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  • 1. Andéhn, Mikael
    et al.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Facets of country image and brand equity: Revisiting the role of product categories in country-of-origin effect research2016In: Journal of Consumer Behaviour, ISSN 1472-0817, E-ISSN 1479-1838, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 225-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The country-of-origin effect is a topic central to the field of international marketing. Country of origin has been found to exert a particularly potent effect on consumer evaluation in situations where there is a strong link between a country and a particular product category. The present study provides further insight into how this particular effect can be understood. Drawing on a novel conceptualization of how country image and product categories interact, this study tested the relative evaluative relevance of product category with respect to estimates of brand equity across a variety of product categories. The findings suggest that facets of a country's image that are more closely related to the evaluation situation exert a greater influence on the evaluation of brands. This result encourages scholars as well as practitioners to re-evaluate which situations might cause the country of origin effect to hold managerial relevance and paves the way for new paths toward a more comprehensive understanding of the effect. 

  • 2. Angdal, Henrik
    et al.
    Axelsson, Björn
    Lindberg, Nina
    Fredrik, Nordin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Trends in Service Sourcing Practices2007In: Journal of Business Market Management, ISSN 1864-0753, E-ISSN 1864-0761, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 187-207Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Brozovic, Danilo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Marketing.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Marketing.
    Servitization as Strategic Flexibility: Insights from an Exploratory Study2011In: Track 1: Perspectives on Service Research, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responding to significant market changes, many industrial companies have been pursuing the strategy of ‘servitization’, i.e. transition from selling products to selling an integrated products and service offering that delivers value in use. Once undergone the first step in the process of servitization by adding simple after-sales service to their goods, the company can continue the transition towards more complex solutions.A fundamental premise of this paper is that service transition is regarded as an example of strategic flexibility in practice. However, in spite of the abundant literature on servitization, it remains largely disconnected from the literature on flexibility. The purpose of this paper is thus to explore the industrial companies’ transition towards services as strategic flexibility in practice and to expand the field of industrial service research by infusing ideas from another discipline. The parallels are drawn between strategic challenges of servitization and certain aspects of strategic flexibility, such as sources, antecedents, and market-focused strategic flexibility. A qualitative empirical study is presented, testing the propositions developed from the merge of the concepts. The paper thus opens new dimensions to understanding of the concept of servitization.

  • 4.
    Brozovic, Danilo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Service flexibility: conceptualizing value creation in service2016In: Journal of service theory and practice, ISSN 2055-6225, E-ISSN 2055-6233, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 868-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the subject-specific literature on service and flexibility and derive a conceptualization of the linkages between provider flexibility and customers' value creation. Design/methodology/approach - The authors analyze existing perspectives on service and flexibility and propose linkages between provider flexibility and customer value creation. Findings - Drawing on the service logic literature, and utilizing real-world examples, this paper advances propositions and a conceptual model of how flexibility can contribute to value creation. Research limitations/implications - This paper establishes the basis for a practical and applicable flexibility perspective on value creation. It is particularly important for service-oriented providers and other firms operating in dynamic contexts. Practical implications - The propositions and conceptual model offer suggestions on the manner in which provider flexibility contributes to customer value creation. Contextual influences that moderate provider flexibility in value creation are also included. Originality/value - This paper contributes a novel perspective on service, which may serve as the starting point for the development of a more formal flexibility perspective on value creation.

  • 5.
    Brozovic, Danilo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Ravald, Annika
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Making sense of service dynamics: the honeybee metaphor2015In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 29, no 6-7, p. 634-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the honeybee colony metaphor as a tool to make sense of the dynamics of service systems surrounding a service relationship. Design/methodology/approach - Based on qualitative case research, this study develops and applies the metaphor of honeybee colonies as a tool to analytically and discursively draw parallels between different aspects of honeybees and service systems surrounding a service relationship, focusing on the dynamic nature of both. Findings - The honeybee colony metaphor can serve as an analytical tool, helping managers to make sense of the dynamics of service interactions and, as a discursive tool, giving sense to the strategic implications of service providers' everyday activities. Research limitations/implications - Few metaphors, no matter how complex, can wholly capture reality. The honeybee colony metaphor describes the dynamics surrounding a service relationship at a comprehensive level. Further research can focus on the metaphor's particular aspects (the changing role of honeybees in the system, for example) or distortions (e.g. parasitic relationships). Practical implications - The honeybee colony metaphor illustrates the strategic importance of part-time marketers; they "pollinate" and "fertilize" the customers and properly assessed information that they report represents a basis for strategic decisions. Originality/value - The introduction of the honeybee colony metaphor in this paper provides a new lens for capturing the dynamic aspects of service systems surrounding a service relationship and the strategic implications derived from adopting a systemic outlook on service.

