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  • 1.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sniff Your Way to Clarity: The Case of Olfactory Imagery2008In: CHEMOSENSORY PERCEPTION, ISSN 1936-5802, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 242-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed the effects of blocking spontaneous sniffing during olfactory imagery. A group of subjects (n=40) who scored high in olfactory focus and imagery ability rated the vividness in olfactory and visual imagery content under conditions of blocked sniffing, blocked vision, and a nonblocked control. The imagery stimuli consisted of 90 common words that could represent either an odor or a visual object. Blocked sniffing was expected to impair olfactory imagery vividness, but since visual imagery entails eye movements, which was not affected by the ""blocked vision"" manipulation, visual imagery ratings were effectively used as a placebo control. Confirming our hypotheses, the results showed that preventing sniffing resulted in a selectively poorer olfactory but not visual vividness, whereas blocked vision showed no effect on either the visual or olfactory vividness ratings. These observations confirm that sensorimotor activity is an important aspect for the quality of evoked olfactory images.

  • 2.
    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Willander, Johan
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The reminiscence bump is blind to blindness: Evidence from sound- and odor-evoked autobiographical memoryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Autobiographical memories (AMs) evoked by sensory cues, such as words, pictures, and sounds, typically form reminiscence bumps in adolescence and young adulthood. However, odors constitute an exception by shifting the bump to early childhood. Olfaction may be a “sense of first impressions”, as indicated by a unique hippocampal representation in the brain for first odor-to-object associations. However, the influence of the individual’s sensory function on AMs has never been examined. We examined the reminiscence bumps of sound- and odor-evoked memories of early-blind and sighted individuals, since blindness implies considerable changes in sensory experience. Despite such changes, the groups displayed similar age distributions of both sound- and odor-evoked memories. The auditory bump seemed to span the first two decades of life, whereas the olfactory bump was once again found in early childhood. Hence, the reminiscence bumps were robust to differences in sensory function and experience.

  • 3.
    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Willander, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    The reminiscence bump is blind to blindness: Evidence from sound- and odor-evoked autobiographical memory2020In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 78, article id 102876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reminiscence bump is the disproportionally high reporting of autobiographical memories from adolescence and early adulthood and is typically observed when memories are evoked by cues, such as words, pictures, and sounds. However, when odors are used the bump shifts to early childhood. Although these findings indicate that sensory modality affects the bump, the influence of the individual's sensory function on the reminiscence bumps is unknown. We examined the reminiscence bumps of sound- and odor-evoked autobiographical memories of early blind and sighted individuals, since early blindness implies considerable effects on sensory experience. Despite differences in sensory experience between blind and sighted individuals, the groups displayed similar age distributions of both sound- and odor-evoked memories. The auditory bump spanned the first two decades of life, whereas the olfactory bump was once again found in early childhood. These results demonstrate that the reminiscence bumps are robust to fundamental differences in sensory experience.

  • 4.
    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Affected by Smells?: Environmental Chemical Responsivity Predicts Odor Perception2011In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 641-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strong negative reactions, physical symptoms, and behavioral disruptions due to environmental odors are common in the adult population. We investigated relationships among such environmental chemosensory responsivity (CR), personality traits, affective states, and odor perception. Study 1 showed that CR and neuroticism were positively correlated in a sample of young adults (n = 101), suggesting that persons high in neuroticism respond more negatively to environmental odors. Study 2 explored the relationships among CR, noise responsivity (NR), neuroticism, and odor perception (i.e., pleasantness and intensity) in a subset of participants (n = 40). High CR was associated with high NR. Regression analyses indicated that high CR predicted higher odor intensity ratings and low olfactory threshold (high sensitivity) predicted lower pleasantness ratings. However, neuroticism was not directly associated with odor ratings or thresholds. Overall, the results suggest that CR and odor thresholds predict perceptual ratings of odors and that high CR is associated with nonchemosensory affective traits.

  • 5.
    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Willander, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University College of Gävle, Sweden.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Long-Term Memory for Odors: Influences of Familiarity and Identification Across 64 Days2015In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 259-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have investigated long-term odor recognition memory, although some early observations suggested that the forgetting rate of olfactory representations is slower than for other sensory modalities. This study investigated recognition memory across 64 days for high and low familiar odors and faces. Memory was assessed in 83 young participants at 4 occasions; immediate, 4, 16, and 64 days after encoding. The results indicated significant forgetting for odors and faces across the 64 days. The forgetting functions for the 2 modalities were not fundamentally different. Moreover, high familiar odors and faces were better remembered than low familiar ones, indicating an important role of semantic knowledge on recognition proficiency for both modalities. Although odor recognition was significantly better than chance at the 64 days testing, memory for the low familiar odors was relatively poor. Also, the results indicated that odor identification consistency across sessions, irrespective of accuracy, was positively related to successful recognition.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Effort in Memory Retrieval Predicts Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Do sincere eyewitness testimonies contain objective markers of accuracy? Despite the importance of evaluating the accuracy of verbal eyewitness testimonies, the evidence for objective measures are scarce, and current accuracy measures unsatisfactory. We demonstrate that expressed effort during memory retrieval can predict accuracy in honest eyewitnesses. Incorrect memories are recalled with greater effort (e.g. more delays and disfluencies) than correct memories.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    'He was...uhm...bald': Retrieval effort predicts eyewitness accuracy2019In: Book of Abstracts: 21st Conference of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology, 2019, p. 327-327, article id PS4.69Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating eyewitness testimonies has proven a difficult task. We investigated if incorrect memories are more effortful to retrieve than correct memories. Participants watched a simulated crime and were interviewed as eyewitnesses. We then analysed retrieval effort cues in witness responses. Results showed that incorrect memories included more “effort cues” than correct memories, and also partially mediated the relationship between confidence and accuracy.

