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  • 1. Alexanderson, K.
    et al.
    Kivimäki, M.
    Ferrie, J. E.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vahtera, J.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Melchior, M.
    Zins, M.
    Goldberg, M.
    Head, J.
    Diagnosis-specific sick leave as a long-term predictor of disability pension: a 13-year follow-up of the GAZEL cohort study2012In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 155-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Factors that increase the risk of labour market exclusion are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the extent to which all-cause and diagnosis-specific sick leave predict subsequent disability pension (DP).

    Methods Prospective cohort study of 20 434 persons employed by the French national gas and electric company (the GAZEL study). New sick-leave spells >7 days in 1990–1992 were obtained from company records. Follow-up for DP was from 1994 to 2007.

    Results The HR, adjusted for age and occupational position, for DP was 3.5 (95% CI 2.7 to 4.5) in men and 2.6 (95% CI 1.9 to 3.5) in women with one or more sick-leave spells >7 days compared with those with no sick leave. The strongest predictor of DP was sick leave with a psychiatric diagnosis, HR 7.6 (95% CI 5.2 to 10.9) for men and 4.1 (95% CI 2.9 to 5.9) for women. Corresponding HRs for sick leave due to circulatory diagnoses in men and women were 5.6 (95% CI 3.7 to 8.6) and 3.1 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.3), for respiratory diagnoses 3.9 (95% CI 2.6 to 5.8) and 2.6 (95% CI 1.7 to 4.0), and musculoskeletal diagnoses 4.6 (95% CI 3.4 to 6.4) and 3.3 (95% CI 2.2 to 4.8), respectively.

    Conclusions Sick leave with a psychiatric diagnosis is a major risk factor for subsequent DP, especially among men. Sick leave due to musculoskeletal or circulatory disorders was also a strong predictor of DP. Diagnosis-specific sick leave should be recognised as an early risk marker for future exclusion from the labour market.

  • 2.
    Almquist, Ylva B
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Landstedt, E.
    Jackisch, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hammarström, A.
    Growing through asphalt: What counteracts the long-term negative health impact of youth adversity?2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Adversity in the family of origin tends to translate into poor health development. Yet, the fact that this is not the always the case has been seen an indicator of resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status.

    Methods

    The study was based on the Northern Swedish Cohort born in 1965 (n = 1,001). Measures of social and material adversity, health, and protective factors related to school, peers, and spare time, were derived from questionnaires distributed to the cohort members and their teachers at age 16. Self-rated health was measured at age 43. The main associations were examined by means of ordinal regression analysis, with the role of the protective factors being assessed through interaction analysis.

    Results

    Social and material adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among males and females alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time – particularly in terms of being seen as having good educational and work prospects, as well as a high-quality spare time – appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health.

    Conclusions

    There are several factors outside the context of the family that seemingly have the potential to buffer against the negative health consequences stemming from having experienced a disadvantaged upbringing. Initiatives targeted at increasing academic motivation and commitment as well as social capital and relationships in youth, may here be of particular relevance.

    Key messages:

    • While the experience of disadvantageous living conditions in adolescence tends to translate into poor health development across the life course, this is not always the case.

    • Advantages related to school, peers, and spare time have the potential of counteracting the negative health impact of an adverse family context.

  • 3.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Jackisch, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Prevailing over Adversity: Factors Counteracting the Long-Term Negative Health Influences of Social and Material Disadvantages in Youth2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, article id 1842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disadvantaged circumstances in youth tend to translate into poor health development. However, the fact that this is not always the case has been seen as indicative of differential resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status. This study was based on two waves of questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort. From the wave in 1981 (age 16), indicators of social and material conditions as well as factors related to school, peers, and spare time were derived. From the wave in 2008 (age 43), information about self-rated health was used. Ordinal logistic regression models (n = 908) showed that adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among men and women alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health. This suggests that health-promoting interventions may benefit from focusing on contexts outside the family in their effort to strengthen processes of resilience among disadvantaged youths.

  • 4. Andreeva, Elena
    et al.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Brenner, M. Harvey
    Depressive symptoms as a cause and effect of job loss in men and women: evidence in the context of organisational downsizing from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health2015In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, article id 1045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Few studies have examined depression as both a cause and effect of unemployment, but no prior work investigated these relationships in the context of organisational downsizing. We explored whether the exposure to downsizing is associated with subsequent depression (social causation), and whether pre-existing depression increases the risk of being laid off when organisations downsize (health selection). Methods: Two successive waves of the nationally representative Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health represented the baseline (2008) and follow-up (2010) of this study. Analyses included 196 workers who lost their jobs through downsizing, 1462 layoff survivors remaining in downsized organisations and 1845 employees of non-downsized workplaces. The main outcomes were: (1) Depressive symptoms at follow-up, assessed with a brief subscale from the Symptom Checklist 90, categorised by severity levels (major depression, less severe symptoms and no depression) and analysed in relation to earlier downsizing exposure; (2) Job loss in persons with downsizing in relation to earlier depressive symptoms. The associations were assessed by means of multinomial logistic regression. Results: Job loss consistently predicted subsequent major depression among men and women, with a somewhat greater effect size in men. Surviving a layoff was significantly associated with subsequent major depression in women but not in men. Women with major depression have increased risks of exclusion from employment when organisations downsize, whereas job loss in men was not significantly influenced by their health. Conclusions: The evidence from this study suggests that the relative importance of social causation and health selection varies by gender in the context of organisational downsizing. Strategies for handling depression among employees should be sensitive to gender-specific risks during layoffs. Policies preventing social exclusion can be important for female workers at higher risk of depression.

  • 5.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Taloyan, Marina
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Associations Between Being 'locked-In' and Health - An Epidemiological Study2019In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 71-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between an individual's level of perceived control over labor market position (locked-in and not locked-in) and self-rated health and psychological well-being. Methods. A representative sample (n = 11,675) of the working population in southern Sweden responded to a questionnaire. Results. Sixty-seven percent of the respondents worked in their preferred workplace and occupation. Nineteen percent reported being in a nonpreferred workplace and nonpreferred occupation (double locked-in). Twenty-three percent reported suboptimal health compared with 31% among the double locked-in. The risk of suboptimal health was elevated in all locked-in groups also after adjustment for background variables and job strain. In the double locked-in group, the fully adjusted odds ratio for suboptimal health was 1.72 (95% confidence interval 1.49-1.99) and for suboptimal psychological well-being 2.17 (95% confidence interval 1.84-2.56). Odds ratio for the other locked-in groups was lower but still statistically significant. Conclusions. Being at a nonpreferred work-place or occupation was associated with impaired health.

  • 6.
    Baltzer, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Backhans, Mona
    Melinder, Karin
    Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden2011In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 11, p. 318-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. METHOD: We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. RESULTS: The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low sickness absence. Unregulated Work, Humiliating Position and Already Ill were associated with high sickness absence. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that promising areas for future research and improvement in change management could be the structured involvement of the employees in the planning of organizational changes, and the development of methods to avoid highly unregulated working conditions.