  • 6. Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Visualizing the value of service-based offerings: empirical findings from the manufacturing industry2012In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 538-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore strategies for visualizing the value of service-based offerings in a B2B context. By taking a process perspective on the offering life cycle, this paper also aims at distinguishing which visualization strategies are most appropriate using at which life-cycle stages.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study employed a qualitative, multiple-case study research design involving five manufacturing firms.

    Findings – Primary findings are that firms need to make use of several different visualization strategies depending on, among other things, the key stakeholders and also where the firm's offering is currently positioned in the service-based offering life cycle.

    Research limitations/implications – While the empirical data is from only one sector – i.e. manufacturing – managers from other B2B sectors should have an interest in the results and the key aspects identified. Further research could also establish linkages to performance metrics.

    Originality/value – Visualization strategies have been relatively rarely studied from a B2B perspective, and the process dimension, especially, is novel.

  • 7.
    Kumar, Nishant
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Yakhlef, Ali
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Managerial Innovation Process: Antecedents, Activities, and Outcomes2016In: Proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Kumar, Nishant
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Yakhlef, Ali
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Validation of organizational innovation as a creative learning process2019In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 643-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Previous studies on innovation tend to view innovation as consisting of a creative phase of novel and useful ideas, and a non-creative, or at least a less creative phase, as this considered to be the mere implementation and validation of the initially created ideas. In contrast, this paper aims to stress on the significance of the process of validating a new idea as being a creative, learning, exploratory process that shapes the degree of novelty of the innovation as a whole.

    Design/methodology/approach: In driving this argument, this study deductively builds on a theoretical pre-understanding derived from extant literature related to management innovation and organizational legitimacy, and inductively draws on information gleaned from three in-depth case studies.

    Findings: The study shows that the validation phase in the innovation process is a creative process, rather than just being a set of activities that relate to the mere execution of the created ideas. Viewing the validation process as an exploratory search for new knowledge, this study establishes a relationship between the form of knowledge mobilized, vertically within an organization or horizontally from outside, and the form of legitimation required. Validation based on internally generated knowledge is effective in terms of achieving pragmatic (efficiency-driven) objectives. Inter-organizational knowledge inflows are associated with cognitive legitimacy – a form of legitimacy that leads to changes in the stakeholders’ beliefs about a the product. In contradistinction, horizontal, socio–cultural inflows of knowledge are likely to improve on the product itself, thereby generating more traction for validation.

    Research limitations/implications: This research is based on data collected from three firms only.

    Practical implications: The idea developed here can provide business organizations a better understanding of the validation process of management innovations. This study suggests that successful innovation often requires managers to be prepared to seek knowledge beyond the confines of their own organizations.

    Originality/value: This study contributes in three ways: it submits that there is a dynamic interplay between the moments of creation and validation, which is largely shaped by the novelty of the mobilized knowledge, depending on whether it is internal top–down or external horizontal; relatedly, the effectiveness of validation is shaped by the novelty of the knowledge garnered to justify the initial ideas; and the present paper has extended Suchman’s (1995) framework by linking the effectiveness of the various forms of legitimacy to the source of knowledge mobilized in the validation process.

  • 9.
    lindahl, Ingela
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    The Interplay of Design and Marketing: a General Model2010In: Irish journal of management, ISSN 16949-248X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many authors emphasise the differences and potential confl icts between productdesign and marketing, there appears to be a disagreement in how to handle suchdifferences and confl icts within organisations. This paper presents a novel and generalmodel that focuses on how different practices relating to design (self-oriented or commerciallyoriented) and marketing (product-oriented or market-oriented/customer-led) maybe combined, and discusses the coordination of marketing and design when combiningthese practices. By introducing such a general model, this paper contributes with a newperspective on tensions and synergies that exist between design and marketing.

  • 10.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Identifying intraorganisational and interorganisational alliance conflicts - a longitudinal study of an alliance pilot project in the high technology industry :  2006In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 116-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extant literature on alliances tends to neglect the effects of intraorganisational relationships within each alliance partner on the implementation of the alliance. To address this gap, this paper investigates both interorganisational and intraorganisational conflicts occurring during the implementation of a service alliance and aims at developing categories of conflicts as well as analysing how these conflict categories affect the implementation of the alliance. Thus, the overall purpose is to contribute to our understanding of implementation issues in alliances for the delivery of services. In order to do so, one case of a high-technology alliance has been studied longitudinally, with the researcher acting as a participant observer. Three interrelated categories of conflicts are developed through an analysis of the data: 1) the scope of the alliance, 2) the customer relationship, and 3) the implementation process. One important conclusion of this study is that the perspectives of several of the stakeholders, including the customers indirectly involved in the alliance, should be included when implementing service alliances.

