esteem’’, ‘‘Commanding high speed – a pleasurable sensation’’,

    ‘‘High awareness of risks, but notions of serious outcomes are not salient’’, ‘‘Imagined accident scenarios evoke outcome

    conceptions’’ and ‘‘Perceived cause of accident influences anticipated affective reactions’’, had central positions in their

    conceptions about risk-taking and accidents. The results were analysed in relation to previous literature on the concepts

    of Anticipated Regret and Imagining as antecedents to attitude and behaviour change, and it was concluded that interventions

    based on imagining the emotional aftermath of being the perpetrator of a serious accident should be developed and

    tested.

  • 20.
    Falk, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Promoting traffic safety among young male drivers by means of elaboration-based interventions2009In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research in social psychology has brought about significant changes in attitudes and behaviour by merely asking respondents to imagine, or reflect, on a phenomenon and arrive at their own conclusions. To test the potential of such interventions in the traffic safety area, an experiment comprising 353 young men 18–23 years old with a driver’s licence was conducted. Two experimental groups were induced to imagine a severe accident scenario and to visualize their feelings and the consequences on their future lives. A control group was interviewed about neutral issues. Attitudes towards risk-taking were measured post-intervention and at follow-up. The experimental groups showed more “ideal” attitudes than the control group post-intervention. At follow-up the attitudes of the experimental group remained unchanged, whereas the control group had changed towards more “ideal” attitudes. Self-reported risk-taking behaviour was measured pre-intervention and at follow-up. At follow-up all groups reported significantly less risk-taking behaviour than at pre-intervention. It is suggested that answering the questionnaires increased mental elaboration concerning risky driving, and it is concluded that interventions that unobtrusively make drivers reflect on their driving should be explored further as a means to promote traffic safety.

  • 21. Hermansson, J.
    et al.
    Karlsson, C.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Samtalets mekanismer2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The book covers three types of diualogues in deliberative democracy: Dialogues between citizens, dialogues between elites, dialogues between citizens and elites. The book consists of 14 chapters written by political scientists and psychologists.

  • 22. Kemdal, Anna Blom
    et al.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perspective taking with opponents in political discussions.2006In: SPSP meeting: Palm Springs, January, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that people show approximately the same attribution biases for their own and others’ attitudes, as they do when attributing causes of own and others’ behavior, i.e. attributing opponents’ attitudes more to internal, ideological, or non normative causes, and own attitudes more to external or normative causes. Attribution biases can be reversed with an instruction to take opponents’ perspective. In the current study different ways of achieving perspective taking with opponents were tested in political discussions in small groups.

    Perspective taking (either mentally or by role-playing) was assumed to lead to better quality of discussion, more moderate post-discussion attitudes, and less biased attributions of own and other participants’ attitudes. Students and politicians (N=60) in a small Swedish town participated in group discussion experiments (average group size 4). The topics of discussion related to immigration policies. Own attitudes were rated before and after discussion. Perceived quality of discussion, other group members’ attitudes, and attributions of own and others’ attitudes were measured after discussions. The results showed few effects of perspective taking on attitudes and perceived quality of discussions, e. g. attitudes became more moderate for groups with mental perspective taking instruction, compared to the control group. Participants underestimated how extreme other people’s attitudes were. Politicians were more satisfied with the discussions than students were both with their own contribution to the discussions and the discussion as a whole. There were few differences in the attributions of what self and other group members said during discussions, and few effects of perspective taking on attributions.

  • 23. Kemdal Pho, Anna
    et al.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vad formar det goda politiska samtalet?2008In: Samtalets mekanismer, Liber, Stockholm , 2008, p. 285-311Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    It is claimed that a good dialogue participants view their dialogue partners’ contributions as justified by revealed reasons rather than by hidden causal mechanisms. An experiment is reported where politicians and ordinary citizens discussed issues in immigration politics. The participants were divided into two experimental groups (where they were asked to take their opponents’ perspective) and one control group (ordinary discussion). Against expectations, it was found perspective taking did not make participants more reason focused, when explaining other participants’ contributions to the discussion. However, all participants tended to view their fellow participants as more reasons driven than was true for how they viewed other people in general. It was concluded that just giving an opportunity for citizens and politicians to talk with each other increase possibilities for a good dialogue.