  • 7. Bean, Christopher G.
    et al.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Berg, Noora
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Hammarström, Anne
    Group activity participation at age 21 and depressive symptoms during boom and recession in Sweden: a 20-year follow-up2019In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 475-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organized group activities (e.g. sports or arts clubs) have long been noted as important developmental settings for youth, yet previous studies on the relationships between participation and mental health outcomes have focused on short-term effects among school-aged adolescents. The subsequent period of life, emerging adulthood, has been largely overlooked despite being another important life stage where individuals face new existential challenges and may benefit from group activity participation. The potential for macroeconomic conditions to modify these relationships has also not been considered. Methods: Participants (n = 1654) comprise two cohorts, born in either 1965 (n = 968) or 1973 (n = 686), from the same middle-sized industrial town in Northern Sweden. Both cohorts completed detailed questionnaires at age 21 (macroeconomic boom for Cohort 65, recession for Cohort 73) and approximately 20 years follow-up (age 43 for Cohort 65, age 39 for Cohort 73). General linear models were used to assess concurrent and prospective associations between regular group activity participation and depressive symptoms, as well as the potential interaction with boom/recession. Results: After controlling for sociodemographic factors, regular group activity participation at age 21 was associated with lower depressive symptoms, both concurrently and at follow-up. Those exposed to recession at age 21 reported higher depressive symptoms at the time but there was no interaction between cohort (boom/recession) and group activity participation. Conclusions: Regular group activity participation during emerging adulthood is associated with lower depressive symptoms uniformly in times of boom and recession. Beneficial effects of such participation may contribute to better mental health over 20 years.

  • 8. Berg, Noora
    et al.
    Nummi, Tapio
    Bean, Christopher G.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Hammarström, Anne
    Risk factors in adolescence as predictors of trajectories of somatic symptoms over 27 years2022In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 696-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Somatic symptoms among adolescents are common, yet little is known about long-term trajectories of somatic symptoms and the factors in adolescence that shape them. We examined individual, family and schoolbased factors at age 16 as predictors of trajectories of somatic symptoms over 27 years. Methods: Participants from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n ¼ 1001) responded to questions about individual factors (e.g. health behaviours), family factors (e.g. contact with parents, social and material adversity) and school satisfaction at age 16; as well as 10 somatic symptoms at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 43. Teacher assessments at age 16 included overall ability at school and peer relations. Age 16 predictors of somatic symptom trajectory group membership were analysed using multinomial logistic regression. Results: Poor contact with mother and poor school satisfaction were significant predictors of adverse symptom trajectories among both men and women. Low birth weight and low parental academic involvement were contributing factors for women, while smoking and social adversity were more relevant factors for men. Conclusions: Our findings emphasize the importance of a holistic approach that considers the unique contributions of individual, family and school-based factors in the development of trajectories of somatic symptoms from adolescence to middle age.

  • 9.
    Bernard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Temporary, self-employed and permanent workers: A Swedish study on work characteristics and individual well-being over time2013In: , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10. Bernhard-Oettel, C.
    et al.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    The temporaries, the self-employed and the permanent staff: A Swedish study comparing work characteristics and individual well-being over time2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Staying in or switching between permanent, temporary and self-employment during 2008-2010: Associations with changing job characteristics and emotional exhaustion2019In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 215-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Labour market segmentation theories suggest that permanent and temporary workers are exposed to economic risks to different degrees, and differ in their working life quality and well-being. However, few studies have tested these ideas during times of economic crisis. Also, little is known about how the self-employed compare to permanent and temporary workers and are affected by economic downturns. This study investigated Swedish workers in different labour market segments before and after the financial crisis (2008 and 2010). More specifically, it looked at job characteristics and strain differences between permanent, temporary and self-employed workers. Data (N = 6335) came from SLOSH, a longitudinal representative cohort study of the Swedish workforce. Contradicting segmentation theories, differences between permanent and temporary workers were small. The self-employed stood out with favourable job characteristics, but comparable strain levels. During the crisis, work demands and strain declined for many of the workers studied here.

  • 12.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Östergren, P-O
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Inlåsning, anställningsbarhet och välbefinnande efter en omorganisation2013In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under perioder där arbetsmarknaden erbjuder färre alternativ är det troligt att fler människor accepterar arbetsplatser där de inte trivs eller stannar kvar på arbeten som de inte vill ha och känner sig inlåsta i. Tidigare forskning har kopplat inlåsning till sämre välbefinnande. Hur inlåsning och välbefinnande förändras när människor byter jobb är mindre känt. Föreliggande studie belyser förändringar i inlåsning, upplevd anställningsbarhet och välbefinnande vid en svensk myndighet efter en organisationsförändring som medfört organisationsinterna arbetsplatsbyten. Resultaten visar på negativa effekter av inlåsning: att stanna kvar på eller flytta till en arbetsplats som man inte önskar ha i framtiden är inte gynnsamt för hälsan.

  • 13.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Östergren, P.-O.
    Stuck at a workplace: What’s work control, demands and learning got to do with it? A longitudinal multilevel study on Swedish permanent employees in situations of ‘workplace locked-in’2020In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 31, no 14, p. 1771-1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whilst health consequences of being locked-in at the workplace have been documented in several research studies, it is largely unknown how work characteristics and their changes over time relate to risks for becoming locked-in at a certain workplace. Accordingly, this paper studied how perceived control, learning opportunities and quantitative demands at work associate with workplace-locked-in (WPLI). The study included permanent employees who participated in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study in wave 3 through 5 (n = 2918 individuals; n = 7460 observations). Results from multi-level analysis show that there was significant individual variation in WPLI changes over time, even though on average, WPLI decreased slightly. Differences in work characteristics between individuals (L2) and across time (L1) associated significantly with WPLI: higher levels of job control and learning opportunities related to lower odds ratios for WPLI, whereas higher quantitative job demands associated with higher odds ratios of WPLI. Moreover, differences in quantitative job demands, number of job changes and educational achievements explained the individual variations of WPLI developments over time. The result shows that WPLI can – to some extent – be prevented or reduced through good work design, and implications for HR managers and organizations are discussed.

  • 14. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Hakanen, Jari J.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire - A validation study using the Job Demand-Resources model2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 4, article id e0196450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    This study aims at investigating the nomological validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) by using an extension of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model with aspects of work ability as outcome.

    Material and methods

    The study design is cross-sectional. All staff working at public dental organizations in four regions of Sweden were invited to complete an electronic questionnaire (75% response rate, n = 1345). The questionnaire was based on COPSOQ II scales, the Utrecht Work Engagement scale, and the one-item Work Ability Score in combination with a proprietary item. The data was analysed by Structural Equation Modelling.

    Results

    This study contributed to the literature by showing that: A) The scale characteristics were satisfactory and the construct validity of COPSOQ instrument could be integrated in the JD-R framework; B) Job resources arising from leadership may be a driver of the two processes included in the JD-R model; and C) Both the health impairment and motivational processes were associated with WA, and the results suggested that leadership may impact WA, in particularly by securing task resources.

    Conclusion

    In conclusion, the nomological validity of COPSOQ was supported as the JD-R model can be operationalized by the instrument. This may be helpful for transferral of complex survey results and work life theories to practitioners in the field.