  • 11.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Introduction2013In: Managing industrial service in dynamic landscapes: a flexibility perspective / [ed] Fredrik Nordin, Solna: MTC , 2013Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Managing industrial service in dynamic landscapes: a flexibility perspective2013Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Managing the process of adopting service logic in collaboration with suppliers2004In: Journal of Change Management, ISSN 1469-7017, E-ISSN 1479-1811, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 339-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify issues encountered when adopting service logic at an industrial firm in collaboration with suppliers. A second purpose is to investigate how the implementation of supply relationships affects the adoption process. Case research has been conducted at a multinational systems provider in the midst of the change process, introducing relationship-based and process-oriented services with the support of several suppliers and partners. Several issues are identified and three main conclusions are drawn. First, that issues previously identified by other researchers may be generalised to include firms that have gone further in their adoption processes. Second, implementing supply relationships can be an important issue for the adoption of service logic and may impede the overall adoption of service logic. Third, the strategy itself (service or sourcing) seems to be an important issue; difficult to formulate and difficult to implement if formulated. A final conclusion is that a double-loop composed of a participative loop and an authoritarian loop seems to be a fruitful approach to managing the adoption process.

  • 14.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Outsourcing services in turbulent contexts: Lessons from a multinational systems provider2006In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 296-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Describes challenges and problems of outsourcing services at firms that are also adopting service logic and, based on an empirical study, provides lessons regarding how they can be managed.

    Design/methodology/approach – One in-depth longitudinal study of a leading systems provider has been carried out and data from between 1997 and 2003 has been utilised, consisting of 92 interviews, documents, and insider observations. Over 20 outsourcing projects were studied and the analysis was conducted both for the individual projects and across the different projects, in an iterative cycle back and forth between data on different levels and between data and theory. The aim was to search for patterns in the observed processes and glean lessons related to the outsourcing of services on an organisational level.

    Findings – Based on a literature review, three outsourcing challenges and how they should be managed are presented: the internal change challenge, the strategy formation challenge, and the customer-relationship challenge. Four selected project stories are then presented; illustrating empirically how the outsourcing challenges can be managed. The project stories illustrate how difficult it can be to select a detailed sourcing strategy and implement it in a linear fashion.

    Practical implications – Three main lessons learned during the research are described. First, the change process should be iterative and interactive. Second, all outsourcing and partnering initiatives should be coordinated. Third, the customer-relationship should be nurtured during the outsourcing process.

    Originality/value – An unusual in-depth study of the process and challenges of outsourcing product services at an industrial firm; providing rich illustrations and empirically-based advice regarding how the challenges of outsourcing can be managed.

  • 15.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Postscript2013In: Managing industrial service in dynamic landscapes: a flexibility perspective / [ed] Fredrik Nordin, Solna: MTC , 2013Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Searching for the optimum product service distribution channel:  examining the actions of five industrial firms2005In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 576-594Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Transcendental Marketing: A Conceptual Framework and Empirical Examples2009In: Management Decision, ISSN 0025-1747, E-ISSN 1758-6070, Vol. 47, no 10, p. 1652-1664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To conceptualise, discuss and evaluate an emergent marketing philosophy, “transcendental marketing”, and its application in practice.

    Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual framework is grounded in the literatures of marketing practice and leadership styles, and refined by reference to two case examples.

    Findings: There is scope, limited at present but promising in the longer term, for moving marketing strategy onwards from the relational and transactional models to one in which the focus is on exchange of values beyond self-interest between “transcendent marketers” and consumers motivated by “self-transcendence”.

    Research Implications: Since this article is only a first attempt to develop an understanding of this alternative approach to marketing, social and cultural trends in society provide a strong impetus for the further conceptual development of the transcendental marketing concept and assessment of its use and usefulness in the real world.

    Practical implications: The proposed conceptual framework provides marketing strategists with a template for a radically different approach to marketing management, which offers the potential for enduring customer loyalty.

    Originality/value: This paper contributes a radically new perspective on marketing, supported by empirical examples of two firms that have pioneered it.

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  • 18.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Marketing.
    Agndal, H
    Consequences of Outsourcing for Organisational Capabilities: Some Experiences from Best Practice2009In: Benchmarking: An International Journal, ISSN 1463-5771, E-ISSN 1758-4094, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 316-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The research on effects of outsourcing tends to focus on financial effects and effects at a country level. These are not the only consequences of outsourcing, though. When firms outsource functions previously performed in-house, they risk losing important competencies, knowledge, skills, relationships, and possibilities for creative renewal. Such non-financial consequences are poorly addressed in the literature, even though they may explain financial effects of outsourcing. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to develop a model that enables the study of non-financial consequences of outsourcing.

