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  • 1.
    Berg, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hovne, Vera
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Oscarsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Mechler, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Lindqvist, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Topooco, Naira
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Philips, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    “Good job!”: Therapists' encouragement, affirmation, and personal address in internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for adolescents with depression2022In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 30, article id 100592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered interventions are generally effective for psychological problems. While the presence of a clinician guiding the client via text messages typically leads to better outcomes, the characteristics of what constitutes high-quality communication are less well investigated. This study aimed to identify how an internet therapist most effectively communicates with clients in internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT). Using data from a treatment study of depressed adolescents with a focus on participants who had a positive outcome, messages from therapists were analyzed using thematic analysis. The study focused on the therapist's 1) encouragement and 2) affirmation, and how the therapists used 3) personal address. The analysis resulted in a total of twelve themes (Persistence Wins, You Are a Superhero, You Make Your Luck, You Understand, Hard Times, You Are Like Others, My View on the Matter, Time for a Change, Welcome In, Let Me Help You, You Affect Me, and I Am Human). Overall, the themes form patterns where treatment is described as hard work that requires a motivated client who is encouraged by the therapist. The findings are discussed based on the cognitive behavioral theoretical foundation of the treatment, prior research on therapist behaviors, and the fact that the treatment is provided over the internet.

  • 2.
    Bergman, Louise E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Entering and exiting self employment – how do they relate to health and well-being?2023In: Book of Abstracts (DRAFT): 21st EAWOP Congress: The Future is Now: the changing world of work, Katowice, Poland, 2023, p. 415-416, article id OP260Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research goals and motivation: Self-employed workers contribute significantly to our society in terms of economic productivity, job opportunity and innovation. Thus, it is in the interest of our society to support and encourage self employment. It is well documented that self-employed workers – on average – experience higher levels of wellbeing, and less mental health problems than employed workers do. However, self-employed workers are a highly heterogeneous group when it comes to who they are, how they work, and their health status. Thus, averages are not sufficient to inform researchers, policymakers and companies on how to understand the mental health and wellbeing of this group of workers. 

    Workers enter and exit self employment all the time as business opportunities occur, need of an income arises, innovations are created, and businesses fail. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind these career transitions beyond economic factors. Is the decision to start a business related to wellbeing, and how? How many self-employed workers are thriving over time, both when it comes to wellbeing and their business? Who is struggling and experiencing mental health problems, and is this related to exiting self employment? Questions like these currently go unanswered. 

    Theoretical background: This study is mainly exploratory, but mental health problems, wellbeing and how it develops and how it relates to entering and exiting self employment can be related work environment. The effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) has proven to be a good framework to understand health developments, and is adapted and used in this study as theoretical framework. 

    Method: Latent transition analysis (LTA) is used to consider both the longitudinal aspect and the heterogeneity of the group of self-employed workers, in a unique and novel way. We investigate what profiles of mental health and wellbeing exist among self-employed workers, how common they are, and how the workers transition between these profiles over time. Further, we study how the profiles and transitions between them relate to entrepreneurial entrance and exit, work environment factors (ERI) and background variables (i.e., age and gender). 

    We use data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) The current study is based on participants who responded to the 5 th -7 th wave of SLOSH conducted in 2014 (response rate 53%), 2016 (response rate 51%) and 2018 (response rate 48%). In this study, we use respondents who were self-employed at any of the three time points (N=2327). 

    Results: Results of all statistical analyses will be available when the conference takes place. Preliminary findings of factor analysis show that all scales have adequate fit and factor loadings. Based on previous research we expect to find at least one profile of relatively good mental health and wellbeing, as well as profiles with less advantageous mental health. We also expect that work environment factors are linked to health profiles such that better health is found in workers with less ERI. ERI, a well-documented theoretic model, is used to validate the health and wellbeing profiles. Probably, exits out of or entrance into self employment is related to changes in health and work environment. Mechanisms, the number of transitions, and the temporal order will be explored in our study. 

    Limitations: The limitations of this study lie in the exploratory nature of the analysis, and more studies will be needed to further validate any found profiles. 

    Relevance to congress theme: This study is relevant to the first theme of the congress: Careers and the labour market. Specifically, career transitions and employee mobility. With regard to the UN SDG, our study addresses good health and wellbeing and decent work and economic growth. 

    Conclusions: Exact conclusions will depend on the findings, but the study is one of the first to focus on health profiles of self-employed workers, and ways in which these workers’ mental health and wellbeing changes in relation to ERI and decisions to change employment. The results will yield a better understanding of how self-employed workers thrive or struggle, and how to identify the ones that struggle. This will also help to discuss potential possibilities to create better circumstances or preventive tools to shape decent work and sustainability of careers that involve self employment.

  • 3.
    Bergman, Louise E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Well-being of high skilled workers: Disentangling person and tasks effects2022In: 15th EAOHP Conference 2022. Supporting knowledge comparison to promote good practice in occupational health psychology: Book of Proceedings. / [ed] Kevin Teoh; Fiona Frost; Jasmeet Singh; Maria Charalampous; Miguel Muños, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2022, p. 564-565, article id P75Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research goals and why the work was worth doing: Research of well-being and positive affect of workers have previous mainly been focused on a general level. These previous studies have not yet disentangled whether positive affect can be linked to task-by-task experience at work, or whether it mainly varies between different people with different types of work. The purpose of this study was to differentiate between the general level, task level, and type of employment in self-determination, meaningfulness of work and positive affect, thus contributing to the understanding of how to best assess well-being. The novelty and contribution of this study lies in the analysis strategy that allows for disentangling the effect that specific work tasks may have on workers' positive affect. Specifically, the use of multi-level modelling on the data gathered with the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) allows us to describe relationships between positive affect, self-determination, and meaningfulness of work at both person and task level. Multilevel studies assessing the intrapersonal variability of experienced well-being on not only a day-level, but also a task level, are rare and much needed to better understand the dynamics of well-being during a workday.

    Theoretical background: Researchers have connected positive affect – which represents momentary well-being experiences such as happiness, engagement, and inspiration – to high levels of general well-being and better health. High levels of positive affect is often attributed to higher levels of self-determination, and meaningfulness of work. Workers experiencing more self-determination and meaningfulness of work should experience more positive affect, and tasks experienced as more self-determined and meaningful should lead to more positive affect. Additionally, self-employed workers are suggested to have a more self-determined career choice in itself, and thus higher levels of positive affect.

    Design/Methodology/Approach/Intervention: In this study we tested whether H1) workers experiencing more self-determination and meaningfulness of work report higher levels of positive affect, H2) tasks experienced as more self-determined and meaningful are related to more positive affect, and H3) self-employed workers experience stronger relationships of task level self-determination and meaningfulness with positive affect than employed workers. We used a sample of 175 high skilled self-employed and employed workers, who reported self-determination, meaningfulness of work and positive affect for a total of 560 tasks during a workday by the DRM. DRM facilitates access to momentary experiences stored in memory, providing reliable estimates of intensity and variations of affect during the day. First, we tested two separate multilevel multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) models for momentary positive affect (outcome side of the model), as well as self-determination and meaningfulness of tasks (predictor side of the model), and then tested the models for measurement invariance. Since tasks were nested within individuals we fitted a bayesian structural equation model with random slopes with self-determination and meaningfulness of work and employment type as predictors and positive affect as an outcome variable.