  • 15. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Dollard, Maureen F.
    Benchmarks for Evidence-Based Risk Assessment with the Swedish Version of the 4-Item Psychosocial Safety Climate Scale2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 22, article id 8675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to validate the short version of The Psychosocial Safety Climate questionnaire (PSC-4, Dollard, 2019) and to establish benchmarks indicating risk levels for use in Sweden. Cross-sectional data from (1) a random sample of employees in Sweden aged 25-65 years (n = 2847) and (2) a convenience sample of non-managerial employees from 94 workplaces (n = 3066) were analyzed. Benchmarks for three PSC risk levels were developed using organizational compliance with Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) regulations as criterion. The results support the validity and usefulness of the Swedish PSC-4 as an instrument to indicate good, fair, and poor OSH practices. The recommended benchmark for indicating good OSH practices is an average score of >12.0, while the proposed cutoff for poor OSH practices is a score of <= 8.0 on the PSC-4. Scores between these benchmarks indicate fair OSH practices. Furthermore, aggregated data on PSC-4 supported its reliability as a workplace level construct and its association with quantitative demands, quality of leadership, commitment to the workplace, work engagement, job satisfaction, as well as stress and burnout. Thus, the Swedish version of PSC-4 can be regarded as a valid and reliable measure for both research and practical use for risk assessment at workplaces.

  • 16. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Owen, Mikaela
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Does workplace social capital predict care quality through job satisfaction and stress at the clinic? A prospective study2021In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 1320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Welfare societies like Sweden face challenges in balancing the budget while meeting the demand for good quality healthcare. The aim of this study was to analyse whether care quality, operationalized as survival of dental fillings, is predicted by workplace social capital and if this effect is direct or indirect (through stress and/or job satisfaction among staff at the clinic), controlling for patient demographics.

    Methods: The prospective design includes A) work environment data from surveys of 75 general public dental clinics (aggregated data based on 872 individual ratings), and B) register-based survival of 9381dental fillings performed during a 3-month period around the time of the survey, and C) patient demographics (age, gender, income level and birth place). Using a multi-level discrete-time proportional hazard model, we tested whether clinic-level social capital, stress, and job satisfaction could predict tooth-level filling failure, controlling for patient demographics. One direct and two indirect pathways, moderated by filling tooth, location, and filling type, were tested.

    Results: High workplace social capital reduced the risk of early failure of fillings in molar teeth, mediated by group-perceived job satisfaction (indirect path: OR=0.93, p<.05, direct path from job satisfaction: OR=0.89, p<.05). Contrary to expectations, we found no support for a direct effect from social capital on care quality or for the indirect pathway via stress at the clinic level.

    Conclusions: Workplace social capital boosted the quality of dental fillings through increased levels of job satisfaction. In addition, staff at clinics with higher social capital reported less stress and higher levels of job satisfaction. These results indicate that promotion of social capital may improve both occupational health and care quality.

  • 17. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Owen, Mikaela
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Leadership, work environment and caries prevention - what is good for the staff, is also good for the patients2023In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 196-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Dental caries is a health problem that can be prevented. The aim of this study is to analyse if the quality of leadership, in Swedish Public Dental Health clinics, influences the extent to which patients with caries receive preventive care, and if any such effect is mediated through a collaborative work climate, clear role expectations and a low average level of burnout among staff.

    Methods: The multilevel cross-sectional design includes work environment data from surveys of 75 general public dental clinics, register-based data on preventive measures provided to 5398 patients who received a dental filling due to a caries diagnosis, and patient demographics. Using a multilevel path analysis with logistic regression, we tested a model with one direct and three indirect pathways, controlling for the potential confounding effect of patient demographic factors.

    Results: Leadership quality, as assessed by the staff at the clinic, was associated with increased odds of patients with caries receiving prevention, controlling for patient demographic factors. Leadership quality was also positively related to a collaborative work climate, clear role expectations and a low average level of burnout among staff. Against expectations, however, no indirect effect from leadership quality on prevention through the other work environment factors was found.

    Conclusions: In conclusion, the quality of leadership in Swedish Public Dental Health clinics was positively related to a good work environment for staff and to delivery of preventive care to patients experiencing caries.

  • 18. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Owen, Mikaela
    Wretlind, Katharina
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Does staff-assessed care quality predict early failure of dental fillings?: A prospective study2020In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 387-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate staff-assessed care quality as an indicator of register-based measures of care quality at dental clinics, more specifically register-based measures of survival of dental fillings and initiation of preventive treatments for caries patients.

    Methods: This prospective study includes data from cross-sectional workplace psychosocial risk assessment surveys at dental clinics and register data on survival of dental fillings, and initiation of preventive treatment for caries patients obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Caries and Periodontal Disease (SKaPa) Demographic background data on the age, gender, income level and place of birth of patients was obtained from Statistics Sweden (SCB). The data were analysed using discrete-time multilevel survival analysis and multiple linear regression analysis.

    Results: The results showed that staff-assessed care quality rated by the total staff or by dental nurses at the clinic predicted the risk of replacement of dental fillings made due to a caries diagnosis during the 3-year follow-up period, controlling for potential confounding due to patient demographic characteristics (age, sex, income and country of birth). In contrast, the better the staff-assessed care quality at the clinic, the smaller the proportion of the patients received preventive care in addition to operative caries therapy when controlling for potential confounding due to patient demographics. Care quality assessed by dentists at the clinic did not predict either of these outcome measures.

    Conclusions: Premature failure of dental fillings is costly for both patients and society, which leads to a need for relevant measures for following dental care quality. Our findings indicate that staff-assessed care quality - a cheap and easy measure to collect and follow continuously in dental practice - can be used to monitor aspects of quality in real time in order to facilitate continuous improvement and quickly amend quality problems. Also, it can be used for integrating quality improvement in systematic work environment risk management.

  • 19. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Burr, Hermann
    Validation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire Version III and Establishment of Benchmarks for Psychosocial Risk Management in Sweden2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 9, article id 3179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the Swedish standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ III, and investigates its reliability and validity at individual and workplace levels with the aim of establishing benchmarks for the psychosocial work environment. Cross-sectional data from (1) a random sample of employees in Sweden aged 25-65 years (N = 2847) and (2) a convenience sample of non-managerial employees at 51 workplaces (N = 1818) were analysed. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated as well as the effects of sex, work sector and blue/white-collar work. Population benchmarks and mean scores for major occupational groups were computed based on weighted data. ICC(1) and ICC(2) estimates were computed to evaluate aggregation to the workplace level and Pearson inter-correlations to evaluate construct validity at individual and aggregated levels. The reliability and scale characteristics were satisfactory, with few exceptions, at both individual and workplace levels. The strength and direction of correlations supported the construct validity of the dimensions and the amount of variance explained by workplace justified aggregation to the workplace level. The present study thus supports the use of COPSOQ III for measurement at the workplace level and presents benchmarks for risk management as well as for research purposes.