    Design/methodology/approach – Based on a review of the literature on interdependencies between organizational functions, a main proposition is developed: given that savings gained from outsourcing are not reinvested in the organization, outsourcing of any function will negatively impact the capabilities of that and other functions in the organization. This proposition is broken down into sub-propositions, which are tested through a focus group study. Respondents include purchasing professionals with experience from best practice outsourcing.

    Findings – The initial proposition is developed through identification of variables mediating the proposed negative consequences of outsourcing. Mediating variables are broken down into four categories: variables relating to the outsourcer, the outsourcee, the relationship between the parties, and the context.

    Research limitations/implications – By developing a model for the study of non-financial consequences of outsourcing, this paper takes a step towards opening up an important avenue for future research.

    Originality/value – This paper contributes to the outsourcing field by not only considering non-financial effects, but also by drawing on examples of best practice outsourcing to identify ways in which potentially negative consequences of outsourcing may be managed.

  • 19.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Brozovic, Danilo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    The Spineless Organization: The Most Extreme Form of Service Organization?2016In: Conference Proceedings: SERVSIG 2016, Maastricht, 2016, p. 449-453Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexibility is generally considered an important driver of customer-perceived value (Lapierre, 2000). In contemporary business environments where the rapid development of new technologies, globalization, and an upheaval in industrial markets have led to increased uncertainty for firms acting in these markets (Sanchez, 1995, Hitt, Keats & DeMarie, 1998), this appears even more pertinent. Further, it is even more relevant for firms that strive to reposition themselves as part of their customers’ businesses (Normann, 2001). Although flexibility may seem like a natural part of service activities, the service literature is rather vague about this notion. For the most part, prior studies merely note that flexibility is important in a service context, with unsubstantiated claims such as “a degree of flexibility, after all, is central to good service” (Lovelock, 1993, p. 46)or “whereas typical manufacturing values often focus on efficiency, economies of scale, and the notion that variety and flexibility are costly, service-oriented values centre on innovation, customization, and the view that flexibility and variety create profits” (Gebauer, Fleisch & Friedli, 2005, p. 21). Indeed, there is an emerging body of research focusing on how flexibility can contribute to customer’s value creation (e.g., Hansen, Samuelsen & Silseth, 2008, Brozovic, Nordin & Kindström, 2016), but no one takes this issue as far as we attempt to do in this article by conceptualizing the “spineless organization”. A spineless organization is here defined as an organizational unit that always puts the customer's needs at the centre and is able tomeet them rapidly and efficiently regardless of what they are about and whether they were expected or not.

  • 20.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Brozovic, Danilo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Holmlund, Maria
    Disintermediation in Business-to-Business Service Channels: Mechanisms and Challenges2013In: Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, ISSN 1051-712X, E-ISSN 1547-0628, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 179-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to delineate a number of different disintermediation mechanisms within the context of business-to-business (B2B) service channels and to identify the specific challenges associated with adopting these mechanisms. Methodology: The research was conducted in accordance with abductive reasoning, moving continuously between the empirical world of 4 industrial (B2B) firms and the model world. Findings: This article delineates a choice of 6 disintermediation mechanisms and their attendant challenges within the context of industrial service channels. Contribution: The article provides an original conceptualization of disintermediation, which is detached from the traditional understanding of the concept. As such, it constitutes a useful starting point for the development of a formal theory of disintermediation. Implications for Practice: This article should be useful for practitioners, because it presents various disintermediation options available to industrial firms faced by undesired intermediaries in their industrial service channels.faced by undesired intermediaries in their industrial service channels.

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  • 21.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Marketing.
    Brozovic, Danilo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Marketing.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi.
    A Flexibility Perspective on Services: A Critical Review and Reconceptualization2011In: Track 1: Perspectives on Service Research, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of flexibility has received substantial interest among academic scholarsover many years, particularly focusing on manufacturing related issues. Given an increasedturbulence in many markets, the interest seems well justified. However, the literature issurprisingly devoid of analysis of flexibility in service settings, or how flexibility and servicesare interrelated. The purpose here is therefore to offer a critical analysis of the literature and toconceptualize the interrelationship between flexibility and services. As such, this papercontributes with a novel perspective on services and may serve as a starting point for thedevelopment of a more formal flexibility-perspective on services.