    Results obtained: Results indicated that workers experiencing more self-determination and meaningfulness of work reported more positive affect, that tasks experienced as more self-determined also elicited higher levels of positive affect, and that there was a small positive effect of self employment on positive affect. The self-determination and meaningfulness of tasks seem to be more important to positive affect than employment type. The relationship between self employment on positive affect have been assumed by earlier research, but our study is the first to test and show that this indeed may be the case. However, other factors such as self-determination might be more important to task level positive affect.

    Limitations: We studied high-skilled worker, choosing this population facilitated comparison of groups of workers, as many background variables were similar, however, this does affect the generalizability of the results. As consequence, one limitation is that a fairly small sample. Further, we used DRM and a drawback of this method is that it is not in the moment assessment, but rather recorded after the tasks of the day. However, DRM still have practical benefits as it might elevate the response rate in contrast to in the moment reports, because it is difficult for the respondent to make pauses during their workday.

    Research/Practical Implications: These findings may inform researchers on how to best assess well-being, and organizations on how to design work of workers to elevate positive affect and thus, well-being, and health. We have empirically confirmed the assumptions of a positive relationship between self employment and positive affect of previous studies, and that this relationship might be less important than other factors such as self-determination.

    Originality/Value: The originality of this research lies in the multi-level structure of the method and analysis, as well as the comparison of groups of workers.

  • 4.
    Bergman, Louise E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Comparing Depressive Symptoms, Emotional Exhaustion, and Sleep Disturbances in Self-Employed and Employed Workers: Application of Approximate Bayesian Measurement Invariance2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 598303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies investigating differences in mental health problems between self-employed and employed workers have provided contradictory results. Many of the studies utilized scales validated for employed workers, without collecting validity evidence for making comparisons with self-employed. The aim of this study was (1) to collect validity evidence for three different scales assessing depressive symptoms, emotional exhaustion, and sleep disturbances for employed workers, and combinators; and (2) to test if these groups differed. We first conducted approximate measurement invariance analysis and found that all scales were invariant at the scalar level. Self-employed workers had least mental health problems and employed workers had most, but differences were small. Though we found the scales invariant, we do not find them optimal for comparison of means. To be more precise in describing differences between groups, we recommend using clinical cut-offs or scales developed with the specific purpose of assessing mental health problems at work.

  • 5.
    Bernard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Temporary, self-employed and permanent workers: A Swedish study on work characteristics and individual well-being over time2013In: , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bernhard Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Career continuance and transfer of competencies after job transitions: Insights from a Swedish study2015In: Handbook of research on sustainable careers / [ed] Ans de Vos; Beatrice I.J.M. van der Heijden, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 381-397Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Book information: What is a sustainable career and how can individuals and organizations develop pathways that lead to them? With current levels of global unemployment and the need for life-long learning and employability enhancement these questions assume a pressing significance. With twenty-eight chapters from leading scholars, the Handbook of Research on Sustainable Careers makes an important contribution to our understanding of sustainable careers and lays the foundation for the direction of future research.

  • 7.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hur kan anställningsformer och anställningsotrygghet idagens arbetsliv beskrivas och undersökas?2021In: Konferensbok FALF 14-16 juni 2021, 2021, p. 22-22Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hur är det att arbeta i ett anställningskontrakt som avviker från det som länge har varit normen, nämligen en fast anställning på heltid? I takt med att organisationens behov för flexibilitet och effektivitet har ökat har även en rad alternativa anställningsformer skapats på dagens arbetsmarknad. Det kan t ex handla om visstidsanställningar eller anställningar som vikarie. Det kan vara anställningar som inte garanterar ett visst antal timmar, s k nolltimmeskontrakt. Det kan vara konsultuppdrag, anställningar via bemanningsföretag eller gigs som förmedlas via appar på internet. Dessa anställningsformer kan karakteriseras på olika sätt och de kopplar i olika hög grad till upplevelser av otrygghet sett till vissa innehåll i ett arbete, anställningen som helhet, men även möjligheterna att etablera sig på arbetsmarknaden. Osäkerheten kan också ligga i hur man kan skapa en yrkeskarriär, få ekonomisk trygghet eller tillgång till välfärds- och försäkringssystemet.

    Syfte: Syfte med föreliggande presentation är att karakterisera de olika typer av anställningsformer på ett systematiskt sätt, och att diskutera huruvida dessa är förknippade med olika otrygghetsupplevelser. Ett tredje syfte med presentationen är att belysa hur man som forskare bäst kan undersöka hur anställningsformer och (o)trygghetsupplevelser skiljer sig åt mellan olika människor på arbetsmarknaden. Detta är särskilt viktigt då tidigare forskning har visat att den upplevda otryggheten i en anställning är kopplad till en rad negativa konsekvenser för individen och organisationen.

    Metod: För att få en överblick över de senaste förändringar som rör olika typer av anställningar i Sverige lästes forskningsrapporter och rapporter från myndigheter. Olika fackförbund och en expert i arbetslagstiftningen konsulterades. Genom systematisk litteratursökning identifierades tidigare undersökningar i Sverige och utomlands som analyserade hur olika anställningsvillkoren kan se ut, hur de har klassificerats och vad de betyder för upplevelsen av anställningsotrygghet och andra former av otrygghet.

    Resultat: En systematisk överblick över likheter och skillnader mellan olika anställningsformer presenteras. Nya sätt att arbeta via plattformsarbete eller i egenanställning belyses i detalj. En sammanfattande överblick över kopplingen till olika former av otrygghetsupplevelser ges. Detta leder till slutsatser kring hur forskningsstudiers enkät- och mätverktyg behöver vara utformade för att kunna kartlägga de olikartade anställningsförhållanden som människor i dagens arbetsmarknad kan ha. Avslutningsvis diskuteras utmaningarna för att mäta den upplevda otryggheten som relaterar till dessa olika anställningsformer.

  • 8.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bergman, Louise E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Flourish, fight or flight: health in self-employment over time-associations with individual and business resources2024In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 97, p. 263-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Using COR theory to study developments of health and other key resources in self-employed workers in Sweden over 6 years, this study: (1) explored whether the heterogenous group of self-employed workers contained subgroups with different health trajectories, (2) investigated whether these were more typical for certain individuals (with respect to age, gender, sector, education, employment status), and (3) compared the different health trajectories regarding resource development in mental well-being, business resources, employment status, work ability. Method: The study used data from the Swedish longitudinal occupational survey of health (SLOSH) and included participants working as self-employed or combiner (N = 2642). Result: Five trajectories were identified with latent class growth curve model analysis (LCGM). Two health trajectories with (1) very good, respective (2) good stable health (together comprising 78.5% of the participants), (3) one with moderate stable health (14.8%), (4) one with a U-shaped form (1.9%), and (5) one with low, slightly increasing health (4.7%). The first two trajectories flourish: they maintained or increased in all key resources and were more likely to remain self-employed. Trajectories three and five consist of those who fight to maintain or increase their resources. Workers in the U-shaped health trajectory show signs of fight and flight after loss in health and other key resources. Conclusions: Studying subgroups with different resource developments over time was suitable to understand heterogeneity in self-employed workers. It also helped to identify vulnerable groups that may benefit from interventions to preserve their resources.