  • 24.
    Kerimi, Neda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Backlund, Lars
    Center for Family and Community Medicine, Karolinska Institutet .
    Skånér, Ylva
    Center for Family and Community Medicine, Karolinska Institutet .
    Strender, Lars-Erik
    Center for Family and Community Medicine, Karolinska Institutet .
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Do We Really Need Medical Experts when modelling in Judgment Analysis?: Lack of Difference Between Expert and Non-Expert models in Judgment AnalysisArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is assumed that in judgment analysis, experts provide better models than non-experts. In this study we challenge this view by showing that data from non-experts might be equally suitable for building models. We show this by modeling the decisions of 21 medical students, 27 general practitioners, and 22 cardiologists on real patient vignettes regarding diagnosing heart failure. The models used were logistic regression and fast and frugal models. Results showed that there were no differences between any of the expertise groups in terms of fit, prediction, information searched, or percent of actual diagnosis in any of the models. Therefore, it seems, at least for the studied conditions, using models built on decision data from non-experts versus experts might be equally valid in judgment analysis.

  • 25.
    Kerimi, Neda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Backlund, Lars
    Center for Family and Community Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Skånér, Ylva
    Center for Family and Community Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Strender, Lars-Erik
    Center for Family and Community Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Judgment Analysis in the Medical Domain: Making a Fair Comparison Between Logistic Regression and Fast & Frugal ModelsArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using participant data from the medical domain, the robustness of logistic regression (LR) with different cue inclusion levels and two fast and frugal (F&F) models in terms of predictive accuracy and frugality were tested. Two data sets based on judgments of verbally described patients were used: Heart failure (66 analysts), and Hyperlipidemia (38 analysts). In both data sets, when the models were cross-validated, there was a significant decrease in predictive accuracy for all models, especially when all cues were used in LR. The other models had about equal predictive accuracy, also when comparisons were made with actual diagnoses, with a slight advantage for LR in the Heart failure study. LR using the 5% inclusion level was more frugal than F&F. These results emphasize the importance of using cross-validation and of choosing the proper significance levels for cue inclusion and when comparing different judgment models.

  • 26.
    Kerimi, Neda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Zakay, Dan
    Coming close to the ideal alternative: The concordant-ranks strategy2011In: Judgment and Decision Making, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 196-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the Concordant-Ranks (CR) strategy that decision makers use to quickly find an alternative that is proximate to an ideal alternative in a multi-attribute decision space. CR implies that decision makers prefer alternatives that exhibit concordant ranks between attribute values and attribute weights. We show that, in situations where the alternatives are equal in multi-attribute utility (MAU), minimization of the weighted Euclidean distance (WED) to an ideal alternative implies the choice of a CR alternative. In two experiments, participants chose among, as well as evaluated, alternatives that were constructed to be equal in MAU. In Experiment 1, four alternatives were designed in such a way that the choice of each alternative would be consistent with one particular choice strategy, one of which was the CR strategy. In Experiment 2, participants were presented with a CR alternative and a number of arbitrary alternatives. In both experiments, participants tended to choose the CR alternative. The CR alternative was on average evaluated as more attractive than other alternatives. In addition, measures of WED, between given alternatives and the ideal alternative, by and large agreed with the preference order for choices and attractiveness evaluations of the different types of alternatives. These findings indicate that both choices and attractiveness evaluations are guided by proximity of alternatives to an ideal alternative.

  • 27.
    Kerimi, Neda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Zakay, Dan
    Reaching for the ideal: The role of ideal alternatives in decision-making2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment involving 45 psychology students as participants made it possible to differentiate between strategies used for quickly finding a promising alternative. It was hypothesised (a) that decision makers have an ideal alternative in mind when entering the decision process and (b) that the promising alternative is the one that is most similar to this ideal alternative. For this purpose, the participant’s ideal alternatives were first identified with the think-aloud method. Second, based on this ideal alternative, a computer application generated and presented five alternatives to the participants. Each alternative represented a strategy that individuals can use in order to make decisions. In order to make sure that the alternatives only differed in the applied strategy and not in attribute values, the five alternatives were equal in terms of multi-attribute utility. One alternative was most similar to the participant’s ideal alternative in terms of having shortest Euclidean distance. This alternative represented the strategy of similarity or distance judging. The second alternative had an agreement between the rank-order of attribute values and the ranks of the importance weights of the attributes in the presented alternative as in the ideal alternative. We showed theoretically that if an alternative has the same multi-attribute utility, a choice in line with this strategy is also equivalent to minimizing the weighted Euclidean distance to the ideal alternative. Two alternatives each applied a non-compensatory rule, focussing on the most positive aspects of the alternatives (maximin rule and the lexicographic rule). The last alternative did not apply any decision making rule. It was found that choices as well as preference ratings most often could be predicted from an alternative having an agreement between the rank-order of attribute values and the ranks of the importance weights of the attributes. Think aloud data gave additional support for this conclusion. These findings not only suggest the existence of an ideal alternative in a decision making situation. They also suggest the existence of a newly discovered decision making strategy based on a pattern matching heuristic. In this heuristic, the pattern of attribute weights and attribute values in a given alternative is matched to the corresponding pattern in the ideal alternative. Our data are compatible with the notion that the finding of a promising alternative is guided by this pattern matching heuristic.