  • 22.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Brozovic, Danilo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Vilgon, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    CASE: Managing Customer Relationship Gaps at SKF2015In: Journal of Business Market Management, ISSN 1864-0753, E-ISSN 1864-0761, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 455-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This teaching case study focuses on SKF, a leading supplier of products, services and solutions. It consists of an overview of the company and then a narrative concentrating on the sudden loss of a large customer relationship. Moreover, it explores how central individuals devise various strategies to recover the relationship. The purpose is to stimulate a discussion concerning alternative ways for handling such relationship losses. The case is especially suited as a starting point for discussions of different marketing strategies and customer relationship tactics. Teaching notes are provided with discussion questions and possible answers. 

  • 23.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Brozovic, Danilo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Vilgon, Mats
    Teaching note for case: managing customer relationship gaps at SKF2015In: Journal of Business Market Management, ISSN 1864-0753, E-ISSN 1864-0761, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 464-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This teaching case was designed to stimulate creative and critical thinking among graduate students majoring in marketing or management through their engagement in a reality-based situation involving a strategic managerial challenge. The central challenge is how business-to-business firms such as SKF can handle situations where various kinds of third-party actors are entering between them and their end customers. Such “third party threats” may possibly enable them to reach some of their end-customers more effectively but, more importantly here, it may also negatively influence their relationships with the customers. In this teaching note, the challenge is linked to issues such as: commoditization, value, servitization, branding, and relationship management

  • 24.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Rehme, Jakob
    The risks of providing services: Differential risk effects of the service-development strategies of customisation, bundling, and range2011In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 390-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the risks for manufacturing companies of extending their traditional goods offerings by the addition of different kinds of services. Design/methodology/approach - The study develops a conceptual framework of nine propositions (and corresponding diagrammatic representations) of the relationships between: three kinds of risk (operational, strategic, and financial); and three strategies for the provision of added service (customisation, bundling, and broadening the range of offerings). This conceptual framework is examined empirically by qualitative analysis of data gathered in a three-year longitudinal study of managerial representatives from nine multinational manufacturing firms engaged in the addition of services to their traditional goods offerings. Findings - It was found that eight of the nine propositions are fully supported, and one receives equivocal support. In addition, several contextual factors are identified as moderating influences on the relationships between the three categories of service offering and the three classes of risk. Research limitations/implications - The study provides an original conceptual framework and nine research propositions that represent a useful starting point for the development of a formal theory of the risks of providing services. Practical implications - The conceptual framework provides guidance for managers' assessments of the risks accompanying the infusion of added services to the traditional goods offerings of manufacturing companies. Originality/value - The paper provides a novel conceptualisation of service innovation and attendant risk.

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  • 25.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Solutions offerings: a critical review and reconceptualisation2010In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 441-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To offer a critical analysis of the literature of solutions offerings; to provide a new conceptual framework, incorporating dimensions that can distinguish between different kinds of solutions, and connect their different characteristics.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – A critical review of the relevant literature, both 28 contributions identified in a search of three major databases and a range of other published work for the broader perspective, illustrated by real-world examples.

    Findings – There is no unanimous and rigorous definition of solutions, but rather a number of often broad and generic descriptions that could be applied to a wide array of different offerings, if not generically.

    Research Limitations/Implications – The sample of subject-specific contributions to the literature may not have been sufficient, and a wider selection of keywords to identify them might have captured a richer variety of concepts and opinions.

    Originality/Value – This structured and critical review contributes to the literature on services and solutions, by developing a conceptual framework as a basis for future studies and current management strategy.

  • 26.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Lindahl, Ingela
    Brege, Staffan
    The Applicability of Integrated Solutions Offerings: Differential Effects of Product Complexity2013In: Journal of Relationship Marketing, ISSN 1533-2667, E-ISSN 1533-2675, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 59-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to develop a conceptual model of the influences of product complexity on the applicability and adoption of solutions offerings as a marketing strategy. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews with executives at 7 furniture manufacturing firms were investigated and a conceptual model was developed. Based on the results, a model for relationships between different aspects of complexity and solutions is proposed and an expansion of the complexity concept suggested. The article expands the knowledge on both solutions strategy and complexity and may also guide managers in the development of their marketing strategies.

  • 27.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Foreign market learning: an integrative model of its antecedents, processes and outcomes2019In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1248-1258Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to offer an integrative model of foreign market learning, including different learning processes, antecedents and outcomes. Design/methodology/approach - The paper makes a critical review of the relevant literature, drawing on a keywords-based search of three major databases and a range of other published work for a broader perspective on the subject. Findings - The resulting integrative model shows in a number of ways how companies can learn and benefit from differences in foreign markets and what results this can lead to. Research limitations/implications - The sample of subject-specific contributions to the literature may have been insufficient, and a wider selection of keywords to identify them might have captured a richer variety of concepts and opinions. Originality/value - The integrative model contributes to the literature on foreign market learning and innovation and serves as a basis for future studies and current management strategy.