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Effort in Memory Retrieval Predicts Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do sincere eyewitness testimonies contain objective markers of accuracy? We show that expressions of effort in memory retrieval predict eyewitness accuracy. Incorrect memories are recalled with greater effort than correct memories.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Philip U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Eyewitness accuracy and retrieval effort: Effects of time and repetition2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 9, article id e0273455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important task for the law enforcement is to assess the accuracy of eyewitness testimonies. Recent research show that indicators of effortful memory retrieval, such as pausing and hedging (e.g. “I think”, “maybe”), are more common in incorrect recall. However, a limitation in these studies is that participants are interviewed shortly after witnessing an event, as opposed to after greater retention intervals. We set out to mitigate this shortcoming by investigating the retrieval effort-accuracy relationship over time. In this study, participants watched a staged crime and were interviewed directly afterwards, and two weeks later. Half the participants also carried out a repetition task during the two-week retention interval. Results showed that the retrieval-effort cues Delays and Hedges predicted accuracy at both sessions, including after repetition. We also measured confidence, and found that confidence also predicted accuracy over time, although repetition led to increased confidence for incorrect memories. Moreover, retrieval-effort cues partially mediated between accuracy and confidence. 

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  • 10.
    Gustafsson, Philip U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Judging the accuracy of eyewitness testimonies using retrieval effort cues2021In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 1224-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has shown that incorrect statements in eyewitness testimonies contain more cues to effortful memory retrieval than correct statements. In two experiments, we attempted to improve judgments of testimony accuracy by informing participants about these effort cues. Participants read eyewitness testimony transcripts and judged statement accuracy. Performance was above chance in both experiments, but there was only a significant effect of the effort-cue instruction in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, we also compared judgment accuracy between police detectives, police students and laypersons, and found no significant difference, in contrast to previous studies. Moreover, the current study corroborates previous findings that (a) judging testimony accuracy is a difficult task and (b) people spontaneously rely on effort cues to some extent when judging accuracy. However, a complete reliance on effort cues showed substantially better performance than relying on one's own judgments skills at best, and offered equal performance at worst.

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  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Philip U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Predicting Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies With Memory Retrieval Effort and Confidence2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating eyewitness testimonies has proven a difficult task. Recent research, however, suggests that incorrect memories are more effortful to retrieve than correct memories, and confidence in a memory is based on retrieval effort. We aimed to replicate and extend these findings, adding retrieval latency as a predictor of memory accuracy. Participants watched a film sequence with a staged crime and were interviewed about its content. We then analyzed retrieval effort cues in witness responses. Results showed that incorrect memories included more “effort cues” than correct memories. While correct responses were produced faster than incorrect responses, delays in responses proved a better predictor of accuracy than response latency. Furthermore, participants were more confident in correct than incorrect responses, and the effort cues partially mediated this confidence-accuracy relation. In sum, the results support previous findings of a relationship between memory accuracy and objectively verifiable cues to retrieval effort.

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  • 12.
    Jemstedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Germany.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    What moderates the accuracy of ease of learning judgments?2017In: Metacognition and Learning, ISSN 1556-1623, E-ISSN 1556-1631, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 337-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When people begin to study new material, they may first judge how difficult it will be to learn. Surprisingly, these ease of learning (EOL) judgments have received little attention by metacognitive researchers so far. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate how well EOL judgments can predict actual learning, and what factors may moderate their relative accuracy. In three experiments, undergraduate psychology students made EOL judgments on, then studied, and were tested on, lists of word-pairs (e.g., sun – warm). In Experiment 1, the Goodman-Kruskal gamma (G) correlations showed that EOL judgments were accurate (G = .74) when items varied enough in difficulty to allow for proper discrimination between them, but were less accurate (G = .21) when variation was smaller. Furthermore, in Experiment 1 and 3, we showed that the relative accuracy was reliably higher when the EOL judgments were correlated with a binary criterion (i.e., if an item was recalled or not on a test), compared with a trials-to-learn criterion (i.e., how many study and test trials were needed to recall an item). In addition, Experiments 2 and 3 indicate other factors to be non-influential for EOL accuracy, such as the task used to measure the EOL judgments, and whether items were judged sequentially (i.e., one item at a time in isolation from the other items) or simultaneously (i.e., each item was judged while having access to all other items). To conclude, EOL judgments can be highly accurate (G = .74) and may thus be of strategic importance for learning. Further avenues for research are discussed.

  • 13.
    Jemstedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Schwartz, Bennett L.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Ease-of-learning judgments are based on both processing fluency and beliefs2018In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 807-815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Processing fluency influences many types of judgments. Some metacognitive research suggests that the influence of processing fluency may be mediated by participants’ beliefs. The current study explores the influence of processing fluency and beliefs on ease-of-learning (EOL) judgments. In two experiments (Exp 1: n = 94; Exp 2: n = 146), participants made EOL judgments on 24 six-letter concrete nouns, presented in either a constant condition (high fluency) with upper-case letters (e.g., BUCKET) or an alternating condition (low fluency) with mixed upper- and lower-case letters (e.g., bUcKeT). After judging words individually, participants studied the words and completed a free recall test. Finally, participants indicated what condition they believed made the words more likely to be learned. Results show constant-condition words were judged as more likely to be learned than alternating condition words, but the difference varied with beliefs. Specifically, the difference was biggest when participants believed the constant condition made words more likely to be learned, followed by believing there was no difference, and then believing the alternating condition made words more likely to be learned. Thus, we showed that processing fluency has a direct effect on EOL judgments, but the effect is moderated by beliefs.