  • 20. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hakanen, Jari J.
    Kristensen, Tage S.
    It is not just about occupation, but also about where you work2017In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 372-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Dentistry is characterized by a meaningful but also stressful psychosocial working environment. Job satisfaction varies among staff working under different organizational forms. The aim of this study was to identify (i) to what extent crucial psychosocial work environment characteristics differ among occupations in general public dental clinics in Sweden, and (ii) how much of the variation within each occupation is attributable to the organizational level. Methods: All staff (N=1782) employed in four public dental organizations received an email with personal log-in to an electronic questionnaire based on the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. After two reminders, a response rate of 75% was obtained. Responses from 880 nonmanagerial dentists, dental hygienists and dental nurses working in general practices were included in our analyses. Results: First, we compared the three dental occupations. We found that job demands, task resources (eg influence, possibilities for development and role clarity), strain symptoms and attitudes to work differed among occupations, dentists having the least favourable situation. Next, we compared the four organizations for each occupational group, separately. For dentists, a significant and relevant amount of variance (P<.05 and ICC >.05) was explained by the organizational level for 15 of 26 subscales, least pronounced for task resources. By contrast, for dental nurses and hygienists, the corresponding number was 2 subscales of 26. The psychosocial working environment of people working at the organization with the highest levels of strain indicators and the least positive work-related attitudes differed systematically from the organization with the most favourable profile, in particular regarding job demands and leadership aspects. Conclusion: In conclusion, the psychosocial working environment depended to a large degree on occupation and, for dentists in particular, also on their organizational affiliation. The findings suggest a potential for designing interventions at organizational level for improvements of the psychosocial working environment for dentists.

  • 21. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
    Hadzibajramovic, Emina
    Construct validity of a global scale for Workplace Social Capital based on COPSOQ III2019In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 8, article id e0221893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim

    Workplace Social Capital has been suggested as a useful concept when addressing organizational and social factors of the work environment. The overall aim of the present study is to establish and evaluate the construct validity of a measure of Workplace Social Capital based on the operationalization suggested in the third version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial questionnaire.

    Methods

    The present study is based on data collected as part of a validation and development project for the use of the Swedish version of COPSOQ at workplaces and includes responses from 1316 human service workers answering a workplace survey. Six items from scales for organizational justice, vertical trust and horizontal trust in COPSOQ III were included in the analyses. Rasch Analysis was used for scale validation.

    Results

    The analyses showed that the psychometric properties of the suggested COPSOQ scale for Workplace Social Capital were satisfactory after accommodation for local dependency. Each individual item worked as intended, the scale was unidimensional and functioned invariantly for women and men, and for younger and older employees. The scale was furthermore found to be valid for use for distinguishing groups, not individuals.

    Conclusion

    We have established that the scale for Workplace Social Capital measured by COPSOQ III is valid for distinguishing groups, e.g. work teams. The scale exhibits good construct validity as it satisfies the measurement criteria defined by the Rasch model.

  • 22. Blindow, Katrina
    et al.
    Bondestam, Fredrik
    Johansson, Gun
    Bodin, Theo
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sexual and gender harassment in Swedish workplaces: A prospective cohort study on implications for long-term sickness absence2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 466-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate gender harassment and sexual harassment as risk factors for prospective long-term sickness absence (LTSA, >= 21 days). Furthermore, support from colleagues was investigated as a moderating factor of this association.

    Methods Information on gender harassment, sexual harassment and support by colleagues were derived from the biannual Swedish Work Environment Survey 1999-2013, a representative sample of the Swedish working population (N=64 297). Information on LTSA as well as demographic and workplace variables were added from register data. Relative rates of LTSA the year following the exposure were determined using modified Poisson regression.

    Results Monthly to daily exposure to gender harassment was a risk factor for prospective LTSA among women [rate ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.05] and men (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10). Monthly to daily exposure to sexual harassment was also a risk factor for LTSA among women (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and men (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.13). Exposure to sexual or gender harassment once in the last 12 months was not associated with LTSA. There was no support for an interaction between either of the exposures and support from colleagues in relation to LTSA.

    Conclusions Sexual harassment and gender harassment appear to contribute to a small excess risk for LTSA among women and men. For both kinds of offensive behaviors, the pervasiveness appears to be important for the outcome. The role of support by colleagues was inconclusive and needs further investigation.

  • 23.
    Blomqvist, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Downsizing and purchases of psychotropic drugs: a longitudinal study of stayers, changers and unemployedManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Blomqvist, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Downsizing and purchases of psychotropic drugs: A longitudinal study of stayers, changers and unemployed2023In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 12, article id e0295383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The evidence is insufficient regarding the association between organizational downsizing and employee mental health. Our aim was to analyze trajectories of prescribed sedatives and anxiolytics with a sufficiently long follow-up time to capture anticipation, implementation and adaption to a downsizing event among stayers, changers and those who become unemployed compared to unexposed employees.

    Method: Residents in Sweden aged 20-54 years in 2007, with stable employment between 2004 and 2007, were followed between 2005 and 2013 (n = 2,305,795). Employment at a workplace with staff reductions >= 18% between two subsequent years in 2007-2011 (n = 915,461) indicated exposure to, and timing of, downsizing. The unexposed (n = 1,390,334) were randomized into four corresponding sub-cohorts. With generalized estimating equations, we calculated the odds ratios (OR) of purchasing prescribed anxiolytics or sedatives within nine 12-month periods, from four years before to four years after downsizing. In order to investigate whether the groups changed their probability of purchases over time, odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated contrasting the prevalence of purchases during the first and the last 12-month period within four time periods for each exposure group.

    Results: The odds of purchasing psychotropic drugs increased more for changers (sedatives OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.11) and unemployed (anxiolytics OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.14), compared to unexposed before downsizing, while for stayers purchases increased more than for unexposed during and after downsizing. Among those without previous sickness absence, stayers increased their purchases of psychotropic drugs from the year before the event up to four years after the event.ConclusionThis study indicates that being exposed to downsizing is associated with increased use of sedatives and anxiolytics, before the event among those who leave, but especially thereafter for employees who stay in the organization.

  • 25.
    Blomqvist, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Associations between COVID-19-related changes in the psychosocial work environment and mental health2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 664-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Individuals' lives have been substantially affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to describe changes in psychosocial work environment and mental health and to investigate associations between job insecurity and mental ill-health in relation to changes in other psychosocial work factors, loneliness and financial worries.

    Methods: A sub-sample of individuals from the eighth Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health answered a web-based survey in early 2021 about current and pandemic-related changes in health, health behaviours, work and private life. We investigated participants working before the pandemic (N=1231) in relation to standardised measures on depression, anxiety and loneliness, together with psychosocial work factors, in descriptive and logistic regression analyses.

    Results: While 9% reached the clinical threshold for depression and 6% for anxiety, more than a third felt more worried, lonelier or in a low mood since the start of the pandemic. Two per cent had been dismissed from their jobs, but 16% experienced workplace downsizings. Conditioning on socio-demographic factors and prior mental-health problems, the 8% experiencing reduced job security during the pandemic had a higher risk of anxiety, but not of depression, compared to employees with unaltered or increased job security. Loneliness and other psychosocial work factors explained more of the association than objective measures of job insecurity and financial worries.

    Conclusions: Reduced job security during the COVID-19 pandemic seems to have increased the risk of anxiety among individuals with a strong labour market attachment, primarily via loneliness and other psychosocial work factors. This illustrates the potentially far-reaching effects of the pandemic on mental health in the working population.