  • 9.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bergman, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Mälardalen University, Sweden .
    Flourish, fight or flight: Health and well-being in self-employment over time - associations with business success2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 207-207Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Around 9% of the working population in Sweden consists of self-employed business owners, but a considerable amount of them struggle to consolidate or expand their businesses. Among the factors predicting business success the decisive role of long-term health of business owners has been acknowledged only recently, but longitudinal studies testing this assumption are scarce. Based on the conservation of resources theory, good health can be seen as a resource that helps business owners to tackle high workloads and make business succeed.

    Design: Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Health Survey is used. Starting in 2012, N=554 self-employed have answered three or more times in the biannual data collection. Latent growth curve modelling is employed to study general and mental health trajectories and their associations with business survival over time.

    Results: Preliminary descriptive analyses on biannual changes suggest that roughly one in ten self-employed leaves self-employment at follow-up. Job demands and emotional exhaustion are higher among those who leave compared to those who remain in business. After integrating new data collected in 2018, growth curve analyses are run over the whole longitudinal sample, and associations of health trajectories to business survival will be tested.

    Limitations: Data is collected with questionnaires, and business success is operationalized as business survival only.

    Research/Practical Implications: Study results increase knowledge on the self-employed’s health developments, vulnerable groups with poor health and risk of business failure can be detected.

    Originality/Value: This is one of few studies on longitudinal developments of health in selfemployed business owners.

  • 10.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Canivet, Catarina
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Östergren, P-O
    The role of social embeddedness for remaining in non-desired workplaces and mental health consequences: Results from Scania Public Health Cohort2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 334-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the role of social embeddedness on and off the job in relation to remaining in non-desired workplaces (NDWs) and the development of mental health. Method: The study used questionnaire data from the Scania Public Health cohort (N=2410) that were collected in 2000 (T1), 2005 (T2) and 2010 (T3). Logistic regression models were calculated to probe how NDWs and social embeddedness factors measured at baseline (T1) related to NDWs five years later (T2), and to investigate how NDWs and social embeddedness factors at T2 related to poor mental health at T3. Synergy indices were calculated in both analyses to test for additive v. interactive effects between NDWs and social embeddedness factors on the outcomes. Results: NDWs at baseline and low social embeddedness on and off the job was associated with NDWs at T2. For those in a desired workplace, low support from co-workers as well as low workplace affinity increased the risk to be in an NDW at T2. NDWs and low social embeddedness also associated with impaired mental health (T3). For those in an NDW, low support from co-workers as well as low workplace affinity increased the risk of poor mental health at T3. Conclusions: This study underlines the importance of social embeddedness for NDWs and the development of poor mental health over time. Particularly low social support from co-workers and low workplace affinity seem to be risk factors for future experience of an NDW and impaired mental health.

  • 11.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    Murphy, Megan
    Connelly, Catherine E.
    Flessibilità organizzativa e lavori atipici2019In: Introduzione alla psicologia delle organizzazioni: Una prospettiva internazionale / [ed] Nik Chmiel, Franco Fraccaroli, Magnus Sverke, Bologna: Societa Editrice Il Mulino, 2019, p. 285-303Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [it]

    In questo capitolo vedremo che cosa significa avere un lavoro atipico, cioè un lavoro che si discosta dai tradizionali impieghi a tempo pieno e indeterminato. I lavori atipici sono utilizzati frequentemente dalle odierne organizzazioni e spesso sono calibrati sulle necessità organizzative. Si è perciò sviluppata un’ampia varietà di fattispecie contrattuali, il che significa che le condizioni di assunzione e di lavoro e le loro conseguenze per l’individuo e per l’organizzazione possono variare considerevolmente. Il capitolo presenta anzitutto una tipologia dei contratti atipici utilizzati più spesso e considera fino a che punto siano tra loro comparabili al variare delle legislazioni nazionali sulla tutela occupazionale e dei mercati nazionali del lavoro. Il capitolo mostra inoltre che il significato che questi impieghi atipici assumono per i lavoratori varia secondo a) le strutture organizzative e del mercato del lavoro che determinano le condizioni lavorative in relazione ai diversi contratti, e b) la prospettiva individuale, che dipende dalle motivazioni e dalle percezioni individuali riguardo al rapporto di lavoro. Questi fattori strutturali e queste percezioni individuali possono ben spiegare la varietà di conseguenze, positive e negative, del lavoro atipico, che sono discusse in questo capitolo in termini di atteggiamenti lavorativi, comportamento organizzativo, salute e benessere individuali e sviluppo professionale.

  • 12.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    Murphy, Megan
    Connelly, Catherine E.
    How Do We Feel and Behave When We’re Not Permanent Full-Time Employees? The Case of the Diverse Forms of Non-Standard Work2017In: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective / [ed] Nik Chmiel, Franco Fraccaroli, Magnus Sverke, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2017, 3, p. 258-275Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses how it feels to work in non-standard employment that deviates from the traditional full-time permanent arrangement. Non-standard employmentis frequently used by organizations today and often tailored to organizational needs. Therefore, a diversity of arrangements has developed, which means that employment and working conditions and their consequences for the individual and the organization may vary a lot. The chapter first provides a typology of most commonly used non-standard contracts and discusses their comparability across national employment protection legislation and labour markets. It further illustrates that workers may view alternative employment differently, depending on organizational or labour market structures that create working conditions for specific contracts, and individual perspectives that are shaped by different needs and perceptions of the employment. These structural issues and individual perceptions may well explain the variety of consequences, positive as well as negative, which are discussed in this chapter in terms of work attitudes, organizational behaviour, individual health and well-being and career development.

  • 13.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    Schreurs, Bert
    De Witte, Hans
    Linking job insecurity to well-being and organizational attitudes in Belgian workers: The role of security expectations and fairness2011In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1866-1886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how perceptions of job insecurity and fairness associate with individual well-being (job satisfaction and general health) and organizational attitudes (organizational commitment and turnover intention), under the condition that the psychological contract as perceived by the employee includes a promise on job security, or not. More specifically, we suggest that (H1) job insecurity is negatively related to individual well-being and organizational commitment and positively related to turnover intentions when job security is expected as part of the psychological contract, (H2) that job insecurity is negatively related to fairness perceptions when job security is expected as part of the psychological contract, (H3) that fairness associates positively with individual well-being and organizational commitment and negatively with turnover intentions and (H4) that the association between job insecurity, individual well-being and organizational outcomes is mediated by fairness under the condition that job security is expected as part of the psychological contract. Thus, we propose a model of mediated moderation. Results based on a sample of Belgian employees (N = 559) supported our hypotheses for organizational outcomes. For individual well-being, the mediation framework was not conditional upon a perceived promise of job security as part of the psychological contract. We conclude that employees' perceptions of job insecurity and fairness are important factors in employees' well-being and their attitudes towards the organization. More importantly, these perceptions can in part be shaped by organizational agents such as managers and supervisors. Additionally, the active utilization of the psychological contract in management strategies seems to have favourable results for the fostering of pro-organizational attitudes among employees.

  • 14.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eib, Constanze
    Griep, Yannick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Calgary, Canada.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    How do Job Insecurity and Organisational Injustice relate to Mental Health Problems? A Multilevel Study on Synchronous and Delayed Effects2018In: Book of Proceedings: 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today’s workplace / [ed] Kevin Teoh, Nathalie Saade, Vlad Dediu, Juliet Hassard, Luis Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 2018, p. 216-217, article id O15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With the continuous changing world of work towards more automatisation, and global competition that requires organisations to cut costs wherever possible, job insecurity is a concern of workers across many different occupations. Job insecurity is a stressful experience and its negative impact on wellbeing and health is well-documented. However, the exact mechanisms for the link between job insecurity and health need further study.