  • 14.
    Jägerskog, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Teaching and Learning in the Social Sciences (CeSam).
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Who benefits from visual illustrations in psychology teaching – A question of diversifying teaching according to learning style or not?2015In: NoFa5: Nordic Conference on Subject Education: Book of Abstracts, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2015, p. 154-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key question concerning the use of visual illustrations in teaching is whether teaching should be diversified and adapted according to students’ preferred learning style (visualiser-verbaliser), whether focus should be on strategies that work well in general (multimedia learning), independent of preference, or whether it is worthwhile to combine the two to further improve learning. Upper secondary students were given a psychology lecture presented only verbally or with the aid of visual illustration. Results from a learning test were analysed in relation to the students’ self-rated learning style. Visouverbal presentation resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only, independently of learning style. Support was not found for the learning styles hypothesis, since there was no crossover interaction. However, students with mixed or visual learning styles performed generally better on the learning test than students with a verbal learning style. Since the use of visual illustrations seems to have a beneficial effect on learning for all students, this mode of instruction ought to be used in teaching. Rather than being a tool for teachers to adapt their teaching, learning styles diagnoses may be used in order to identify students who need to develop their study strategies towards a more visual preference.

  • 15.
    Jägerskog, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Teaching and Learning in the Social Sciences (CeSam).
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Who benefits from visual illustrations in psychology teaching: A question of learning style or not?2015In: EARLI 2015: Book of Abstracts, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key question concerning the use of visual illustrations in teaching is whether teaching should be adapted according to students’ preferred learning style (visualiser-verbaliser), whether focus should be on strategies that work well in general (multimedia learning), independent of preference, or whether it is worthwhile to combine the two to further improve learning. Upper secondary school students were given a lecture presented only verbally or with the aid of a visual illustration. Results from a learning test were analysed in relation to the students’ self rated learning style. Visouverbal presentation resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only, independently of learning style. Support was not found for the learning styles hypothesis, since there was no crossover interaction. However, students with mixed or visual learning styles performed generally better on the learning test than students with a verbal learning style. Since the use of visual illustrations seems to have a beneficial effect on learning for all students, this mode of instruction ought to be used in teaching. Rather than being a tool for teachers to adapt their teaching, learning styles diagnoses may be used in order to identify students who need to develop their study strategies towards a more visual preference.

  • 16.
    Jägerskog, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Selander, Staffan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Learning through Visual Illustration and Retrieval Practice2014In: Earli SIG 2 Comprehension of text and graphics, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that studying with (vs. without) visual illustrations as well as taking tests (vs. restudying) is beneficial for learning. Both are well-known learning strategies, but they have not previously been investigated in combination and rarely in the classroom. In this study, 133 upper secondary students were given a lecture presented only verbally or with the aid of a visual illustration. The students processed the information again either by retrieval practice or by restudying it. Recall and transfer tests were conducted after some few minutes, after a week and after 10 weeks. Visuoverbal presentation resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only. Although a modest testing effect was found, this effect was considerably weaker than the multimedia effect. Retrieval practice did not improve the participants’ memory performance beyond the beneficial effect of visuoverbal learning. Presentation format proved to be a more important factor for learning than study strategy.

     

     

     

  • 17.
    Jägerskog, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Selander, Staffan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Multimedia learning trumps retrieval practice in psychology teaching2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 222-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that studying with (vs. without) visual illustrations as well as taking tests (vs. restudying) is beneficial for learning, but on which strategy should one put the efforts, or should they be combined for best learning? Eighty-eight upper secondary school students were given a brief lecture presented verbally (6 classes) or with the aid of a visual illustration (visuoverbal, 6 classes). The information was processed again by taking a memory test or by restudying. Recall and transfer tests were conducted after some few minutes and again after one week. The visuoverbal lecture resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only. A significant study strategy by retention interval interaction was found. However, this interaction was not qualified by a testing effect. Hence, taking tests (retrieval practice) did not lead to better learning than restudying. It was concluded that it is worthwhile to use visual illustrations in teaching. However, the present study did not reveal any synergistic effects from the combination of visuoverbal presentation and retrieval practice.

  • 18.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olfactory metacognition: A metamemory perspective on odor naming.2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Henrik
    Olsson, Mats J
    Odor emotionality affects the confidence in odor naming.2005In: Chem Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 29-35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Mats J
    Olfactory metacognition.2003In: Chem Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 651-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tchekhova, Antoinette
    Lönner, Pär
    Olsson, Mats J
    A metamemory perspective on odor naming and identification.2005In: Chem Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 353-65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hedner, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The Testing Effect as a Function of Explicit Testing Instructions and Judgments of Learning2012In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 251-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During study, people monitor their learning; the output of this monitoring is captured in so-called judgments of learning (JOLs). JOLs predict later recall better if they are made after a slight delay, instead of immediately after study (the delayed JOL effect). According to the self-fulfilling prophecy (SFP) hypothesis delayed JOLs are based on covert retrieval attempts from long-term memory, and successful retrieval attempts in themselves enhance learning (the testing effect). We compared memory for 40 Swahili-Swedish paired associates after a week as a function of three different learning conditions, namely study plus (i) explicitly instructed self-testing, (ii) delayed JOLs, or (iii) less self-testing. We showed that repeated delayed JOLs lead to a memory improvement insignificantly different from a comparable condition where the participants are explicitly testing memory, and both the latter groups performed reliably better than a group that self-tested less. The results suggest that delayed JOLs improve long-term retention as efficiently as explicit memory testing and lend support to the SFP hypothesis.