  • 26.
    Blomqvist, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Labor market exit around retirement age in Sweden and trajectories of psychotropic drugs in a context of downsizing2020In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background A maintained psychological wellbeing is important in order to continue working longer and remain active into older age. However, little is known about impact of different organizational factors, such as downsizing, on the mental health of older workers exiting the labor market. The aim in this study was to investigate trajectories of purchases of psychotropic drugs in relation to labor market exit later in life in a context with and without downsizing. Method People living in Sweden, born 1941-1951, exiting paid work via unemployment, sickness absence/disability pension, or old-age pension were followed from 2005 to 2013 regarding purchases of psychotropic drugs. Individuals employed at a workplace closing down or downsizing with >= 18% between two subsequent years were compared to employees exiting from workplaces without downsizing or workplace closure. Generalized estimating equations was applied to derive trajectories of annual prevalence of purchased antidepressants, sedatives and anxiolytics from 4 years before to 4 years after a labour market exit. Results During the period around the exit, old-age retirees experiencing a downsizing/workplace closure did not decrease their purchases of sedatives (OR 1.01 95% CI 0.95-1.07) while the unexposed decreased their purchases during this period (OR 0.95 95% CI 0.92-0.98). Similar differences concerning sedatives and antidepressants between exposed and unexposed were seen for those exiting via sickness absence or disability pension. Furthermore, a significant difference in purchases of anxiolytics was observed between those exposed to downsizing (OR 1.10 95% CI 0.97-1.24) and the unexposed (OR 0.98 95% CI 0.91-1.06) exiting via old-age retirement during the time before the exit. Conclusion Downsizing or workplace closure, although weakly, was associated with higher prevalence of psychotropic drugs certain years around the labor market exit. The results support the idea that involuntary labor market exit in mature adulthood may negatively affect the development of mental health.

  • 27.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Wulff, Cornelia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Office design's impact on sick leave rates:  2014In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 139-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. Practitioner Summary: A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  • 28.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Wulff, Cornelia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Is perception of leadership influenced by office environment?2013In: Journal of Corporate Real Estate, ISSN 1463-001X, E-ISSN 1479-1048, Vol. 15, no 3/4, p. 194-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This explorative study aims to examine the impact of office type on employees' perception of managerial leadership, a largely unexplored area. A gender perspective is applied to examine whether women and men perceive leadership differently in different office types.

    Design/methodology/approach – Cross-sectional study is based on 5,358 office employees from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Study of Health in 2010. The employees worked in the seven different office types identified in contemporary office design: cell-offices, shared-room offices, small open plan offices, medium-sized open plan offices, large open plan offices, flex-offices, and combi-offices. Cell-office was used as reference in the analysis.

    Findings – Poorer ratings of leadership were found in shared-room offices, and better in medium-sized open plan offices. A tendency towards a gender difference in perceived leadership was found only in small open plan offices, which appear to be better for men and worse for women.

    Practical implications – The results suggest that the office environment has an influence on perceived managerial leadership. This means office design should be considered in relation to leadership style in order for an organization to be successful.

    Originality/value – To the authors' knowledge, no other study has investigated the relationship between office environment and managerial leadership.

  • 29. Brenner, M. Harvey
    et al.
    Andreeva, Elena
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Imbernon, Ellen
    Bonnaud, Sophie
    Organizational downsizing and depressive symptoms in the European recession: the experience of workers in France, Hungary, Sweden and the United kingdom2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 5, article id e97063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organizational downsizing has become highly common during the global recession of the late 2000s with severe repercussions on employment. We examine whether the severity of the downsizing process is associated with a greater likelihood of depressive symptoms among displaced workers, internally redeployed workers and lay-off survivors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving telephone interviews was carried out in France, Hungary, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The study analyzes data from 758 workers affected by medium-and large-scale downsizing, using multiple logistic regression. Main Results: Both unemployment and surviving layoffs were significantly associated with depressive symptoms, as compared to reemployment, but the perceived procedural justice of a socially responsible downsizing process considerably mitigated the odds of symptoms. Perception of high versus low justice was assessed along several downsizing dimensions. In the overall sample, chances to have depressive symptoms were significantly reduced if respondents perceived the process as transparent and understandable, fair and unbiased, well planned and democratic; if they trusted the employer's veracity and agreed with the necessity for downsizing. The burden of symptoms was significantly greater if the process was perceived to be chaotic. We further tested whether perceived justice differently affects the likelihood of depressive symptoms among distinct groups of workers. Findings were that the odds of symptoms largely followed the same patterns of effects across all groups of workers. Redeploying and supporting surplus employees through the career change process-rather than forcing them to become unemployed-makes a substantial difference as to whether they will suffer from depressive symptoms. Conclusions: While depressive symptoms affect both unemployed and survivors, a just and socially responsible downsizing process is important for the emotional health of workers.

  • 30. Canivet, Catarina
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Moghaddassi, Mahnaz
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    The negative effects on mental health of being in a non-desired occupation in an increasingly precarious labour market2017In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 3, p. 516-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precarious employment has been associated with poor mental health. Moreover, increasing labour market precariousness may cause individuals to feel ‘locked-in’, in non-desired workplaces or occupations, out of fear of not finding a new employment. This could be experienced as a ‘loss of control’, with similar negative health consequences. It is plausible that the extent to which being in a non-desired occupation (NDO) or being in precarious employment (PE) has a negative impact on mental health differs according to age group. We tested this hypothesis using data from 2331 persons, 18–34, 35–44, and 45–54 years old, who answered questionnaires in 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated for poor mental health (GHQ-12) in 2010, after exposure to NDO and PE in 1999/2000 or 2005. NDO and PE were more common in the youngest age group, and they were both associated with poor mental health. In the middle age group the impact of NDO was null, while in contrast the IRR for PE was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.3) after full adjustment. The pattern was completely the opposite in the oldest age group (adjusted IRR for NDO 1.6 (1.1–2.4) and for PE 0.9 (0.6–1.4)). The population attributable fraction of poor mental health was 14.2% and 11.6%, respectively, for NDO in the youngest and oldest age group, and 17.2% for PE in the middle age group. While the consequences of PE have been widely discussed, those of NDO have not received attention. Interventions aimed at adapting work situations for older individuals and facilitating conditions of job change in such a way as to avoid risking unemployment or precarious employment situations may lead to improved mental health in this age group.

  • 31.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Högnäs, Robin S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Head, Jenny
    Zaninotto, Paola
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Estimating Working Life Expectancy: A Comparison of Multistate Models2023In: SAGE Open, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 13, no 2, article id 21582440231177270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increases in retirement ages make it particularly pressing to better understand how long people will work. Working life expectancy (WLE) is a useful measure for this and the current paper assesses the tools, that is, software packages, available to assess it. We do this using data from the English Longitudinal Survey on Ageing (ELSA, 2003-2018) and multistate models to estimate WLE stratified by sex and socioeconomic status. Men's versus women's WLEs were slightly higher at all ages. Estimates were similar in ELECT and SPACE by both sex and socioeconomic status. WLEs were comparatively higher from IMaCh, ranging from approximately 0.28 to 1.49 years. Life expectancy estimates from IMaCh were also higher compared to SPACE and ELECT. Using multistate models to estimate WLE provides a useful indication of the actual expected length of working life. More research is needed to better understand why estimates from IMaCh differed from ELECT and SPACE.