    We argue that job insecurity is a breach of the psychological contract for permanent workers, leading to perceptions that the employer acts unfairly, which is related to immediate (synchronous) and long-term (two years delayed) negative health effects. Thus, we firstly hypothesise indirect effects between job insecurity on depressive symptoms and sleep difficulties via organisational injustice at the within person level. Furthermore, because employees who often experience job insecurity may no longer have security expectations in their psychological contract, we suggest that the strength of the job insecurity-injustice relationship differs between individuals, such that the relationship is weaker for individuals with higher average levels of job insecurity over time. Finally, we hypothesised that the relationship between organisational injustice and depressive symptoms and sleep difficulties is stronger for individuals who experience more over time-variation in organisational injustice. We expect this pattern because recent research shows that injustice has stronger effects for individuals whose justice experiences vary as opposed to relatively stable injustice perceptions.

    Method: The study population consisted of participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort survey. We selected only permanent workers over four consecutive data waves (2010, 2012, 2014, 2016) and analyzed the data with multilevel analysis.

    Results: At the within-person level, we found significant direct effects of job insecurity on organisational injustice. Job insecurity and organisational injustice displayed direct synchronous effects on both health outcomes, but few delayed effects were found. The indirect effects were significant for synchronous but not for delayed health outcomes. Significant cross-level interactions were found for between-individual differences in job insecurity, but not for between- individual differences in organisational justice. In particular, as hypothesised, the link between job insecurity and organisational injustice at each wave was weaker for individuals with higher average levels of job insecurity perceptions but stronger for those who rarely experienced job insecurity during the time of the study.

    Discussion: This study is one of the few studies investigating within- and between-person mechanisms that link feelings of job insecurity to the experience of organisational injustice and health outcomes over time. It also adds to the debate whether job insecurity and organisational injustice associate with health via mediation or moderation mechanisms by showing that both mechanisms may operate simultaneously yet on different levels. Furthermore, this study highlights that permanent workers view their organisation as less fair when they experience job insecurity, the more so if their psychological contract is largely intact and builds on security expectations. Both job insecurity and injustice have rather direct effects for health.

  • 15.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Griep, Yannick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. University of Calgary, Canada.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    How Do Job Insecurity and Organizational Justice Relate to Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Difficulties: A Multilevel Study on Immediate and Prolonged Effects in Swedish Workers2020In: Applied Psychology: an international review, ISSN 0269-994X, E-ISSN 1464-0597, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 1271-1300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on stress and justice literature, we argue that perceptions of job insecurity induce feelings of low procedural justice, which has immediate and prolonged negative effects on health (depressive symptoms, sleep difficulties). Moreover, we explore whether the strength of the job insecurity-justice relationship differs between individuals as a function of their average level of job insecurity over time. Finally, we explore whether the procedural justice-health relationship differs between individuals as a function of variability in justice perceptions over time. We analyzed Swedish panel data from permanent workers over four consecutive waves (with a two-year time lag between waves) using multilevel analysis, separating within- and between-person variance. Results showed that job insecurity associated negatively with procedural justice at the same time point for all waves. Prolonged effects were less stable. We found immediate (but not prolonged) indirect effects of job insecurity on health outcomes via procedural justice. Average levels in job insecurity over time moderated the within-person job insecurity-justice relationship. However, variability in procedural justice over time did not moderate the within-person justice-health relationship. In conclusion, disentangling within- and between-person variability of job insecurity and justice perceptions contributes to the understanding of health effects.

  • 16.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Bellaagh, Katalin
    Patterns of contract motives and work involvement in temporary work: Relations to work-related and general well-being2008In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 565-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporary work is characterized by heterogeneity, and contract motives and work involvement are believed to differentiate temporary workers, which may explain their divergence in terms of subjective well-being. Applying a person-oriented approach using questionnaire data from a sample of Swedish temporary workers (N = 184), this study identified six patterns, characterized by distinct combinations of voluntary and involuntary contract motives and work involvement. While controlling for demo-graphics, comparative analyses found differences between these patterns in terms of work-related and general well-being. These findings indicate that knowledge about temporary work and its various consequences is enhanced by considering whole patterns instead of single variables in a person-oriented approach.

  • 17.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Staying in or switching between permanent, temporary and self-employment during 2008-2010: Associations with changing job characteristics and emotional exhaustion2019In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 215-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Labour market segmentation theories suggest that permanent and temporary workers are exposed to economic risks to different degrees, and differ in their working life quality and well-being. However, few studies have tested these ideas during times of economic crisis. Also, little is known about how the self-employed compare to permanent and temporary workers and are affected by economic downturns. This study investigated Swedish workers in different labour market segments before and after the financial crisis (2008 and 2010). More specifically, it looked at job characteristics and strain differences between permanent, temporary and self-employed workers. Data (N = 6335) came from SLOSH, a longitudinal representative cohort study of the Swedish workforce. Contradicting segmentation theories, differences between permanent and temporary workers were small. The self-employed stood out with favourable job characteristics, but comparable strain levels. During the crisis, work demands and strain declined for many of the workers studied here.

  • 18.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Östergren, P-O
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Inlåsning, anställningsbarhet och välbefinnande efter en omorganisation2013In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under perioder där arbetsmarknaden erbjuder färre alternativ är det troligt att fler människor accepterar arbetsplatser där de inte trivs eller stannar kvar på arbeten som de inte vill ha och känner sig inlåsta i. Tidigare forskning har kopplat inlåsning till sämre välbefinnande. Hur inlåsning och välbefinnande förändras när människor byter jobb är mindre känt. Föreliggande studie belyser förändringar i inlåsning, upplevd anställningsbarhet och välbefinnande vid en svensk myndighet efter en organisationsförändring som medfört organisationsinterna arbetsplatsbyten. Resultaten visar på negativa effekter av inlåsning: att stanna kvar på eller flytta till en arbetsplats som man inte önskar ha i framtiden är inte gynnsamt för hälsan.

  • 19.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Clinton, Michael
    de Jong, Jeroen
    Job insecurity and well-being in the temporary workforce: Testing volition and contract expectations as boundary conditions2013In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 203-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether temporary contract volition and workers' expectations for contract renewal are boundary conditions to explain differences in temporary workers' job insecurity feelings and well-being. It is hypothesized that (1) low volition through higher job insecurity indirectly associates with lower well-being and that (2) temporary workers' expectations of contract renewal weakens the links between both low volition and high job insecurity and high job insecurity and impaired well-being. Results based on an international data set of 1755 temporary workers employed in the education, manufacturing, and service sectors supported the first hypothesis and partly also the second. More specifically, low preferences for temporary contracts associated via higher job insecurity with lower job satisfaction, impaired health, and higher irritation. Contract expectations placed a boundary condition upon this indirect relation; however, the negative association between high job insecurity and impaired well-being was not weakened but strengthened. In conclusion, particularly temporary workers with low contract volition and high job insecurity feelings, who have high expectations for contract renewal are at risk for impaired well-being. Hence, this study sheds light onto the question how volition for temporary work and expected contract renewal relate to job insecurity and associate with individual well-being.