  • 28.
    Kusterer, Hanna Li
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender typing in stereotypes and evaluations of actual managers2013In: Journal of Managerial Psychology, ISSN 0268-3946, E-ISSN 1758-7778, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 561-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The pm-pose of this paper is to examine gender-related management stereotypes, perceived gender bias and evaluations of actual managers, and to directly compare stereotypes and ratings of actual managers. Design/methodology/approach - Questionnaires were distributed to employees in the bank and insurance sector, and 240 participants rated their actual managers and stereotypes of male and female managers. Findings - Men evaluated the female manager stereotype more positively on communal attributes, and the male manager stereotype more positively on agentic attributes. Women evaluated the female manager stereotype more positively on both communal and agentic attributes, but perceived a higher degree of gender bias in favor of male managers than men did. Actual male and female managers were rated similarly. Still, ratings of actual male managers corresponded more with stereotypes of male than female managers, and ratings of actual female managers corresponded more with stereotypes of female than male managers. Research limitations/implications - Future research needs to determine the direction of association between stereotypes and evaluations of actual managers, and the relative importance of agentic over communal attributes. Practical implications - While women appeared biased in favor of their own gender, men may underestimate the difficulties that female managers encounter. Managers and human resource practitioners should notice these different views, and recognize that gender equality is not achieved in Sweden. Originality/value - The present study contributes with data from an egalitarian society with a positive view of female managers, and a direct comparison of stereotypes and workplace evaluations.

  • 29.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    I stormens öga: Från psykofysik till kognitions-forskning2020In: Historien om svensk psykologisk forskning: Utvecklingen från perception och psykofysik / [ed] Gunn Johansson, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2020, p. 59-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 1800-talet och första hälften 1900-talet tillhörde psykologi som psykologisk disciplin ibland pedagogiken, ibland filosofin, och de första professurerna inom ämnet avsåg psykologi och pedagog i kombination.

  • 30.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Möjligheter att motverka finanskriser: Lärdomar från psykologi2012In: Efter finanskrisen: Några perspektiv på finansmarkanden / [ed] Finansmarknadskommittén, Stockholm: Finansmarknadskommittén , 2012, p. 135-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett grundtema i försök att psykologiskt förklara den finansiella krisen 2007-2008 är att den styrdes av så kallat System 1 tänkande, som kännetecknas av förenkling och skevhet i bedömningar och beslutsfattande. Krisen drevs på av ett flockbeteende, inspirerat av   en socialt delad och samtidigt förenklad verklighetsbild som omfattades av den politiska makten, affärsvärlden och vanliga medborgare. Vad kan psykologisk kunskap bidra med för att motverka framtida finansiella kriser? Försök att träna människor att undvika ensidigt och förenklat tänkande har varit måttlig framgångsrika.  Vad som behövs är att bygga upp en intellektuell miljö, där politiker, professionella aktörer och vanliga medborgare fattar kloka beslut inom det finansiella området. Mot bakgrund av forskning inom olika områden (beslutfattande, tidsasymmetrier i människors tänkande och belöningars psykologi) förslås ett antal åtgärder för att motverka finansiella kriser. Åtgärderna berör ökad transparens i olika placeringsprodukter, en mer nyanserad normpolitik, alternativ till ekonomiska prognoser, utformning av amorteringar så att de upplevs som lönsamt sparande, belöningssystem som gynnar stabilitet i det finansiella systemet, och att i den ekonomiska politiken utnyttja kompetens från olika vetenskaper.