  • 32.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Högnäs, Robin S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Socioeconomic Status and Working Life Expectancy in Sweden2022In: 33rd REVES – Advances in International Research on Health and Life Expectancy in the Covid-19 era: REVES 2022 Program, 2022, p. 6-6Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Longer life expectancy and fertility decline have increased concerns about the security of old-age pensions. Raising retirement ages is one strategy to offset rising costs, though the option to retire varies considerably by socioeconomic status (SES) and sex. In terms of SES, the level of variation may depend on the measure used. Also, many workers now transition into retirement slowly, e.g., move from full- to part-time work. Thus, retirement age may not sufficiently capture how long people work. Working life expectancy (WLE)—the expected average number of years worked—better measures total working life. We use data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) from 2008 to 2020 (n=4,940 people age 50+ and n=74,093 person-observations) to examine WLE by education and occupation. We estimate a three-state multistate model (i.e., working, not working, dead) and a four-state model (working part-time, working full-time, not working, and dead); both assume a continuous-time first-order Markov process. We estimate two sex-stratified models, cross-classified by: 1) occupation; and 2) education. We find that professionals work full-time 1 year more than routine workers, regardless of sex. The low educated work full-time 1 year less than the highly educated. In our weighted three-state model, where part-time work contributed ½ of full-time work, the difference increased to 1.14 and 1.05 years, respectively. Our unweighted three-state model showed slightly larger education differences. Findings suggest that WLE differs by SES, regardless of sex, and the differences are greater by education than occupation. This has implications for extending working life policies.

  • 33.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Karasek, Robert
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Factor Structure and Longitudinal Measurement Invariance of the Demand Control Support Model: An Evidence from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH)2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 8, article id e70541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the factor structure and to evaluate the longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand-control-support questionnaire (DCSQ), using the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH).

    METHODS: A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) models within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM) have been used to examine the factor structure and invariance across time.

    RESULTS: FOUR FACTORS: psychological demand, skill discretion, decision authority and social support, were confirmed by CFA at baseline, with the best fit obtained by removing the item repetitive work of skill discretion. A measurement error correlation (0.42) between work fast and work intensively for psychological demands was also detected. Acceptable composite reliability measures were obtained except for skill discretion (0.68). The invariance of the same factor structure was established, but caution in comparing mean levels of factors over time is warranted as lack of intercept invariance was evident. However, partial intercept invariance was established for work intensively.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that skill discretion and decision authority represent two distinct constructs in the retained model. However removing the item repetitive work along with either work fast or work intensively would improve model fit. Care should also be taken while making comparisons in the constructs across time. Further research should investigate invariance across occupations or socio-economic classes.

  • 34.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    A Longitudinal Analysis of Confirmatory Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Demand Control Support Model: An evidence from SLOSH2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35. Descatha, Alexis
    et al.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Accuracy of a Single Item on Mentally Tiring Work as Proxy Measure of Job Demands and Efforts in the Gazel Cohort2017In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, no 8, p. E156-E158Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36. Dragano, Nico
    et al.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Erbel, Raimund
    Fahlén, Göran
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Hamer, Mark
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Knutsson, Anders
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Salo, Paula
    Schupp, Jürgen
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Zins, Marie
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Effort-Reward Imbalance at Work and Incident Coronary Heart Disease A Multicohort Study of 90,164 Individuals2017In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 619-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence for work stress as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is mostly based on a single measure of stressful work known as job strain, a combination of high demands and low job control. We examined whether a complementary stress measure that assesses an imbalance between efforts spent at work and rewards received predicted coronary heart disease.

    Methods: This multicohort study (the IPD-Work consortium) was based on harmonized individual-level data from 11 European prospective cohort studies. Stressful work in 90,164 men and women without coronary heart disease at baseline was assessed by validated effort-reward imbalance and job strain questionnaires. We defined incident coronary heart disease as the first nonfatal myocardial infarction or coronary death. Study-specific estimates were pooled by random effects meta-analysis.

    Results: At baseline, 31.7% of study members reported effort-reward imbalance at work and 15.9% reported job strain. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 years, 1,078 coronary events were recorded. After adjustment for potential confounders, a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.35) was observed for effort-reward imbalance compared with no imbalance. The hazard ratio was 1.16 (1.01-1.34) for having either effort-reward imbalance or job strain and 1.41 (1.12-1.76) for having both these stressors compared to having neither effort-reward imbalance nor job strain.

    Conclusions: Individuals with effort-reward imbalance at work have an increased risk of coronary heart disease, and this appears to be independent of job strain experienced. These findings support expanding focus beyond just job strain in future research on work stress.

  • 37. Dugravot, Aline
    et al.
    Sabia, Séverine
    Stringhini, Silvia
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Guéguen, Alice
    Zins, Marie
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Nabi, Hermann
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Do socioeconomic factors shape weight and obesity trajectories over the transition from midlife to old age?: Results from the French GAZEL cohort study2010In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 16-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a contemporary epidemic that does not affect all age groups and sections of society equally. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine socioeconomic differences in trajectories of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) and obesity between the ages of 45 and 65 y. DESIGN: A total of 13,297 men and 4532 women from the French GAZEL (Gaz de France Electricité de France) cohort study reported their height in 1990 and their weight annually over the subsequent 18 y. Changes in BMI and obesity between ages 45 and 49 y, 50 and 54 y, 55 and 59 y, and 60 and 65 y as a function of education and occupational position (at age 35 y) were modeled by using linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: BMI and obesity rates increased between the ages of 45 and 65 y. In men, BMI was higher in unskilled workers than in managers at age 45 y; this difference in BMI increased from 0.82 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.99) at 45 y to 1.06 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.27) at 65 y. Men with a primary school education compared with those with a high school degree at age 45 y had a 0.75 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.00) higher BMI, and this difference increased to 1.32 (95% CI: 1.03,1.62) at age 65 y. Obesity rates were 3.35% and 7.68% at age 45 y and 9.52% and 18.10% at age 65 y in managers and unskilled workers, respectively; the difference in obesity increased by 4.25% (95% CI: 1.87, 6.52). A similar trend was observed in women. Conclusions: Weight continues to increase in the transition between midlife and old age; this increase is greater in lower socioeconomic groups.

  • 38. Ervasti, Jenni
    et al.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Sørensen, Jeppe K.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Knutsson, Anders
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Suominen, Sakari
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Long working hours and risk of 50 health conditions and mortality outcomes: a multicohort study in four European countries2021In: The Lancet Regional Health: Europe, E-ISSN 2666-7762, Vol. 11, article id 100212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on the association between long working hours and health have captured only a narrow range of outcomes (mainly cardiometabolic diseases and depression) and no outcome-wide studies on this topic are available. To achieve wider scope of potential harm, we examined long working hours as a risk factor for a wide range of disease and mortality endpoints.