  • 23.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Jemstedt, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Schwartz, Bennett L.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Germany.
    Cue Competition Explains when Ease-of-Learning Judgments and Judgments of Learning Differ in AccuracyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kerimi, Neda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An investigation of students' knowledge of the delayed judgements of learning effect2011In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 358-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Judgements of learning (JOL) of paired associates can be made immediately after learning or after a delay, while viewing the first word (cue) only or both words (cue–target) in a pair. Delayed cue-only judgements are more related to subsequent memory performance than delayed cue–target, immediate cue-only, or immediate cue–target judgements. In two experiments we tested students' knowledge of this delayed JOL effect and whether their knowledge increases as a function of task experience (Experiment 2). The majority of the participants did not choose the more effective judgement strategy and they did not systematically alter their behaviour as a function of task experience. Instead, a subset of the participants selected judgement strategies on the basis of a learning goal, that is, a strategy that let them restudy both words in a pair. In sum, most students appear to be unaware of the powerful influence of delayed cue-only JOLs on monitoring accuracy.

  • 25.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson Sundqvist, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Todorov, Ivo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    How crucial is the response format for the testing effect?2014In: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 78, no 5, p. 623-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining study and test trials during learning is more beneficial for long-term retention than repeated study without testing (i.e., the testing effect). Less is known about the relative efficacy of different response formats during testing. We tested the hypothesis that overt testing (typing responses on a keyboard) during a practice phase benefits later memory more than covert testing (only pressing a button to indicate successful retrieval). In Experiment 1, three groups learned 40 word pairs either by repeatedly studying them, by studying and overtly testing them, or by studying and covertly testing them. In Experiment 2, only the two testing conditions were manipulated in a within-subjects design. In both experiments, participants received cued recall tests after a short (similar to 19 min) and a long (1 week) retention interval. In Experiment 1, all groups performed equally well at the short retention interval. The overt testing group reliably outperformed the repeated study group after 1 week, whereas the covert testing group performed insignificantly different from both these groups. Hence, the testing effect was demonstrated for overt, but failed to show for covert testing. In Experiment 2, overtly tested items were better and more quickly retrieved than those covertly tested. Further, this does not seem to be due to any differences in retrieval effort during learning. To conclude, overt testing was more beneficial for later retention than covert testing, but the effect size was small. Possible explanations are discussed.

  • 26.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindström, Björn R.
    Using a multidimensional scaling approach to investigate the underlying basis of ease of learning judgments2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 103-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Before studying a material it is of strategic importance to first assess its difficulty, so called Ease of Learning (EOL) judgments. A multidimensional scaling (MDS) procedure was used to investigate the underlying basis of EOL judgments for 24 nouns, which to the authors' knowledge has not been done before. In addition, Judgments of Learning (JOL) followed by a free recall test was performed. The MDS analysis indicated that EOL judgments for the nouns are based on multiple cues (dimensions), namely word length, frequency, and concreteness. Moreover, the concreteness values of the nouns, as judged by an independent group, were correlated with both the JOLs and the concreteness dimension from the MDS analysis. This indicates that EOLs and JOLs for single words are based, to some extent, on the same cues.

  • 27.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Møller, Per
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Olfactory working memory: effects of verbalization on the 2-back task2011In: Memory & Cognition, ISSN 0090-502X, E-ISSN 1532-5946, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 1023-1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory for odors, which has received almost no attention in the literature, was investigated in two experiments. We show that performance in a 2-back task with odor stimuli is well above chance. This is true not only for highly familiar odors, as has been shown by Dade, Zatorre, Evans, and Jones-Gotman, NeuroImage, 14, 650–660, (2001), but also for unfamiliar ones that are notoriously difficult to name. We can conclude that information about an olfactory stimulus can be retained in the short term and can continuously be updated for comparison with new olfactory probes along the lines of a functional odor working memory. However, the performance in the working memory task is highly dependent on participants’ verbalization of the odor. In addition, results indicated that odor working memory performance is dependent on the ability to discriminate among the odor stimuli (Experiment 2). The results are discussed in relation to recent ideas of a separate olfactory working memory slave system.

  • 28.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Knowing what we smell2012In: Olfactory Cognition: From perception and memory to environmental odours and neuroscience / [ed] Gesualdo M. Zucco, Rachel S. Herz, Benoist Schaal, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, p. 115-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we review the nature of, and performance levels for, odor source naming, and the different proposed explanations to the generally low odor naming performance observed in experimental studies. We differentiate between odor naming and odor identification and show that although humans can rarely name more than 50% of common household items, this is not an odor naming problem, but rather reflects the difficulty we have in identifying odors. We investigate two broad accounts of odor identification failures in terms of perceptual and associative processes necessary for correct identification. Additionally, we discuss the feeling of knowing and tip of the nose experience commonly associated with identification failures. This type of metacognition provides us with odor knowledge in the absence of odor identification. In light of these phenomena, we discuss the importance of odor identification for olfactory functioning.