  • 28.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Ravald, Annika
    Managing relationship gaps: A practitioner perspective2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 2490-2497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research has failed to explain how practitioners manage relationship gaps, i.e., situations where the interests of the parties in the relationship no longer match. By adopting a practice-based research approach to explain empirical findings drawn from industrial (B2B) service contexts, this study contributes an explanatory framework of how practitioners handle relationship gaps in practice and what factors guide and shape their behaviors. This analysis is based on work life stories from practitioners at six different industrial companies and shows that relationship gaps are managed through four alternative gap management practices, each characterized by a specific set of activities. The practitioner's perception of the validity and feasibility of the available options guides the scope of action within which different sets of activities are enacted.

  • 29.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Ravald, Annika
    Managing relationship gaps: An practitioner perspectiveIn: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 30.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Ravald, Annika
    The making of marketing decisions in modern marketing environments2023In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 162, article id 113872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, marketing is undergoing a major shift driven by environmental disruptions and advances in marketing technologies. This shift has implications for marketing decision-making. However, research on how marketing managers navigate modern marketing environments' complex, volatile, and data-intensive nature is limited. This study addresses this gap by qualitatively analyzing marketing managers' decision-making processes in 15 companies. Using the naturalistic decision-making approach and the situative perspective on cognition and action as theoretical lenses, we identify three key characteristics of decision-making in modern marketing environments-namely, agility, inventiveness, and reflexiveness. Our findings provide empirically grounded insights into the cognitive and behavioral processes involved in marketing decision-making and contribute to a deeper understanding of how managers navigate-and respond to-modern marketing environments' challenges.

  • 31.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Ravald, Annika
    Mohr, Jakki
    Capabilities for managing high-technology business networks2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a business landscape characterized by increasing competition and rapid technological development, managers are exposed to particular challenges, including how an increasing speed of development can be balanced with other requirements such as being cost effective. Inter-organizational cooperation is posited as a viable strategic strategy to balance these competing challenges and is particularly logical in high tech contexts. Of particular interest in this article are the different options for how organizations in technology intensive markets can manage their business network in order to develop and capture value in both the short and long term. We identify two different perspectives on uncertainty and dynamics in high-tech contexts, the dominant perspective that views uncertainty as somewhat predictable and an emerging perspective that views uncertainty as inherently unpredictable, and hence requires a more fluid approach to network management, one grounded in the notion of complex adaptive systems. Using the theoretical lens of organizational capabilities, as applied to network management capabilities, we develop the notion that different types of network management must be adapted for the very different types of uncertainty inherent in high-tech markets. The central thesis in this article is that the requisite capabilities for network management differ, depending upon these different types of turbulence, dynamism, and uncertainty.

  • 32.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Ravald, Annika
    Möller, Kristian
    Mohr, Jakki J.
    Network management in emergent high-tech business contexts: Critical capabilities and activities2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 74, p. 89-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to their inherent uncertainty, emerging high-tech business fields require a unique set of network management capabilities. Drawing from the dynamic capabilities literature and the networking capability literature, we develop a framework for network management in such environments. The framework consists of three interrelated capabilities context handling, network construction, and network position consolidation. A longitudinal case study of a start-up company in the smart energy sector validates and provides an illustrative understanding of the three capabilities. The findings identify how they are enacted through a portfolio of activities, providing a microfoundational insight into how a focal actor in an entrepreneurial and explorative manner navigates and manages a business field in the making. Our research contributes a novel conceptualization of network management capabilities with an explicit focus on attracting, establishing and managing relationships in the complex and uncertain environment of emerging high-tech fields. In addition, our research offers guidance to managers with respect to the capabilities they need to galvanize and coalesce actors in an emerging business network.

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  • 33.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Ravald, Annika
    Servadio, Luigi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    The Complexity of Value-Creating Networks: Multiplicity, Heterogeneity, and Contingency2013In: Service Dominant Logic, Network and Systems Theory and Service Science: Integrating Three Perspectives for a New Service Agenda / [ed] Evert Gummesson, Cristina Mele, Francesco Polese, Napoli: Giannini Editore, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual analysis of the literature on different kinds of value-creating networks; to provide a new conceptual framework of value-creating networks given their inherent nature of complexity in terms of multiplicity, and heterogeneity.

    Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes a critical review of the relevant literature, 29 contributions being identified in a search of three major databases and a range of other published work for the broader perspective, illustrated by real-world examples from ten case studies.

    Findings: Central dimensions of different kinds of value-creating networks are identified and a model incorporating their contingencies in the form of technology, market, and firm contextual factors is delineated.