    Methods: The data of this multicohort study were from two population cohorts from Finland (primary analysis, n=59 599) and nine cohorts (replication analysis, n=44 262) from Sweden, Denmark, and the UK, all part of the Individual-participant Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) consortium. Baseline-assessed long working hours (≥55 hours per week) were compared to standard working hours (35-40 h). Outcome measures with follow-up until age 65 years were 46 diseases that required hospital treatment or continuous pharmacotherapy, all-cause, and three cause-specific mortality endpoints, ascertained via linkage to national health and mortality registers.

    Findings: 2747 (4·6%) participants in the primary cohorts and 3027 (6·8%) in the replication cohorts worked long hours. After adjustment for age, sex, and socioeconomic status, working long hours was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio 1·68; 95% confidence interval 1·08-2·61 in primary analysis and 1·52; 0·90-2·58 in replication analysis), infections (1·37; 1·13-1·67 and 1·45; 1·13-1·87), diabetes (1·18; 1·01-1·38 and 1·41; 0·98-2·02), injuries (1·22; 1·00-1·50 and 1·18; 0·98-1·18) and musculoskeletal disorders (1·15; 1·06-1·26 and 1·13; 1·00-1·27). Working long hours was not associated with all-cause mortality.

    Interpretation: Follow-up of 50 health outcomes in four European countries suggests that working long hours is associated with an elevated risk of early cardiovascular death and hospital-treated infections before age 65. Associations, albeit weak, were also observed with diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders and injuries. In these data working long hours was not related to elevated overall mortality.

  • 39.
    Eyjólfsdóttir, Harpa Sif
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Agahi, Neda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Are trajectories of self-rated health and physical working capacity during the retirement transition predicted by work-related factors and social class?2024In: Work, Aging and Retirement, ISSN 2054-4642, E-ISSN 2054-4650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to identify short and long-term trajectories of self-rated health (SRH) and physical working capacity during the retirement transition, and investigate whether work-related factors and social class predict belonging to these trajectories. We used the representative, biennial Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2006–2018. We applied group-based trajectory modeling with B-spline smoothers to model trajectories of SRH (n = 2,183) and physical working capacity (n = 2,152) during the retirement transition. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate trajectory belonging by work-related factors and social class. There was a small “honeymoon effect” in SRH for the total sample. We found four trajectories of SRH and five of physical working capacity. The large majority sustained excellent or good SRH and physical working capacity throughout the study period. Almost 6% had Fairly poor SRH and physical working capacity starting from years before retirement, which remained throughout the study period. High job demands, low job control, adverse physical working conditions, and being in manual occupation increased the likelihood of belonging to the trajectory groups Deteriorating or Fairly poor when compared with the Excellent trajectory group for both SRH and physical working capacity. Our findings suggest that for most people health status is already established some years’ preretirement and maintained for years after retirement, except a short improvement in SRH in accordance with a honeymoon effect. In order to improve health and employability, interventions focusing on working environment should be aimed at younger and midlife employees as well as older workers.

  • 40.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Head, Jenny A.
    Short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health: results from the Whitehall II study2013In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 70, no 10, p. 688-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health for women and men in different employment grades.

    Methods: Minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health among 6710 British civil servants (1993 women and 4717 men) in three employment grades from the Whitehall II study were examined from 1985 to 1988 under stable employment conditions. The short-term effects of organisational change were investigated in 1991-1993 after a time of major restructuring aiming at increasing the influence of market forces in the civil service and the long-term effects were investigated in 1997-1999.

    Results: Those who had experienced organisational change and those who anticipated organisational change reported more negative short-term health effects (minor psychiatric disorder and poor self-rated health) compared with those who reported no change. No major differences were found depending on employment grade or gender. The negative health effects had diminished during 1997-1999 for those who reported that a major change had happened before 1991-1993. Those who anticipated an organisational change in 1991-1993 still reported more ill-health in 1997-1999 (both minor psychiatric disorder and self-reported health) than those in the comparison group.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that organisational change affects employees' health negatively in the short term but also that it is possible to recover from such negative effects. As it was not possible to discern any definite difference between the gender and grades, the results point at the importance of working proactively to implement organisational change for women and men at all levels.

  • 41. Ferrie, Jane E.
    et al.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Head, Jenny
    Melchior, Maria
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Zins, Marie
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Differences in the association between sickness absence and long-term sub-optimal health by occupational position: a 14-year follow-up in the GAZEL cohort2011In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 68, no 10, p. 729-733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Although sickness absence is a strong predictor of health, whether this association varies by occupational position has rarely been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate overall and diagnosis-specific sickness absence as a predictor of future long-term sub-optimal health by occupational position.

    Methods This was a prospective occupational cohort study of 15 320 employees (73% men) aged 37–51. Sickness absences (1990–1992), included in 13 diagnostic categories, were examined by occupational position in relation to self-rated health measured annually during 1993–2006.

    Results 60% of employees in higher occupational positions and 22% in lower positions had no sickness absence. Conversely, 9.5% of employees in higher positions and 40% in lower positions had over 30 sick-leave days. Repeated-measures logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and chronic disease showed employees with over 30 days absence, compared to those with no absence, had approximately double the risk of sub-optimal health over the 14-year follow-up in all occupational positions. 1–30 days sick-leave was associated with greater odds of sub-optimal health in the high (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.27 to 1.72) and intermediate (1.29; 1.15 to 1.45) but not lower occupational positions (1.06; 0.82 to 1.38). Differences by occupational position in the association between sickness absence in 13 specific diagnostic categories and sub-optimal health over the ensuing 14 years were limited to stronger associations observed with cancer and mental disorders in the higher occupational positions.

    Conclusions The association between sickness absence of more than 30 days over 3 years and future long-term self-rated health appears to differ little by occupational position.

  • 42. Ferrie, Jane E
    et al.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Flexible labor markets and employee health2008In: SJWEH Suppl 2008;(6):98-110, ISSN 1795-9926Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Zins, Marie
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University College London, United Kingdom.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Väänänen, Ari
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Suominen, Sakari
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Sabia, Séverine
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Pentti, Jaana
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Nordin, Maria
    Nielsen, Martin L
    Marmot, Michael G
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kumari, Meena
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Koskinen, Aki
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Knutsson, Anders
    Kittel, France
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Joensuu, Matti
    Houtman, Irene L.
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Erbel, Raimund
    Dragano, Nico
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Clays, Els
    Casini, Annalisa
    Burr, Hermann
    Borritz, Marianne
    Bonenfant, Sébastien
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Hamer, Mark
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity: An Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of Up to 170,000 Men and Women The IPD-Work Consortium2012In: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 176, no 12, p. 1078-1089Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low control/low demands) compared with employees in low-strain jobs (high control/low demands). In prospective analyses restricted to physically active participants, the odds of becoming physically inactive during follow-up were 21% and 20% higher for those with high-strain (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.

  • 44.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Nordin, Maria
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Job strain and atrial fibrillation - Results from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health and meta-analysis of three studies2018In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 25, no 11, p. 1142-1149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Knowledge about the impact of occupational exposures, such as work stress, on the risk of atrial fibrillation is limited. The present study aims to investigate the association between job strain, a measure of work stress, and atrial fibrillation.

    Design Prospective cohort study design and fixed-effect meta-analysis.