  • 29.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stevenson, Richard J.
    Odor Knowledge, Odor Naming, and the Tip-of-the-Nose Experience2014In: Tip-of-the-Tongue States and Related Phenomena, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 305-326Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Willander, Johan
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Gustafsson Sénden, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender differences in autobiographical memory: Females latently express communality more than malesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender differences have been found in several aspects of autobiographical memory (i.e., personally experienced events). For example, previous studies have shown that females’ autobiographical memories contain more communal and emotional expressions than males’ do. However, an important question concerns whether these differences can be observed both in the manifest content (i.e., what is actually said) and in the latent content (i.e., the underlying meaning of what is said). In the present exploratory study, we extended the current knowledge concerning gender differences in autobiographical memory by investigating the manifestly expressed (with LIWC) as well as the latently expressed (with LSA) in autobiographical memory descriptions. We observed an overall gender difference in the latent content of the autobiographical memories. Furthermore, females latently described their memories in more communal terms than males did. No other gender differences were found. Our results indicate that females’ autobiographical memories are more communally oriented than male’s.

  • 31. Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Jemstedt, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Mahjub Eshratabadi, Hassan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schwartz, Bennett L.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    The underconfidence-with-practice effect in action memory: The contribution of retrieval practice to metacognitive monitoring2022In: Metacognition and Learning, ISSN 1556-1623, E-ISSN 1556-1631, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 375-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When making memory predictions (judgments of learning; JOLs), people typically underestimate the recall gain across multiple study–test cycles, termed the underconfidence-with-practice (UWP) effect. This is usually studied with verbal materials, but little is known about how people repeatedly learn and monitor their own actions and to what extent retrieval practice via interim tests influence the progression of JOLs across cycles. Using action phrases (i.e., squeeze the lemon) as learning material, we demonstrated the UWP effect after both verbal and enactive encoding, although we did not get first-cycle overconfidence. As predicted, participants exhibited underconfidence in Cycles 2 and 3, as an error of calibrations. However, people’s resolution of JOLs (i.e., ability to discriminate recalled from unrecalled items) increased across study–test cycles. Importantly, JOLs for study–test (relative to study–study) items increased faster across cycles suggesting that repeated study–test practice not only produces underconfidence across cycles, but also reduces underconfidence relative to study–study practice. We discuss these findings in terms of current explanations of the underconfidence-with-practice effect.

  • 32.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany; Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    de Jonge, Mario
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Putting action into testing: Enacted retrieval benefits long-term retention more than covert retrieval2020In: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1747-0218, E-ISSN 1747-0226, Vol. 73, no 12, p. 2093-2105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrieval practice improves long-term retention. However, it is currently debated if this testing effect can be further enhanced by overtly producing recalled responses. We addressed this issue using a standard cued-recall testing-effect paradigm with verb–noun action phrases (e.g., water the plant) to prompt motor actions as a specifically powerful response format of recall. We then tested whether motorically performing the recalled verb targets (e.g., ?–the plant) during an initial recall test (enacted retrieval) led to better long-term retention than silently retrieving them (covert retrieval) or restudying the complete verb–noun phrases (restudy). The results demonstrated a direct testing effect, in that long-term retention was enhanced for covert retrieval practice compared to restudy practice. Critically, enactment during retrieval further improved long-term retention beyond the effect of covert memory retrieval, both in a congruent noun-cued recall test after 1 week (Experiment 1) and in an incongruent verb-cued recall test of nouns after 2 weeks (Experiment 2). This finding suggests that successful memory retrieval and ensuing enactment contribute to future memory performance in parts via different mechanisms.

  • 33.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Knopf, Monika
    Mack, Wolfgang
    The Direct Testing Effect Is Pervasive in Action Memory: Analyses of Recall Accuracy and Recall Speed2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful retrieval from memory is a desirably difficult learning event that reduces the recall decrement of studied materials over longer delays more than restudying does. The present study was the first to test this direct testing effect for performed and read action events (e.g., light a candle) in terms of both recall accuracy and recall speed. To this end, subjects initially encoded action phrases by either enacting them or reading them aloud (i.e., encoding type). After this initial study phase, they received two practice phases, in which the same number of action phrases were restudied or retrieval-practiced (Exp. 1-3), or not further processed (Exp. 3; i.e., practice type). This learning session was ensued by a final cued-recall test both after a short delay (2 min) and after a long delay (1 week: Exp. 1 and 2; 2 weeks: Exp. 3). To test the generality of the results, subjects retrieval practiced with either noun-cued recall of verbs (Exp. 1 and 3) or verb-cued recall of nouns (Exp. 2) during the intermediate and final tests (i.e., test type). We demonstrated direct benefits of testing on both recall accuracy and recall speed. Repeated retrieval practice, relative to repeated restudy and study-only practice, reduced the recall decrement over the long delay, and enhanced phrases' recall speed already after 2 min, and this independently of type of encoding and recall test. However, a benefit of testing on long-term retention only emerged (Exp. 3), when prolonging the recall delay from 1 to 2 weeks, and using different sets of phrases for the immediate and delayed final tests. Thus, the direct testing benefit appears to be highly generalizable even with more complex, action-oriented stimulus materials, and encoding manipulations. We discuss these results in terms of the distribution-based bifurcation model.