     

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  • 31.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psykologins gräns - om psykologisering i det offentliga samtalet2008In: Samtalets mekanismer, Liber, Stockholm , 2008, p. 195-210Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    It is claimed that there are insights about people's thought, feelings, and psychology that cannot be gained from a scientific psychology, when it is defined as a natural scientific perspective on human endeavors. At the same time a psychological perspective becomes more and more common in public discussions and dialogues. This is illustrated by a content analysis of protocols from the Swedish parliament. It is exemplified how the usage of a psychological perspective in discussions and dialogues can serve rhetorical purposes, but at also diminish possibilities of having genuine communication.

  • 32.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The financial crisis: Lessons for Europe from psychology2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is discussed how psychology can shed light on the recent global financial crisis. Financial  behavior on an individual and collective level, respectively, is analyzed. On the individual level four modes of cognitive function are highlighted: Adaptive intuitive, maladaptive intuitive, adaptive analytic, and maladaptive analytic. The development of the crisis on a collective level is analyzed in terms of the concepts of shared reality, group think, destruction of trust, and restoring trust by verbal communication. A case study is reported showing biases in forecasts of economic growth. The report concludes that future crises could be counteracted by stimulating a positive spiral in which people develop their own thoughts, feelings and behavior by influencing and being influenced by the economic environment. This goal cannot be attained by regulation alone. To attain this end, a number of policy measures are recommended.

  • 33.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Psychology of economic forecasting: A possibility for cooperation between JDM and NDM theories?2005In: How professionals make decisions., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ , 2005, p. 119-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on actual and forecasted GNPs made by professional economists for Sweden during the time period 1970-2000 were analyzed with respect accuracy and psychological mechanisms underlying the forecasts. Correlations between actual and forecasted GNPSs were relatively high in a short time perspective (one year ahead). However, a number judgmental biases (optimist, anchoring and adjustment, and availability bias) were identified in the forecasts, which suggests a possibility to correct economic forecasts for such biases in order to improve their accuracy.

  • 34.
    Montgomery, Henry
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Dimdins, Girts
    Stavlöt, Ulrica
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Coherence seeking in attitudes to free trade in services:  2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Montgomery, Henry
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dimdins, Girts
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Facets of value conflicts in two cultures: Rankings, preferences and trade-off judgments of freedom and equality in Sweden and USA.2006In: SPSP meeting: Palm Springs, January, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A questionnaire study compared Swedish and American attitudes towards freedom and equality and the potential trade-off between these two values. The participants were first-year students from Stockholm University (N=54) and Stanford University (N=92). When participants simply rank-ordered a number of values related to freedom and equality no significant between-group differences in orderings were observed. However, when participants were asked to indicate their willingness to see increased freedom in their society at the expense of reducing equality, and vice versa, clear between-group differences were apparent. Both in direct measures regarding this tradeoff and in evaluation of public policy options, Swedish participants generally proved more willing than Americans to increase freedom at the expense of equality whereas the American participants proved more willing to increase equality at the expense of freedom. This result implies that answers to trade-off questions may reflect the perceived fulfillment of values in the society (more freedom in USA, more equality in Sweden), which is not shown by importance ratings. The results are discussed in the context of previous cross-cultural studies comparing political value preferences in both countries.

  • 36.
    Montgomery, Henry
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hedberg, Per H.
    Montgomery, William
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Life and (partial) death: how psychological connectedness guides preferences2011In: Perspectives on thinking, judging, and decision making / [ed] W. Brun, G., Keren, G. Kirkeboen, & H. Montgomery, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2011, p. 236-248Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People want to be themselves (e.g., unhappy philosopher rather than happy pig, after John Stuart Mill). Psychological connectedness to one’s future self (in terms of values, beliefs, and goals) is found to critically influence preferences for hypothetical future events in participants’ lives.

  • 37.
    Montgomery, Henry
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lipshitz, R
    Brehmer, Berndt
    From the first to the fifth volume of naturalistic decision making research.2005In: How professionals make decisions., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ , 2005, p. 1-13Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this introductory chapter we discuss the contributions made by the 27 subsequent chapters of the present volume on naturalistic decision making research in the light of the research presented in the first volume of this series. We present some key findings and attempt to address the following three questions. To what extent has progress been made with respect to issues presented in the first volume? Have new issues been raised? What are the challenges for future NDM research?