  • 20.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Östergren, P.-O.
    Stuck at a workplace: What’s work control, demands and learning got to do with it? A longitudinal multilevel study on Swedish permanent employees in situations of ‘workplace locked-in’2020In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 31, no 14, p. 1771-1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whilst health consequences of being locked-in at the workplace have been documented in several research studies, it is largely unknown how work characteristics and their changes over time relate to risks for becoming locked-in at a certain workplace. Accordingly, this paper studied how perceived control, learning opportunities and quantitative demands at work associate with workplace-locked-in (WPLI). The study included permanent employees who participated in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study in wave 3 through 5 (n = 2918 individuals; n = 7460 observations). Results from multi-level analysis show that there was significant individual variation in WPLI changes over time, even though on average, WPLI decreased slightly. Differences in work characteristics between individuals (L2) and across time (L1) associated significantly with WPLI: higher levels of job control and learning opportunities related to lower odds ratios for WPLI, whereas higher quantitative job demands associated with higher odds ratios of WPLI. Moreover, differences in quantitative job demands, number of job changes and educational achievements explained the individual variations of WPLI developments over time. The result shows that WPLI can – to some extent – be prevented or reduced through good work design, and implications for HR managers and organizations are discussed.

  • 21.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    How Are They Now?: Managers’ Well-Being and Organizational Attitudes after the Restructuring of Their Job Positions in a Swedish Governmental Agency2014In: Book of Proceedings, 11th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Looking at the past-planning for the future: Capitalizing on OHP multidisciplinarity / [ed] N.J.A. Andreou, A. Jain, D. Hollis, J. Hassard & K. Teoh, Nottingham, UK: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2014, p. 257-258Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planned organizational changes often aim to secure organizational sustainability through the means of optimising structures and strategies. However, for employees such organizational changes often imply job changes and the loss of familiar routines. 

    Plausibly, this increases perceived uncertainty and may have negative effects on employees’ organizational attitudes and well-being during the change. If levels of well-being and organizational attitudes are negatively affected in the long run, this may pose threats to the initial aim to secure organizational sustainability. This may even more so be the case if employees such as managers show long-term negative reactions, since managers are in key positions to promote the organizations aims vis à vis employees. Whereas there is much research on employees’ reactions towards organizational change, few studies have specifically analysed managers’ reactions at different organizational levels. Also, many studies focus on certain aspects of uncertainty, but few inspect the consequences of (unwanted) job, task or responsibility changes.

    Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate managers’ well-being and organizational attitudes after organizational changes of management structures. More specifically, it studied how changes in managers’ organizational attitudes and well-being related to changes in job positions, tasks and responsibilities shortly after the organizational restructuring, and more than a year later.

    The study used questionnaire data collected from managers in a Swedish governmental agency undergoing structural changes. During this period all managers had to go through a new recruitment process. Questionnaires were sent out at T1 (summer 2011, one month before the change process started), T2 (spring 2012, two months after the organizational change was finalised) and T3 (summer 2013, 18 months after the organizational change was finalised).

    Data are currently being analysed cross-sectionally (N = 173, 144, and 125) and longitudinally (N = 91 with complete date for t1, t2 and t3). The preliminary findings show the percentage of managers who rated their job positions favorably steadily decreased from T1 to T3, and this related to a significant decrease in self-rated health and job satisfaction. Interestingly, perceptions of tasks and responsibilities of their old and new jobs were still rather similar at T2. How the perceptions of changes in tasks and responsibilities relate to attitudes and well-being a year later (T3) is currently under analysis.

  • 22.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Christensen, Marit
    Clausen, Thomas
    Mauno, Saija
    The Launch of a New Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, E-ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    The Moderating Role of Employability in the Relationship between Organizational changes and job insecurity2007In: The XIIIth European Congress of Work, Stockholm, May 9-12, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that the world of work has changed substantially during the last decades, implying that reorganizing activities has become more common. In the same line of research it has been argued that during an organizational change working life becomes more volatile. It could thus be argued that individuals may perceive job insecurity during such changes. However, few researchers have investigated the moderating role of employability. The aim of our study is to investigate if individuals that has experienced organizational change also report more job insecurity than those individuals that has not experienced an change and also if employability has a moderating role. The present study used questionnaire data from a representative sample of Swedish citizens between 25 and 50 years of age in 2005. Preliminary results indicate that individuals that have experienced an organizational change are more likely to report high levels of job insecurity and also that individuals reporting low levels of employability are more likely to report higher levels of job insecurity. In addition we found an interaction effect between organizational change and employability indicating that the difference between experiencing a change and not when reporting low employability is greater than for those individuals reporting high employability. A possible explanation could be that individuals feeling employable are not affected by an organizational change because they have opportunities in the labour market.

  • 24.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Enkätmetodik2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enkätmetodik ger såväl teoretisk som praktisk kunskap om enkätundersökningar från att identifiera ett problem och formulera lämpliga frågor, till att analysera och tolka resultatet. Boken har ett evidensbaserat perspektiv där läsaren får lära sig olika verktyg som bidrar till undersökningens tillförlitlighet.

    Fokus ligger på metodiken, som förklaras och sätts in i sitt sammanhang med hjälp av många exempel, faktarutor och tydliga beskrivningar. Läsaren får således god förståelse för centrala områden såsom mätteori, reliabilitet, validitet och faktoranalys.

  • 25.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Task-level work engagement of self-employed and organizationally employed high-skilled workers2017In: Career Development International, ISSN 1362-0436, E-ISSN 1758-6003, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 724-738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Self-employed workers typically report higher well-being levels than employees. The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanisms that lead to differences in work engagement between self-employed and organizationally employed high-skilled workers. Design/methodology/approach - Self-employed and organizationally employed high-skilled workers (N = 167) were compared using a multigroup multilevel analysis. Participants assessed their job control (general level) and reported their work engagement during work tasks (task level) by means of the Day Reconstruction Method. Aspects of job control (autonomy, creativity, and learning opportunities) and task characteristics (social tasks and core work tasks) were contrasted for the two groups as predictors of work engagement. Findings - Self-employed workers reported higher levels of job control and work engagement than organizationally employed workers. In both groups, job control predicted work engagement. Employees with more opportunities to be creative and autonomous were more engaged at work. Self-employed workers were more engaged when they had more learning opportunities. On the task level, the self-employed were more engaged during core work tasks and social tasks. Practical implications - The findings suggest that self-employment is an effective way for high-skilled workers to increase the amount of job control available to them, and to improve their work engagement. From an intervention perspective, self-employed workers may benefit most from more learning opportunities, more social tasks, and more core work tasks. Organizationally employed workers may appreciate more autonomy and opportunities for creativity. Originality/value - This study contributes to a better understanding of the role that job control and task characteristics play in predicting the work engagement of high-skilled self-employed and organizationally employed workers.

  • 26.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Psychosocial Working Conditions Among High-Skilled Workers: A Latent Transition Analysis2018In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 223-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories of psychosocial working conditions assume an interaction of different work environment characteristics. Most studies detail various aspects of such interactions, while fewer investigate the comprehensive patterns of interrelated variables. This exploratory study distinguishes patterns of psychosocial working conditions, describes their characteristics, and investigates their change over 6 years. The working conditions of 1,744 high-skilled workers in Sweden, of a representative sample of the working population, were empirically classified into 4 distinct patterns: (a) the Supporting pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy; (b) the Constraining pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, low learning opportunities, medium creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; (c) the Demanding pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; and (d) the Challenging pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, very high learning opportunities, very high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy. Importantly, these patterns were associated with significant differences in worker well-being. From an individual perspective, working conditions most often changed from patterns with a high workload and time pressure to patterns with lower levels of these demands. Over time, the prevalence of the Constraining pattern increased while that of the Challenging pattern decreased. To conclude, a person-centered approach broadens the understanding of the complex interplay between psychosocial working conditions and their longitudinal change, which can improve the tailoring of occupational health interventions.