  • 34.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Knopf, Monika
    Two effects, one explanation: a study on the effects of intended and actual enactment2012In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 47, no Supplement 1, p. 562-562Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Motor-function encoding action phrases, facilitates recollection more than verbal encoding (enactment effect, c.f. Nilsson, 2000). Further, if the phrases are intended to be recalled via motor-function encoding it also leads to higher memory accessibility, referred to as the intention-superiority effect (Goschke & Kuhl, 1993) or the intended enactment effect (Freeman & Ellis, 2003), depending on whether the same process or different processes are assumed to underlie both effects. In three experiments, both effects were studied as a function of list length (18, 30, 60, or 90 items), retrieval measures (free recall, cued recall and recognition). Additionally, different moderator variables for these effects were investigated (familiarity, degree of motor involvement of the action phrases, individual differences in action orientation). Similar effects of intended and actual enactment were found for memory accuracy and accessibility (i.e., response latencies), but the effects were moderated by the nature of the action phrase and action orientation. State-oriented individuals and highly motoric action phrases showed a pronounced (intended) enactment effect. The results, at least partially, support a common explanation for both effects.

  • 35.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Putting Action Memory to the Test: Testing Affects Restudy but not Forgetting of Action EventsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Testing Effects on Subsequent Re-Encoding and Forgetting of Action PhrasesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden; Swedish Collegium of Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of testing on subsequent re-encoding and long-term forgetting of action-relevant materials: On the influence of recall type2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 475-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing one's memory of previously studied information reduces the rate of forgetting, compared to restudy. However, little is known about how this direct testing effect applies to action phrases (e.g., wash the car) - a learning material relevant to everyday memory. As action phrases consist of two different components, a verb (e.g., wash) and a noun (e.g., car), testing can either be implemented as noun-cued recall of verbs or verb-cued recall of nouns, which may differently affect later memory performance. In the present study, we investigated the effect of testing for these two recall types, using verbally encoded action phrases as learning materials. Results showed that repeated study-test practice, compared to repeated study-restudy practice, decreased the forgetting rate across 1 week to a similar degree for both noun-cued and verb-cued recall types. However, noun-cued recall of verbs initiated more new subsequent learning during the first restudy, compared to verb-cued recall of nouns. The study provides evidence that testing has benefits on both subsequent restudy and long-term retention of action-relevant materials, but that these benefits are differently expressed with testing via noun-cued versus verb-cued recall.

  • 38.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Swedish Collegium of Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Putting action memory to the test: Testing affects subsequent restudy but not long-term forgetting of action events2016In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 209-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing memory typically enhances subsequent re-encoding of information (“indirect” testing effect) and, as compared to restudy, it also benefits later long-term retention (“direct” testing effect). We investigated the effect of testing on subsequent restudy and 1-week retention of action events (e.g. “water the plant”). In addition, we investigated if the type of recall practice (noun-cued vs. verb-cued) moderates these testing benefits. The results showed an indirect testing effect that increased following noun-cued recall of verbs as compared to verb-cued recall of nouns. In contrast, a direct testing effect on the forgetting rate of performed actions was not reliably observed, neither for noun- nor verb-cued recall. Thus, to the extent that this study successfully dissociated direct and indirect testing-based enhancements, they seem to be differentially effective for performed actions, and may rely on partially different mechanisms.

  • 39.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Hedvig
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Individual and Combined Effects of Enactment and Testing on Memory for Action Phrases2014In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 347-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the individual and combined effects of enactment and testing on memory for action phrases to address whether bothstudy techniques commonly promote item-specific processing. Participants (N = 112) were divided into four groups (n = 28). They eitherexclusively studied 36 action phrases (e.g., ‘‘lift the glass’’) or both studied and cued-recalled them in four trials. During study trials participantsencoded the action phrases either by motorically performing them, or by reading them aloud, and they took final verb-cued recall tests over 18-min and 1-week retention intervals. A testing effect was demonstrated for action phrases, however, only when they were verbally encoded, andnot when they were enacted. Similarly, enactive (relative to verbal) encoding reduced the rate of forgetting, but only when the action phraseswere exclusively studied, and not when they were also tested. These less-than-additive effects of enactment and testing on the rate of forgetting,as well as on long-term retention, support the notion that both study techniques effectively promote item-specific processing that can only bemarginally increased further by combining them.

  • 40.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Öberg-Blåvarg, Christina
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Bad odors stick better than good ones: Olfactory qualities and odor recognition2009In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 375-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influences of perceived odor qualities on the retention of olfactory information across the adult lifespan were examined. Young (19–36 years), young-old (60–74 years), and old (75–91 years) adults (n = 202) rated a set of unfamiliar odors across a series of perceptual dimensions (i.e., pleasantness, intensity, and irritability) at encoding. The overall results indicated that memory for unpleasant olfactory information was better than that for pleasant odors across the lifespan. Also, participants showed better retention for odors perceived with high intensity and irritability than for odors rated with low or medium scores. Interestingly, the old adults showed selective beneficial memory effects for odors rated as highly irritable. To the extent that perceptions of high irritability reflect an activation of the trigeminal sensory system, this finding suggests that older adults may use trigeminal components in odor information to compensate for age-related impairments in olfactory memory.