  • 38.
    Montgomery, Henry
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lipshitz, Raanan
    Brehmer, Berndt
    How professionals make decisions.2005Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Zsambok (1993), naturalistic decision making is "the way people use their experience to make decisions in field settings." The objective of this volume is to present recent advances in naturalistic decision-making research and methodology. Its title is intended to capture a central characteristic of naturalistic decision-making, namely, the importance of studying people who have some degree of expertise in the domain in which they make decisions. The book is divided into three broad sections: Individual Decision Making, Decision Making in Social Contexts and Methodology. The substantive concerns pertain to how individual and groups make decisions in professional and organizational settings, and to developing suitable methods for studying these questions rigorously.

  • 39.
    Montgomery, Henry
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Qvarsell, BirgittaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Perspektiv och förståelse: [att kunna se från olika håll]2001Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 40. Montgomery, William
    et al.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gärling, Tommy
    How situational activation of values evokes positive and negative feelings: Theory and experimental findings2020In: Motivation and Emotion, ISSN 0146-7239, E-ISSN 1573-6644, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 608-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a theory of how situational activation of values evokes positive and negative feelings. In conjunction we present a re-conceptualization of Schwartz' et al. (J Personal Soc Psychol 103:663-688, 2012. 10.1037/a029393) value set including additional values. In our new value set, we posit contrastive values having opposite values and central values having no opposite values. As a consequence, balanced access to salient opposite contrastive values and maximal access to central values evoke the strongest positive and weakest negative feelings. Study 1 shows, as hypothesized, that contrastive values form a circumplex structure with central values located inside its periphery. Study 2 supports theoretically derived hypotheses of how positive and negative feelings are evoked by different degrees of access to values, salience of opposite values, and centrality of values.

  • 41. Montgomery, William
    et al.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Positive and Negative Emotions Related to a Circumplex Value StructureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that some values are contrastive with opposites which also can be seen as values. These values form a circumplex structure. Other values are non-contrastive lacking opposite values. The hypothesis is tested that contrastive values activate both specific negative and positive emotions with a strength consistent with the proposed circumplex value structure. This hypothesis was confirmed in Study 1 by ratings of how values relate to different emotions obtained from 120 undergraduates. Ratings of emotions elicited by the values were obtained and submitted to multidimensional scaling yielding a circumplex structure similar to the structure of contrastive values. The results of Study 2 with 79 undergraduates as participants confirmed that non-contrastive values lead to more positive and less negative emotions than contrastive values. The emotions connected to the contrastive values differed in strength depending on the salience of the values.

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  • 42. Montgomery, William
    et al.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gärling, W.
    A new conceptualization of value structure2008In: ECP 14: Tartu, Estonia , July, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Schwartz and Bilsky’s (1989, 1991) theory, values are organized in ten motivational types forming a circumplex structure. We modify the theory by proposing values that more clearly consists of opposite pairs. A given value (e.g., security) in a pair is associated with a positive emotion (feel afe) and a negative emotion (feel bored). The opposite value (e.g. courage) is associated with an opposite positive emotion (feel excited) and a negative emotion (feel afraid). Two surveys employing 144 respectively 120 undergraduates confirmed the proposed circumplex structure of values with positive and negative associated emotions.

  • 43. Montgomery, William
    et al.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gärling, W.
    A new look at value structure2008In: SPSP meeting: Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Schwartz and Bilsky (1989, 1991) assumed that values are organized in ten motivational types that form a circumplex structure. We extend and modify Schwartz and Bilsky’s theory by distinguishing between bipolar and unipolar values. Both types of values are associated with positive emotions. Bipolar values are organized such that a given value (e.g., security) that leads to experience of a given positive emotion (e.g., feel safe) at the expense of another positive emotion related to an opposite value (e.g., feel excited when attaining courage), which in turn implies experiencing a negative emotion (e.g., feel bored) when attaining the former value. Bipolar values are located opposite to each other in a two-dimensional circumplex structure. Unipolar values do not have any opposites. Therefore, they do not lead to any specific negative emotion resulting from decreasing attainment of an opposite value. These expectations were confirmed in two empirical studies. In Study 1 a total of 144 psychology students rated eight bipolar values from different perspectives (access, importance, positivity, ability, and engagement). Multidimensional scaling of the value ratings resulted in a circumplex structure. In Study 2 ratings by participants of 24 emotions in relation to eight bipolar values and four unipolar values revealed that each of the bipolar values were associated with positive and negative emotions. Increases of unipolar values were associated only with positive emotions while decreases were associated only with negative emotions.