  • 27.
    Byström, Markus
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Wood, Ina
    Stockholm University.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hau, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Narrated Experiences of Sexual and Gender Minority Refugees: Resilience in the Context of Hardship from Pre- to Post-Migration2023In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Refugees from sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) face particular hardships, which demand adaptive responses. This pilot study explored SGM refugees’ experiences of resilience within the context of hardship from pre- to post-migration. Eleven semi-structured interviews with SGM refugees who had migrated to Sweden were analysed using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: (1) Concealing Identity in Response to Pervasive Oppression, (2) Living in Suspension, (3) External Sources of Support and (4) Strength from Within. Respondents reported utilising limited external resources and employing considerable internal resources in order to navigate and survive in the face of hardships that carried over and shifted across time. A more nuanced understanding of the connections between resilience and hardship is needed to inform post-migration reception practices and service provision in order to facilitate resilience in SGM refugees.

  • 28. Canivet, Catarina
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Moghaddassi, Mahnaz
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    The negative effects on mental health of being in a non-desired occupation in an increasingly precarious labour market2017In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 3, p. 516-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precarious employment has been associated with poor mental health. Moreover, increasing labour market precariousness may cause individuals to feel ‘locked-in’, in non-desired workplaces or occupations, out of fear of not finding a new employment. This could be experienced as a ‘loss of control’, with similar negative health consequences. It is plausible that the extent to which being in a non-desired occupation (NDO) or being in precarious employment (PE) has a negative impact on mental health differs according to age group. We tested this hypothesis using data from 2331 persons, 18–34, 35–44, and 45–54 years old, who answered questionnaires in 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated for poor mental health (GHQ-12) in 2010, after exposure to NDO and PE in 1999/2000 or 2005. NDO and PE were more common in the youngest age group, and they were both associated with poor mental health. In the middle age group the impact of NDO was null, while in contrast the IRR for PE was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.3) after full adjustment. The pattern was completely the opposite in the oldest age group (adjusted IRR for NDO 1.6 (1.1–2.4) and for PE 0.9 (0.6–1.4)). The population attributable fraction of poor mental health was 14.2% and 11.6%, respectively, for NDO in the youngest and oldest age group, and 17.2% for PE in the middle age group. While the consequences of PE have been widely discussed, those of NDO have not received attention. Interventions aimed at adapting work situations for older individuals and facilitating conditions of job change in such a way as to avoid risking unemployment or precarious employment situations may lead to improved mental health in this age group.

  • 29. Clinton, Michael
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rigotti, Thomas
    de Jong, Jeroen
    Expanding the temporal context of research on non-permanent work: Previous experience, duration of and time remaining on contracts and employment continuity expectations2011In: Career Development International, ISSN 1362-0436, E-ISSN 1758-6003, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 114-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore an expanded temporal context of non-permanent work through an examination of the influence of previous experience of temporary working, contract duration and time remaining on contract and expectations of continued employment on reports of job insecurity, job satisfaction, in-role performance and organisational commitment. Design/methodology/approach - Hypotheses were tested using responses of 1,169 temporary workers from a multi-national, cross-sectional questionnaire study. Findings - Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that having previous experience of temporary work was associated with higher in-role performance. No significant effects were found for contract duration, but shorter time remaining on present contract was associated with greater job insecurity and also greater in-role performance. However the strongest effects were found for expectations of continued employment, with stronger expectations being linked to more positive reports of each outcome. A number of moderation effects were found that indicated interactions between temporal variables and revealed a moderating role of preference for temporary work. Originality/value - The paper is one of the first to formally consider the influence of a broader temporal context on attitudes and behaviours of temporary workers. Significant associations were found between elements relating to each of the past, present and future and important individual and organisational variables in the present. These effects were sustained above and beyond the influence of variables such as country, sector, preferences, skill level, contract type, and demographics that are known to affect temporary workers' attitudes and behaviours.

  • 30. De Cuyper, Nele
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Witte, Hans
    Alarco, Barbara
    Employability and Employees' Well-Being: Mediation by Job Insecurity2008In: Applied Psychology: an international review, ISSN 0269-994X, E-ISSN 1464-0597, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 488-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study's aims are twofold: first, we investigate the relationship between employability and both work-related (engagement) and general (life satisfaction) well-being. Second, we study how employability may be relevant in times of high job insecurity. Specifically, we hypothesise (1) a positive relationship between employability and employees’ well-being, (2) a negative relationship between employability and job insecurity, and (3) a negative relationship between job insecurity and employees’ well-being, so that (4) job insecurity mediates the relationship between employability and employees’ well-being. Results based on a sample of 559 respondents from divisions of seven Belgian organisations support our hypotheses. We conclude that employability may be a means to secure one's labour market position, rather than a means to cope with job insecurity.

  • 31. de Jong, Jeroen
    et al.
    Clinton, Michael
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nonlinear associations between breached obligations and employee well-being2015In: Journal of Managerial Psychology, ISSN 0268-3946, E-ISSN 1758-7778, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 374-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the nonlinear association between proportions of breached obligations within the psychological contract (PC) and three dimensions of employee well-being, and the mediating role of contract violation in these relationships. With this study the authors gain a more detailed understanding of PC evaluations and their consequences for well-being. Design/methodology/approach - The authors build on asymmetry effects theory and affective events theory to propose that breached obligations outweigh fulfilled obligations in their association with well-being. The hypotheses are tested using a sample of 4,953 employees from six European countries and Israel. Findings - The results provide support for the hypotheses, as the effect sizes of the indirect relationships for breached obligations on well-being via violation are initially strong compared to fulfilled obligations, but decrease incrementally as the proportion of breached obligations become greater. At a certain point the effect sizes become nonsignificant. Research limitations/implications - The study shows that PC theory and research needs to better acknowledge the potential for asymmetrical effects of breach relative to fulfillment, such that the breach of obligations can sometimes have a stronger effect on employee well-being than the fulfillment of obligations. Practical implications - Those responsible for managing PCs in organizations should be aware of the asymmetrical effects of breach relative to fulfillment, as trusting on the acceptance or tolerance of employees in dealing with breached obligations may quickly result in lower well-being. Originality/value - The findings have implications for the understanding of PC breach and its associations with employee well-being.

  • 32. De Jong, Jeroen
    et al.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    De Witte, Hans
    Silla, Inmaculada
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motives for accepting temporary employment: A typology2009In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 237-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to offer a typology of temporary workers, based on their motives for accepting their work arrangement, which includes voluntary, involuntary and stepping-stone motives, and relate this typology to various individual and work-related variables. Design/methodology/approach – Latent class analysis of 645 European workers was used to construct a typology of temporary workers. Variation of individual and work-related variables between types of temporary workers was analyzed using ANOVA. Findings – The analyses suggest that there are three types of workers: involuntary temporary workers highlight the involuntary motive and the stepping-stone motive; the stepping-stone type stresses the stepping-stone motive only, and the non-involuntary group disagrees with all three motives. Moreover, the groups differed significantly on important work-related variables such as occupational position, tenure, employability, and work-involvement. However, differences in individual variables were limited. Research limitations/implications – The research puts forward a more complex typology of temporary workers than is usually suggested. Moreover, the study shows a non-involuntary group for which temporary employment can become a trap, and hence these workers should be targeted by future policy and interventions. Originality/value – The research offers a typology of temporary workers, which is founded on motivation theory, and existing research on motives for accepting temporary employment.