    Research limitations/implications: The theoretically and empirically grounded conceptualization of linkages between contextual factors and the constitution of different categories of value-creating networks is based on a limited number of articles and cases. However, it can serve as a starting point for the development of a formal contingency model of value-creating networks.

    Originality/value: This structured and critical review contributes to the literature on value-creating networks, by developing a contingency model as a basis for future studies and current management strategy. The paper provides a novel theoretically and empirically grounded conceptualization of complexities and contingencies of different categories of value-creating networks, and as such contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of value-creating networks. The concept of network logic is introduced into the research discourse regarding value-creating networks.

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  • 34.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Ravald, Annika
    Viio, Paul
    Making marketing decisions in turbulent business contexts2018In: Conference Proceedings (extended abstracts) of 23rd International Conference CBIM2018: Sustainable Business Models: Integrating Employees, Customers and Technology / [ed] María L. Martín-Peña, José L. Ruiz-Alba, 2018, p. 53-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most, if not all, business contexts today are characterised by rapid change due to emerging technologies and macro-level disruptions. This makes decision making inherently challenging as increasingly complex issues need to be addressed and made sense of, often based on insufficient information and under time constraints. Although there is notable research on decision making in fast-moving markets (e.g., Eisenhardt, 1989), research with empirical grounds providing a real-world understanding (Basel & Brühl 2013) is scarce. We propose that there is a need for further research on how decision-making procedures and procedures align with different decision contexts. This knowledge gap is also addressed by Wierenga (2011), proposing more research on the determinants, outcomes, and conditions of decision-making processes in marketing. The purpose of this paper is to address this in gap in marketing theory, both in terms of better understanding how managers make sense of marketing problems in turbulent business contexts and what strategies they apply when making marketing decisions. We develop a conceptual model and provide empirically based propositions for how and why certain types decision processes (characterised by, e.g., their pace and nature) are adopted in specific decision contexts (with different problem structures, problem complexity, and problem context). Our specific focus is on marketing decisions in turbulent contexts where new business fields are emerging or where present business fields are disrupted. Such contexts are characterised by a lack of clear market structures and by high uncertainty concerning both the technological solutions and the potential key actors, their resources, and contributions (Nordin et al, 2017). Few research efforts have examined managerial marketing decisions in such contexts. A notable exception is provided by Yang and Gabrielsson (2017), 54 focusing on decision-making by entrepreneurs. Whereas they use effectuation theory (Sarasvathy, 2001) as the theoretical basis, we draw upon the problem-solving literature (e.g., Jonassen, 2000) and the behavioural aspects of decision making (Wierenga 2011, Basel & Brühl 2013). Thereby we contribute a novel perspective to this research area.

  • 35.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Marketing.
    Rehme, J
    Risk in industrial offerings2009In: Creating business out of industrial offerings / [ed] D. Kindström, MTC , 2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36. Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Åhlström, P
    Problems of establishing service supply relationships: evidence from a high-tech manufacturing company2006In: Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, ISSN 1478-4092, E-ISSN 1873-6505, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 75-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Öberg, Christina
    Kollberg, Beata
    Nord, Tomas
    Building a new supply chain position: an exploratory study of companies in the timber-housing industry2010In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1071-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore challenges in implementing innovations that require that companies establish new positions in a construction supply chain. Based on three in-depth case studies in the Swedish wood-working industry, it is concluded that different challenges arise depending on how the company establishes the new position (through organic growth, collaboration or acquisition), and whether the company moves backwards or forwards in the supply chain. Challenges are path-dependent on previous competencies and relationships, where technology-oriented companies have customer-related difficulties, and market-oriented companies’ challenges mainly arise out of technological solutions. Further challenges appear in establishing new relationships at new positions, and emerge from norms and understandings in established structures. We also elaborate on how managers may approach similar kinds of innovations, and build a new supply chain position in any context.

  • 38.
    Nussipova, Gulnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Sörhammar, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Value formation with immersive technologies: an activity perspective2019In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 483-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to contribute a framework that explains how value is formed during the usage of immersive technologies in industrial contexts.

    Design/methodology/approach - Drawing on activity theory and a customer-dominant logic, the authors tentatively develop an activity-centric framework for value formation enabled by physical and mental activities conducted by users of immersive technologies. The authors evaluate the framework through a case study focusing on the use of virtual reality (VR) in an industrial setting.

    Findings - The findings from the case study illustrate the tentative framework and specify how it is enacted by users in the studied context through three physical activities constituted by a set of actions and reflected in five emotional responses.

    Research limitations/implications - Both researchers and practitioners may use the framework presented in this paper as a guide for further academic and practical developments concerning the value of immersive technologies such as VR and augmented reality.

    Originality/value - The activity-centric framework contributes a novel perspective to the literature on value formation enabled by immersive technologies.