  • 44. Ranyard, Rob
    et al.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Konstantinidis, Emmanouil
    Taylor, Andrea Louise
    Intransitivity and transitivity of preferences: Dimensional processing in decision making2020In: Decision, ISSN 2325-9965, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 287-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transitive preference, that is, if you prefer apples to bananas and bananas to cherries, you also prefer apples to cherries, is a basic property of some influential rational choice models. Contrary to this, Tversky, in his seminal 1969 article, presented evidence of intransitive preferences in two contexts, one of which involved choices between simple monetary lotteries. While early replications corroborated his findings, more recent research cast doubt on the strength of evidence of intransitive preferences in this task. Here, from Tversky’s extended additive difference model we develop a simplified additive difference (SAD) model that corresponds to alternative dimensional processing strategies. This predicts transitive or intransitive preferences, depending on its parameter values. We review six replications of Tversky’s lottery task and fit variants of the model to the choice data. We estimate the SAD model’s parameters for each individual data set using maximum likelihood estimation, examine the goodness of fit of the model, and use likelihood ratio tests to evaluate specific variants. The model has a very good fit to most individual choice data sets reviewed, with many predictably violating weak stochastic transitivity. We also find that many transitive patterns correspond to the application of simple, one-dimensional “take the best” heuristics. The findings support the view that human decision making is often based on dimensional processing in such a way that evaluations of decision alternatives are relative to the set under consideration, resulting in intransitivity of preferences.

  • 45.
    Sharafi, Parvaneh
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hedman, Leif
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Using information technology: Engagement modes, flow experience, and personality orientations.2006In: Computers in Human Behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 899-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The engagement mode (EM) model describes how an IT user (subject) engages in an activity with an object in a certain mode. The model specifies five engagement modes (Enjoying/Acceptance, Ambition/Curiosity, Avoidance/Hesitation, Frustration/Anxiety, and Efficiency/Productivity), which are characterized on three dimensions (evaluation of object, locus of control between subject and object, and intrinsic or extrinsic focus of motivation). Using questionnaire data from 290 participants, we extended previous empirical support for the model as well as described the model's relationship to flow experience. In addition, it was found that autonomy, controlled and impersonal orientation in conjunction with socio-demographic variables differentiated among specific engagement modes and flow experience. We conclude that the EM-model, flow experience, and causality orientation theories provide a uniform framework for understanding how people adapt to information technology.

  • 46. Skånér, Ylva
    et al.
    Backlund, Lars
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bring, Johan
    Strender, Lars-Erik
    General practitioners’ reasoning when considering the diagnosis heart failure: A think-aloud study.2005In: BMC Family Practice, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 6, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diagnosing chronic heart failure is difficult, especially in mild cases or early in the course of the disease, and guidelines are not easily implemented in everyday practice. The aim of this study was to investigate general practitioners' diagnostic reasoning about patients with suspected chronic heart failure in comparison with recommendations in European guidelines. The think-aloud technique was used. Fifteen general practitioners reasoned about six case vignettes, representing authentic patients with suspected chronic heart failure. Information about each case was added successively in five steps. The general practitioners said their thoughts aloud while reasoning about the probability of the patient having chronic heart failure, and tried to decide about the diagnosis. Arguments for and against chronic heart failure were analysed and compared to recommendations in guidelines. Information about ejection fraction was the most frequent diagnostic argument, followed by information about cardiac enlargement or pulmonary congestion on chest X-ray. However, in a third of the judgement situations, no information about echocardiography was utilized in the general practitioners' diagnostic reasoning. Only three of the 15 doctors used information about a normal electrocardiography as an argument against chronic heart failure. Information about other cardio-vascular diseases was frequently used as a diagnostic argument. It was concluded that the clinical information was not utilized to the extent recommended in guidelines. Some implications of our study are that 1) general practitioners need more information about how to utilize echocardiography when diagnosing chronic heart failure, 2) guidelines ought to give more importance to information about other cardio-vascular diseases in the diagnostic reasoning, and 3) guidelines ought to treat the topic of diastolic heart failure in a clearer way.