  • 33. Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Entrepreneurial action and eudaimonic well-being in a crisis: Insights from entrepreneurs in Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic2024In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 335-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on transactional stress theory, this article provides an empirical glimpse into how entrepreneurs in Sweden have experienced the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors investigated the impact of two crisis-induced stressors (unpredictability, loneliness) on two aspects of entrepreneurial success (business and personal success) through the indirect effect of eudaimonic well-being. They examined the role of crisis-related entrepreneurial actions (applying for government financial support, engaging in online business activities). Results from a sample of entrepreneurs operating in Sweden in the summer of 2020 revealed that unpredictability and loneliness were negatively related to business and personal success via eudaimonic well-being. Results for the moderating effects of the crisis-related entrepreneurial actions revealed mixed findings. The results provide valuable insights into the mechanisms that tie entrepreneurial stressors and opportunities for action to eudaimonic well-being, and in turn, entrepreneurial success in the early days of the crisis caused by the pandemic.

  • 34.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    You can't always get what you want: Mechanisms and consequences of intra-organizational job change among middle managers in Sweden2022In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 33, no 15, p. 2961-2990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An intra-organizational change process involving all middle managers was studied in a public sector organization in Sweden over three time points, spanning two years in total. Using sensemaking and the person-environmental fit literature as well studies on promotion and demotion, hypotheses about the effects of managerial status loss and being offered a non-preferred role (non-preference) on change reactions (job satisfaction, turnover intentions, mental health) are made. Data from 140 middle managers was analyzed with path models, where two process factors (perceived organizational support during the change, procedural justice of the change) and two job characteristics (job demand, job control) were tested simultaneously as mediators. Results revealed that managerial status loss had negative effects on work attitudes but mental health was positively affected over time through decreased job demands. Non-preference had negative consequences for all outcome variables and these effects were mediated through lower procedural justice of the change, lower job control, and for some outcomes, lower perceived organizational support during the change. The results provide insight into how middle managers react to change, and suggest that process justice and job characteristics play an important part in shaping these reactions.

  • 35. Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Time to leave? Organizational justice as predictor of early or late retirement2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 1036-1036, article id 300Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Research has highlighted that a poor psychosocial work environment is associated with early retirement, which constitutes a drain of knowledge and resources. Organizational justice is one aspect of the work environment that can be addressed by management representatives. In this study, we focus on organizational justice as important job resource with substantial relations to work and health outcomes. Justice theories suggest that organizational justice communicates to employees that they are valued members of the work group. Also, when feeling fairly treated, employees are more likely to want to reciprocate fairness, with, for instance, keep working with the company. The aim of the current research is to investigate the relationship between organizational justice and early and late retirement.

    Methodology: The Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Health Survey (SLOSH) was used. A total of 1570 retirees were available who retired in 2012, 2014 or 2016. Of these, 509 retired before they were 65 years old, 551 when they were 65 years old, and 510 above 65 years of age. Procedural justice was assessed with 7 items from a validated scale.

    Results: Preliminary findings show that those who retired after the statutory retirement age of 65 years reported higher procedural justice one year before they retired than the other two groups.

    Implications: Results suggest that organizational justice may be a good predictor to gauge whether employees want to continue working after their statutory retirement age.

    Originality: One of the few studies investigating how organizational justice relates to actual retirement using longitudinal data in Sweden.

  • 36. Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Organizational justice and health: Studying mental preoccupation with work and social support as mediators for lagged and reversed relationships2018In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 553-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational justice perceptions are considered a predictor of health and well-being. To date, empirical evidence about whether organizational justice perceptions predict health or health predicts organizational justice perceptions is mixed. Furthermore, the processes underlying these relationships are largely unknown. In this article, we study whether bidirectional relationships can be explained by 2 different mediation mechanisms. First, based on the allostatic load model, we suggest that the relationships between organizational justice perceptions and different health indicators are mediated through mental preoccupation with work. Second, based on the affective perception and affective reaction assumption, we investigate if the relationships between different health indicators and organizational justice perceptions are mediated by social support at work. Using a large-scale Swedish panel study (N = 3,236), we test the bidirectional mediating relationships between procedural justice perceptions and self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and sickness absence with a cross-lagged design with 3 waves of data. Significant lagged effects from procedural justice to health were found for models predicting depressive symptoms and sickness absence. Mental preoccupation with work was not found to mediate the longitudinal relationship between procedural justice perceptions and indicators of health. Significant lagged effects from health indicators to procedural justice were found for models involving self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and sickness absence. Social support mediated the longitudinal relationships between all 3 health indicators and procedural justice. Results are discussed in light of previous studies and implications for theory and practice are outlined.

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  • 37.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The moderating influence of the demand-control-support model on the relationships between organisational justice and well-being2011In: 2nd International Workshop on Insights in Organisational Justice and Behavioural Ethics, 27-28 June 2011, Birmingham, UK, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the post-industrial working life - characterised by job intensification, blurred boundaries between work life and non-work life and postponed statutory retirement age - it is more necessary than ever that organisations and employees find a way to work highly efficiently and at the same time in a sustainable manner.

  • 38.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    The interaction between organizational justice and job characteristics: Associations with work attitudes and employee health cross-sectionally and over time2015In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 549-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates to what extent main and interactive effects of overall organizational justice and job characteristics shape employees’ work attitudes (organizational commitment, intention to stay) and health (mental health, somatic health) cross-sectionally and after a period of one year. Questionnaire data from 429 Swedish accountants show that generally both organizational justice and job characteristics had main effects on all outcomes at both time points. Interactions between organizational justice and job characteristics were found for every job characteristic studied (demand, control, support), for both time points but mainly for intention to stay and somatic health. The results show that perceptions of organizational justice and job characteristics can have additive and multiplicative synergetic effects for work attitudes and employee health.

  • 39.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Who does and who does not show the negative effects of informational injustice?2012In: Book of Proceedings: 10th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology / [ed] Aditya Jain; David Hollis; Nicholas Andreou; Flavia Wehrle, 2012, p. 246-247Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Injustice at the workplace is known to be a serious stressor for workplace-related attitudes, behaviours and health. Earlier research shows that higher age and trust is important in preventing increased turnover intention. Others found that employees who engage in withdrawal behaviour indicate less emotional exhaustion when perceiving injustice. However, traditional coping behaviours have not been studied as moderators before. Yet, this could elucidate preventive factors of how to deal with injustice experiences at work. Finding coping strategies that buffer the expected negative effects of injustice might disclose more beneficial ways of handling injustice than withdrawal behaviour for the organisation and employees.

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of coping strategies as the moderators for the relation between supervisory informational injustice and its relation to job satisfaction, turnover intention and work-related health. We argue that employees with problem-focused coping (changing the situation) may have difficulties in applying this strategy within a hierarchical dependence relationship like the one to the supervisor. We predict that problem-focused coping does not attenuate the expected negative effects of perceived injustice. Employees with more emotion-focused coping strategies (avoidance and devaluation strategies) may perceive higher job satisfaction, lower turnover intention but impaired health. The analyses were also probed for the effect of gender.

    Method: Data from 373 Swedish accountants is used. The data collection was conducted in 2009.