    Methods Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) was utilised for the main analysis, combining self-reported data on work stress at baseline with follow-up data on atrial fibrillation from nationwide registers. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A fixed-effect meta-analysis was conducted to pool the results from the present study with results from two similar previously published studies.

    Results Based on SLOSH data, job strain was associated with an almost 50% increased risk of atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.00-2.18) after adjustment for age, sex and education. Further adjustment for smoking, physical activity, body mass index and hypertension did not alter the estimated risk. The meta-analysis of the present and two previously published studies showed a consistent pattern, with job strain being associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation in all three studies. The estimated pooled hazard ratio was 1.37 (95% CI 1.13-1.67).

    Conclusion The results highlight that occupational exposures, such as work stress, may be important risk factors for incident atrial fibrillation.

  • 45.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Dragano, Nico
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Hamer, Mark
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    Houtman, Irene L
    Joensuu, Matti
    Jokela, Markus
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Koskinen, Aki
    Kumari, Meena
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pentti, Jaana
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Salo, Paula
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Toppinen-Tanner, Salla
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Väänänen, Ari
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Zins, Marie
    Britton, Annie
    Brunner, Eric J.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Job strain and the risk of stroke: an individual-participant data meta-analysis2015In: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 557-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Psychosocial stress at work has been proposed to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its role as a risk factor for stroke is uncertain.

    METHODS: We conducted an individual-participant-data meta-analysis of 196 380 males and females from 14 European cohort studies to investigate the association between job strain, a measure of work-related stress, and incident stroke.

    RESULTS: In 1.8 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 9.2 years), 2023 first-time stroke events were recorded. The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for job strain relative to no job strain was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.05;1.47) for ischemic stroke, 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.75;1.36) for hemorrhagic stroke, and 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.94;1.26) for overall stroke. The association with ischemic stroke was robust to further adjustment for socioeconomic status.

    CONCLUSION: Job strain may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, but further research is needed to determine whether interventions targeting job strain would reduce stroke risk beyond existing preventive strategies.

  • 46. Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Alfredsson, Lars
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Batty, G. David
    Bonenfant, Sebastien
    Casini, Annalisa
    Clays, Els
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Kittel, France
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Knutsson, Anders
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nordin, Maria
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Suominen, Sakari
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerholm, Peter
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University College London, UK.
    Zins, Marie
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Comparison of alternative versions of the job demand-control scales in 17 European cohort studies: the IPD-Work consortium2012In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, article id 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control) is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the 'IPD-Work' (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. Methods: Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items). Results: We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90) and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88). In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80); good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68) and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76). The sensitivity was > 0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. Conclusions: Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments.

  • 47.
    Garefelt, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Gershagen, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    How does work impact daily sleep quality? A within-individual study using actigraphy and self-reports over the retirement transition2022In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 31, no 3, article id e13513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined how the cessation of work at retirement affects daily measures of actigraphy-measured and self-rated sleep quality. Time in bed or asleep and stress at bedtime were examined as potential mechanisms. In total 117 employed participants who were aged 60-72 years and planned to retire soon were recruited to the Swedish Retirement Study. Sleep quality was measured in a baseline week using accelerometers, diaries, and questionnaires. Subjective sleep measures were sleep quality, restless sleep, restorative sleep, getting enough sleep, estimated wake after sleep onset, difficulties falling asleep, too early final awakening, and difficulties waking up. Actigraphy measures were sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and average awakening length. After 1 and 2 years, the measurements were repeated for the now retired participants. Daily variations in sleep quality before and after retirement were analysed using multilevel modelling, with time in bed or asleep and stress at bedtime as potential mediators. We found that several self-reports of sleep improved (e.g., +0.2 standard deviations for sleep quality and +0.5 standard deviations for restorative sleep) while objective sleep quality remained unchanged or decreased slightly with retirement (e.g., -0.8% for sleep efficiency). Increased time in bed or asleep and stress at bedtime accounted partially for the improvements in self-rated sleep quality at retirement. In conclusion, actigraph-measured and self-reported sleep quality do not change in concert at retirement, highlighting the interest of studying both outcomes. The main effects of retirement from work concern subjective experiences of recovery more than sleep quality per se.

  • 48.
    Garefelt, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hyde, Martin
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Reciprocal relations between work stress and insomnia symptoms: A prospective study2020In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 29, no 2, article id e12949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work stress and poor sleep are closely related in cross-sectional data, but evidence from prospective data is limited. We analysed how perceived stress and work stressors (work demands, decision authority and workplace social support) are related to key dimensions of insomnia over time, using structural equation modelling. Biennial measurements from a large sample of the working population in Sweden enabled us to analyse both the relationship from stress to sleep as well as that from sleep to stress. Overall, we found reciprocal relations between insomnia and all four stress measures. However, looking at the relation between each dimension of insomnia and each stress measure, there were some differences in direction of effects. In the direction from stress to sleep, all work stressors as well as perceived stress predicted both difficulties initiating sleep and difficulties maintaining sleep. The same was found for non-restorative sleep, with the exception for decision authority. In the opposite direction, difficulties maintaining sleep predicted increased levels of work demands and perceived stress. Difficulties initiating sleep stood out among the insomnia symptoms as not predicting any of the stress measures, while non-restorative sleep was the only symptom predicting all stress measures. The results advance the understanding of the stress-sleep relationship and indicate a potential vicious circle between insomnia and perceived stress as well as work stressors, suggesting that the workplace could be an arena for interventions to alleviate insomnia.

  • 49.
    Garefelt, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Work and sleep – a prospective study of psychosocial work factors, physical work factors and work scheduling2014In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, no S1, p. 218-218, article id P706Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Garefelt, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Work and sleep – the effects of stress, physical work environment and work hours: A prospective study using the SLOSH database2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    METHODS: Data was derived from two waves of SLOSH (The Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health), a representative sample of the working population in Sweden. Respondents in the present study sample were gainfully employed in both 2008 (T1) and in 2010 (T2), and without sleep disturbances at T1 (n=5741, 54 % women, 46 % men, aged 24-72 years). Between T1 and T2 a total number of 441 people (8 %) developed sleep disturbances. Logistic regression was made in five hierarchical models with new cases of disturbed sleep as the dependent variable. Factors studied were changes in physical work environment, work hours, demands, control, support and stress between T1 and T2; increased or decreased levels of exposure, as well as consistently high or low levels. RESULTS: In the fully adjusted model, stress showed the strongest association with new cases of disturbed sleep. Increased stress levels had an OR of 2.9 (95% CI 2.0-4.3) and consistently high levels of stress had an OR of 2.8 (1.9-4.2). Increased levels of demands showed a weaker association, OR=1.8 (1.2-2.6), whereas consistently high levels of demands did not show significant results. Decreased levels of social support showed an increased OR of 2.3 (1.6-3.3), as did consistently low levels of social support with an OR of 1.6 (1.1-2.3). Neither changes in control nor changes in work hours showed any significant results. Increased exposure to excessive heat, cold or draught showed a OR of 1.7 (1.1-2.8) whereas changes in heavy physical labour, noise at work, and poor or excessively bright light did not show an association with new cases of sleep disturbances in the fully adjusted model.

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