  • 47. Vancheri, Federico
    et al.
    Strender, Lars-Erik
    Bring, Johan
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skånér, Ylva
    Backlund, Lars G.
    General practitioners’ coronary risk assessments and lipid-lowering treatment decisions in primary prevention: Comparison between two European areas with different cardiovascular risk levels2008In: Primary Health Care Research and Development, ISSN 1463-4236, E-ISSN 1477-1128, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 248-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate whether general practitioners (GPs) in countries with different levels of cardiovascular risk would make different risk estimates and choices about lipid-lowering treatment when assessing the same patients.

    Background: Primary prevention of coronary heart disease should be based on the quantitative assessment of an individual’s absolute risk. Risk-scoring charts have been developed, but in clinical practice risk estimates are often made on a subjective basis.

    Methods: Mail survey: Nine written case simulations of four cases rated by the Framingham equations as high risk, and five rated as low-risk were mailed to 90 randomly selected GPs in Stockholm, as a high-risk area, and 90 in Sicily as a low-risk area. GPs were asked to estimate the 10-year coronary risk and to decide whether to start a lipid-lowering drug treatment.

    Findings: Overall risk estimate was lower in Stockholm than in Sicily for both high-risk cases (median 20.8; interquartile range (IQR) 13.5–30.0 versus 29.1; IQR 21.8–30.6; P = 0.033) and low-risk cases (6.4; IQR 2.2–9.6 versus 8.5; IQR 6.0–14.5; P = 0.006). Swedish GPs were less likely than Sicilian GPs to choose to treat when their estimate of risk was above the recommended cut-off limit for treatment, both for the entire group (means of GPs’ decision proportions: 0.64 (0.45) and 0.92 (0.24), respectively, P = 0.001) and for high-risk cases (0.65 (0.45) and 0.93 (0.23), P = 0.001).

    Conclusions: The cardiovascular risk level in the general population influences GPs’ evaluations of risk and subsequent decisions to start treatment. GPs’ risk estimates seem to be inversely related to the general population risk level, and may lead to inappropriate over- or under-treatment of patients.

  • 48. Vancheri, Federico
    et al.
    Strender, Lars-Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skånér, Ylva
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Backlund, Lars G.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Coronary risk estimates and decisions on lipid-lowering treatment in primary prevention: Comparison between general practitioners, internists, and cardiologists2009In: European journal of internal medicine, ISSN 0953-6205, E-ISSN 1879-0828, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 601-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Quantitative assessment of an individual's absolute cardiovascular risk is essential for primary prevention. Although risk-scoring tools have been developed for this task, risk estimates are usually made subjectively. We investigated whether general practitioners (GPs), internists and cardiologists differ in their quantitative estimates of cardiovascular risk and their recommendations about lipid-lowering treatment for the same set of patients.

    Methods: Mail survey. Nine written clinical vignettes, four rated high-risk and five rated low-risk according to the Framingham equation, were mailed to 90 randomly selected GPs and to the same number of internists and cardiologists in Sicily. The doctors were then asked to estimate the 10-year coronary risk in each case and to decide whether they would recommend a lipid-lowering treatment.

    Results: In the majority of the nine cases, the cardiologists' risk estimates were significantly lower than those of the other two groups. A higher proportion of internists (mean value 0.68) decided to start treatment than GPs (0.54) or cardiologists (0.57). In all three groups, the doctors' willingness to begin treatment was over 90% when their risk estimate was above 20%, and less than 50% when it fell below this level. Internists were more prone to treat than the other two groups even when their patients' estimated risk was below 20%.

    Conclusion: When presented with the same set of clinical cases, GPs, internists and cardiologists make different quantitative risk estimates and come to different conclusions about the need for lipid-lowering treatment. This may result in over- or under-prescription of lipid-lowering drugs and inconsistencies in the care provided by different categories of doctors.

  • 49. Willén, Helena
    et al.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    From marital distress to divorce: The creation of new identities for the spouses.2006In: Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, ISSN 1050-2556, Vol. 45, no 1-2, p. 125-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article was to examine how people arrived at the decision to divorce. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with twelve couples in which both agreed the relationship was in trouble and at least one partner was seriously considering divorce. We found that initiating informants used cognitive, interactional and preparatory strategies, aiming at reconstructing the mental representation of the partner, the self, the relationship, as well as of the divorce option. Non-initiating partners sometimes used resistance strategies. Results are discussed in terms of dynamics between partners, identity making process and implications for family practice.

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