  • 41.
    Larsson Sundqvist, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Assessing Boundary Conditions of the Testing Effect: On the Relative Efficacy of Covert vs. Overt Retrieval2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Repeated testing during learning often improves later memory, which is often referred to as the testing effect. To clarify its boundary conditions, we examined whether the testing effect was selectively affected by covert (retrieved but not articulated) or overt (retrieved and articulated) response format. In Experiments 1 and 2, we compared immediate (5 min) and delayed (1 week) cued recall for paired associates following study-only, covert, and overt conditions, including two types of overt articulation (typing and writing). A clear testing effect was observed in both experiments, but with no selective effects of response format. In Experiments 3 and 4, we compared covert and overt retrieval under blocked and random list orders. The effect sizes were small in both experiments, but there was a significant effect of response format, with overt retrieval showing better final recall performance than covert retrieval. There were no significant effects of blocked versus random list orders with respect to the testing effect produced. Taken together, these findings suggest that, under specific circumstances, overt retrieval may lead to a greater testing effect than that of covert retrieval, but because of small effect sizes, it appears that the testing effect is mainly the result of retrieval processes and that articulation has fairly little to add to its magnitude in a paired-associates learning paradigm.

  • 42.
    Larsson Sundqvist, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Todorov, Ivo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Study for now, but judge for later: Delayed judgments of learning promote long term retention2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 450-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Larsson Sundqvist, M., Todorov, I., Kubik, V. & Jonsson, F.U. (2012) Study for now, but judge for later: Delayed judgments of learning promote long-term retention. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 53, 450-454. Delayed judgments of learning (JOL) are assumed to be based on covert retrieval attempts. A common finding is that testing memory during learning improves later retention (i.e., the testing effect), and even more so than an equivalent amount of study, but only after a longer retention interval. To test the assertion that also delayed JOLs improve memory, the participants either studied Swahili-Swedish word pairs four times, or they both studied (two times) and performed delayed JOLs (two times) alternately. Final cued recall test were given after either five minutes or one week. Results showed a reliable learning-group by retention-interval interaction, with less forgetting in the group that alternated between studying and making JOLs. The results are discussed in relation to the self-fulfilling prophecy account of Spellman and Bjork (1992), and in terms of study advice, the results further underscore the importance of delaying JOLs when studying and evaluating ones ongoing learning.

  • 43.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Effort Cues Predict Eyewitness Accuracy2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate whether retrieval effort cues are related to eyewitness accuracy, and the relative role of effort cues and witnesses’ confidence in predicting memory. The results demonstrate that verbal and paraverbal retrieval effort cues are strongly related to witnesses’ accuracy. Moreover, subjective confidence in memory rests on these cues.

  • 44.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Italy.
    Retrieval effort cues predict eyewitness accuracy2018In: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 534-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has documented that correct eyewitness memories are more rapidly recalled and recognized than are incorrect ones, suggesting that retrieval ease is diagnostic of memory accuracy. Building on these findings, the current research explores whether verbal and paraverbal cues to retrieval effort could be used to determine the accuracy of honestly reported eyewitness statements about a crime event. Moreover, we examine the relative role of such effort cues and witnesses’ subjective confidence in predicting memory accuracy. The results of 2 studies demonstrate that objectively verifiable verbal and paraverbal cues to retrieval effort are strongly related to honest witnesses’ memory accuracy and that several of these cues contribute uniquely to predict accuracy. Moreover, we show that subjective confidence in a memory rests on these effort cues and that the cues mediate the confidence−accuracy relation. Given research showing that most people have vast difficulties in judging the quality of others’ memories, combined with the scarcity of research on predictors of genuinely reported memories, these initial findings suggest unexplored alternatives that may prove highly useful for improving accuracy judgments, with potentially far-reaching significance not the least in the legal context.

  • 45. Olsson, Mats J
    et al.
    Faxbrink, Maria
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Repetition priming in odor memory2002In: Olfaction, Taste, and Cognition, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press , 2002Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46. Olsson, Mats J.
    et al.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, sweden.
    Is it easier to match a name to an odor or vice versa?2008In: Chemosensory Perception, ISSN 1936-5802, E-ISSN 1936-5810, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 184-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous literature and common belief suggest a cognitive asymmetry in the odor–name relationship such that it would be easier to match a name to an odor than the other way around. We tested whether it is more difficult to smell an odor and then choose a proper name among three alternatives than to read an odor name and then choose a matching odor among three alternatives. Although instances of an asymmetry are suggested, in both directions, depending on which odors or odor names are involved, the overall conclusion is that no general unidirectional asymmetry is evident. This was true for odorants of both high and low familiarity and identifiability. Different cognitive factors in a complete model of odor–name matching are identified and discussed.

  • 47.
    Oscarsson, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Nelson, M.
    Rozental, A.
    Ginsberg, Y.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Developing an internet-based stress-management program for working adults with ADHD2022In: Abstracts from the 11th Swedish Congress on internet interventions (SWEsrii), Gothenburg, Sweden, 23-24 May 2022, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2022, p. 9-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The proportion of sickness absence due to psychiatric diagnoses has increased drastically. It is reasonable to assume that ADHD adults are overly represented in these cases. Thus, it is urgent to manage and prevent work-related mental illness in this population. Yet, the possibilities of doing so have not been studied extensively. Therefore, this project evaluates the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of an internet-based stress-management program developed specifically for this at-risk population. In this presentation, the protocol for developing and assessing the program is presented, including ADHD adults’ attitudes toward the program and comparing current interventions.

    Methods: To assess attitudes toward the program, transcripts from 20 interviews with ADHD adults were explored using descriptive thematic analysis. The interviews focused on the scope, content, and duration of the proposed intervention and the design and possible inclusion of therapist support. The program will be based on existing support and interventions for ADHD adults. The development will include a thorough assessment of previous research, including quantitative and qualitative studies, meta-analyses, and literature reviews. The most relevant and effective material will be adapted to the internet format and the ADHD-adult population.