  • 39.
    Servadio, Luigi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Brozovic, Danilo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    OVERCOMING THE CHASM: THE SMART MACHINES TEACHING CASE STUDY2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Servadio, Luigi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Marketing.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Marketing.
    Critical issues during servitization: an in-depth case study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: the study develops a conceptual framework focusing on critical issues during the servitization of manufacturing, drawn from three research streams (namely organizational, procedural, relational) and illustrates how the critical aspects affect each other through an in-depth observation of the phenomenon.

    Design/methodology/approach: based on a literature review, the study develops a conceptual framework of six propositions corresponding to central critical aspects when manufacturing firms expand their offering with new services. The conceptual framework is examined empirically by a single case study at ABB Robotics focusing on the development of a Remote Service Assistance.

    Findings: the conceptual framework and the propositions find wide support from the empirical ground. However, the in-depth study reveals several contextual factors (exogenous as well as endogenous) that act as moderators and deviators in a hypothetical linear process toward servitization.

    Research implications: the research provides an original conceptual framework and six propositions that contribute to the literature on servitization. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary character of the study contributes to the interplay of the different research communities.

    Practical implications: the conceptual framework and the propositions provide guidance of the servitization in practice, including several criticalities especially in terms of operational management.

    Originality/value: the study provides an original holistic picture of servitization that leads to deeper understanding of servitization in theory and practice. 

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    Servadio_Nordin Criticalities and servitization
  • 41. Viio, Paul
    et al.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Double-Loop Sales Adaptation: A Conceptual Model and an Empirical Investigation2017In: Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, ISSN 1051-712X, E-ISSN 1547-0628, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 123-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to conceptualize and discuss the phenomenon of a double-loop sales adaptation in sales and its practical application. The resultant framework is developed from existing academic literature on adaptation in sales and marketing and inspired by the concept of double-loop learning.Methodology/approach: The study adopted an abductive approach, iterating between the empirical world of two service firms and the theoretical world. The developed framework is refined with interview-based feedback from key informants in business-to-business organizations.Findings: This article develops a framework for double-loop sales adaptation, which combines adaptations of selling behavior with a sales mindset.Contribution: Although previous research recognizes adaptation as a central aspect of relationships, the link between adaptation and sales mindset has arguably been inadequate in the literature. Accordingly, this study focuses on sales adaptation occurring at the two levels of behavior and mindset.Implications for practice: The proposed framework provides sales practitioners with a model for adaptation in their customer relationships. By distinguishing between two sorts of adaptation, managers can optimize resource allocation to both benefit the company and strengthen the relationship among parties.

  • 42. Viio, Paul
    et al.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    When does implementation of relationship orientation in new product launch matter?2015In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 45, p. 47-48Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Relationships have been a central theme in marketing for a long time, both for academics and practitioners. Matikainen, Terho, Matikainen, Parvinen, and Juppo (2015--this issue)contribute to this area by investigating how relationship orientation (RO) adopted by the sales force in their activities influences the launch of the product and whether the product is accepted by the customer. While this fundamental idea is very much in line with what has been presented in other articles (see, e.g., Cooper, 1998, Di Benedetto, 1999, Hultink and Atuahene-Gima, 2000 and Langerak et al., 2004), their focus is more specific and their hypotheses are tested empirically. In short, they conclude that a firm's RO, which is operationalized through the activities related to sales force management (SFM) and relationship leveraging (RL), positively relates to customer acceptance (CA) and success in new product launch (NPL). The article thus contributes with interesting new knowledge, but also raises some questions and ideas for future research. While we agree with the central ideas in the article, we also wonder when the results are valid, e.g., in which industries and market conditions, and how the RO can be applied more specifically in sales. Hence, in the following commentary we discuss their framework in terms of its relevancy in various contexts and the more concrete application of it. Avenues for further research are also suggested.

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  • 43.
    Yakhlef, Ali
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Effects of firm presence in customer-owned touch points: A self-determination perspective2021In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 130, p. 473-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Customer-owned touch points have emerged as a central context for customers to consume, contribute, and create content while interacting with one another on social media. Research on how firms’ attempts to intervene in such forums affect customers’ experience supremacy is still in its infancy. This study attempts to address this limitation, suggesting a framework for understanding firms’ impact on customer experience in customer-owned forums. Towards this aim, we adopt self-determination theory as a theoretical lens, and, empirically draw on interview material gleaned from customer-owned touch point users. The results show that companies’ attempt to control the discussions in such forums may have a negative impact on customers' experiences when it undermines their sense of autonomy, relatedness, and competence. However, firms’ intervention is welcome when the intention is to add value, enabling customers to retain or enhance their feeling of self-efficacy and social esteem.

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