    Results and discussion: This project will further the knowledge of possible ways to manage and prevent work-related mental illness among ADHD adults, including related sickness absence. If the proposed program shows promising results, it could quickly be made available to caregivers and/or the public, conceivably conserving considerable resources for individuals, employers, and society.

  • 48.
    Oscarsson, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Nelson, Martina
    Rozental, Alexander
    Ginsberg, Ylva
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    A qualitative study of stress and work-related mental illness among working adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Many adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) underperform professionally, are more stressed, and have more days of sickness absence than adults without ADHD. Still, few studies have explored ADHD adults’ experiences of working life. This study aimed to explore the broad experience of working as an adult with ADHD, specifically explore stress and work-related mental illness among adults with ADHD, and identify needs to prevent these negative outcomes.

    Methods: In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 20 working adults with ADHD. Topics in the interviews included how the ADHD diagnosis and/or symptoms of ADHD may have affected participants on the job, how work may have affected participants’ well-being, and the need for support and accommodation. A conventional approach to qualitative content analysis was used to explore verbatim transcripts from the interviews.

    Results: The analysis yielded three themes of everyday experiences of working with ADHD: Working and living with ADHD, Needs, and Special abilities. These themes included eight subcategories: Specific challenges; Relationships and cooperation; Negative consequences; Planning, prioritization, organization, and structure; Support, interventions, accommodations, and aids; Openness, understanding, and acceptance; Strategies; Strengths and qualities.

    Conclusions: The results suggest that further knowledge about the challenges of working with ADHD is needed in workplaces; where organizational support is lacking, much in terms of accommodations and aids is up to the employee, and the disclosure of diagnoses may be associated with a great dilemma. The results may also inform other social partners, e.g., labor organizations and work environment authorities, and advise regulations, recommendations, and legislation.

  • 49.
    Oscarsson, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Nelson, Martina
    Rozental, Alexander
    Ginsberg, Ylva
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Stress and work-related mental illness among working adults with ADHD: a qualitative study2022In: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Though many adults with ADHD underperform professionally, are more stressed, and have more days of sickness absence compared to adults without ADHD, few studies have explored the experience of working as an adult with ADHD. This study explores the general experience of working with ADHD, including stress and work-related mental illness.

    Methods: Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 20 working adults with ADHD. Interview topics included how the ADHD diagnosis and/or symptoms of ADHD may have affected participants on the job, how work may have affected participants’ well-being, and the need for support and accommodation. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore verbatim transcripts from the interviews.

    Results: The analysis yielded three themes that describe some of the challenges of working with ADHD: Working and living with ADHD, Needs, and Special abilities, with a total of eight subcategories. Subcategories were Specific challenges; Relationships and cooperation; Negative consequences; Planning, prioritization, organization, and structure; Support, interventions, accommodations, and aids; Openness, understanding, and acceptance; Strategies; Strengths and qualities.

    Conclusion: Further knowledge about the challenges of working with ADHD is needed in workplaces; where organizational support is lacking, much in terms of accommodations and aids is up to the employee, and the disclosure of diagnoses may be associated with great dilemma.

  • 50.
    Oscarsson, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Ginsberg, Ylva
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    A Novel Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Stress-Management Program for Working Adults With ADHD2023In: Abstract Book of the 10th World Congress of Cognitive and Behavioral Therapies. Global CBT Dissemination, Accessibility and New Technology: Open Papers 41: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and ADHD / [ed] Younghee Choi & Simon Blackwell, 2023, p. 477-477Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In the last few decades, the proportion of sickness absence due to psychiatric diagnoses has increased drastically. This can be attributed to several factors, including a transition from physical to psychosocial strain at work, and difficulties balancing full-time employment alongside family obligations. A population that may have certain difficulties balancing work, leisure, and family, is adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Adults with ADHD are more stressed, more often on sick leave, and receive sickness absence recommendations to a greater extent than adults without ADHD. Thus, it is urgent to manage and prevent stress and other work- related mental illnesses in this population. This project evaluates the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of an internet-based cognitive- behavioral stress-management program, developed specifically for this at-risk population.

    Method: The novel stress-management program is based on existing support and interventions for ADHD adults. It is also inspired by existing support and interventions for relevant psychological disorders based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) principles. This includes both tailored and transdiagnostic CBT applications. The development includes thoroughly assessing previous research, including quantitative and qualitative studies, meta-analyses, and literature reviews. The most relevant and effective material is adapted to the internet format and the ADHD-adult population. Modules include information and exercises on: how ADHD symptoms affect work, leisure, and relationships; planning and prioritizing on and off the job; communication, assertiveness, and setting boundaries; sleep and recovery; and more. The program will be evaluated in a pilot study during the spring of 2023, revised, and later tested in a randomized controlled trial.

    Results: At the time of writing, recruitment to the pilot study is about to begin. Preliminary results are expected to be presented at the 10th World Congress of Cognitive and Behavioral Therapies in Seoul.

    Discussion: Despite the fact that many adults with ADHD are more stressed, more often on sick leave, and receive sickness absence recommendations to a greater extent than adults without ADHD, few studies have explored the possibility to manage and prevent these negative outcomes. This project will further the knowledge of possible ways to manage and prevent stress and other work-related mental illness among ADHD adults. If the internet-based CBT stress-management program shows promising results, it could quickly be made available to caregivers and/or the public, conceivably conserving considerable resources for individuals, employers, and society.

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