    Results: We applied moderated hierarchical regression analyses. While change-oriented coping was found to moderate the relation between informational justice and turnover intention and work-related health, this coping strategy did not make a difference when informational justice was low. For women, the combination of high informational justice and high change-oriented coping was associated with lower levels of turnover intention and more positive work-related health.  Contrary to our predictions, avoidance and devaluation coping strategies had different effects from each other. Devaluation coping attenuated the negative association between informational injustice and job satisfaction as well as turnover intention. The opposite was true for avoidance coping which amplified the negative association between informational injustice and job satisfaction and turnover intention.

    Discussion: Based on these results two main conclusions can be made from this study. First, changing the situation seems to increase the positive effect of informational justice from the supervisor. Second, devaluing problems seems to work as a buffer factor for the negative effects of informational injustice whereas avoidance coping worsens these effects.

  • 40.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Trajectories of Procedural and Interactional Justice as Predictors of Retirement among Swedish Workers: Differences between Three Groups of Retirees2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 12, article id 6472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational justice is an important aspect of the psychosocial work environment, but there is a lack of studies on whether justice perceptions also predict retirement decisions. The aim of this study is to examine trajectories of procedural and interactional justice perceptions prior to retirement of three groups of retirees while considering self-rated health and important demographics. Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (2006-2018, N = 3000) were used. Respondents were grouped into early retirement, normative retirement and late retirement. Latent growth curve models and multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to test whether trajectories of justice perceptions prior to retirement differed between retirement groups while controlling for self-rated health development and demographic variables. Late retirees had higher intercept levels of interactional justice and higher intercept levels of self-rated health prior to retirement, compared to early retirees. Late retirees also showed a slower decrease in procedural justice compared to early retirees. Only intercept levels of self-rated health differed between early retirees and normative retirees, such that early retirees had lower levels of self-rated health prior to retirement. Keeping employees in the workforce is a major challenge for any aging society. Organizational justice perceptions in the years prior to retirement seem particularly influential for delaying retirement.

  • 41.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interaction effects of organisational justice and work characteristics: cross-sectional and longitudinal relations to work attitudes and employee’ well-being2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Work characteristics have often been the focus in research intending to understand organisational behaviour and how employee health and well-being may be shaped by characteristics of the work environment. Both perceptions of organisational justice as well as perceptions of work characteristics pertain to the work environment domain; both have also been handled as psychosocial predictors for health outcomes and shown to be related to relevant work and health outcomes. Missing from the current picture is how these two different domains of the work environment interact, and together shape work and health outcomes. When employees make a judgment about the organisation as a whole – that the organisation is fair and can be trusted – and because of this are inclined to engage in their work, and may even feel healthy and happy at their workplace, does it matter what work characteristics they face? Previous studies show a mixed picture, with only few studies available at all, some studies with no significant interaction effects, most of the studies done on the control component, very few studies that investigated the interplay with the demand and support component. Also, the previous studies only studied relations with cross-sectional data, and there is not one study that predicted work and health outcomes. The current study first reviews the limited available evidence on the combined effect of justice and work characteristics, and then tests interaction effects between organisational justice and the Job-Demand-Control-Support model components as predictors of two work outcomes (organisational commitment, intention to stay) and two health outcomes (mental health, somatic health). Data from Swedish accountants are used, cross-sectionally and longitudinally after one year. While not all interactions are significant, there are significant interactions for each of the work characteristics, for each of the four outcome variables and for both time points. The results are presented and interpreted with the help of four different mechanisms: reduction, amplification, aggravation, and compensation.

  • 42.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Hau, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Exploring Lived Experiences of Parents of Youth and Youth with a Foreign Background in Sweden2021In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 50, p. 453-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sweden is in transition when it comes to the immigrant experience. More research is needed to document the life circumstances and adjustment of those with foreign background living in Sweden.

    Objective: This study investigated the lived experiences of parents of youths and young people themselves who have an Iraqi or Syrian background and are living in Sweden.

    Method: This cross-sectional qualitative interview study focused on a sample of parents of youth and youth (N = 26) with a foreign background. Participants were either born in Syria or Iraq or had one or both parents born in these countries and had migrated to Sweden. Participant interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis.

    Results: In relation to the study aim, the analysis indicated three main themes in participants’ responses which concerned life in Sweden, feeling at home, and coping.

    Conclusions: Overall, these themes reflected how the perception of everyday experiences relates to adjustment within a multi-cultural urban Swedish context. This study showed how participants with a foreign background are rich in their own diversity of experiences and viewpoints. Results also pointed towards the promise of social policy and services aimed at benefiting those with a foreign background if such efforts are situated in the microsystems that provide life daily structure, as well as in contexts that offer socialization and networking opportunities (e.g., training, education, work, and school). Further, such action should consider the importance of the extended family as part of family-focused initiatives.

  • 43.
    Fältén, Rebecca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    How are organisational conditions related to illegitimate tasks among managers and their subordinates in the public sector? A Swedish study2024In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Illegitimate tasks violate the norms of what is considered part of the employee's work role and have been found to harm individuals, groups and organisations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between key organisational conditions - span of control, recruitment needs, administrative support and organisational changes - and the prevalence of unnecessary and unreasonable illegitimate tasks experienced by managers and their subordinates. Data were collected from a sample comprising 80 managers and 863 subordinates in a Swedish municipality using questionnaires to assess their perceptions of illegitimate tasks. Organisational conditions were collected from the human resources register in the municipality. Multilevel analysis results reveal a positive association between the size of workgroups and illegitimate tasks; the more subordinates per workgroup, the more unnecessary and unreasonable tasks managers reported and the more unreasonable tasks the subordinates reported. These findings hold practical implications for organisations because they indicate that illegitimate tasks can be reduced by decreasing the number of employees in larger workgroups.

  • 44. Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Balancing Work and Life When Self-Employed: The Role of Business Characteristics, Time Demands, and Gender Contexts2018In: Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 7, no 8, article id 139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores individual and contextual risk factors in relation to work interfering with private life (WIL) and private life interfering with work (LIW) among self-employed men and women across European countries. It also studies the relationship between interference (LIW and WIL) and well-being among self-employed men and women. Drawing on data from the fifth round of the European Working Conditions Survey, a sample of self-employed men and women with active businesses was extracted. After applying multilevel regressions, results show that although business characteristics are important, the most evident risk factor for WIL and LIW is time demands. Both time demands and business characteristics also seem to be important factors in relation to gender differences in level of interference. There is a relationship between well-being and both WIL and LIW, and time demands is again an important factor. Gender equality in the labor market did not relate to level of interference, nor did it affect the relationship between interference and well-being. However, in gender-separated analyses, LIW and LIW interacted with gender equality in the labor market in different ways for women’s and men’s well-being. In conclusion, gender relations are important in interference and how interference relates to well-being.

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  • 45. Isaksson, K.
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Country related differences: comparing manager’s perceptions of the psychological contract in Germany and Sweden2010In: Gesund mit und ohne Arbeit / [ed] Thomas Rigotti, Sabine Korek and Kathleen Otto, Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers, 2010, p. 261-272Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Culture, values, and labour market conditions are among the contextual factors which can be assumed to lead to variations in the way leaders from different countries treat their subordinates. This paper aims at contributing to the exploration of country related differences in how managers from Germany and Sweden describe the psychological contract. A second aim is to celebrate and honour Professor Gisela Mohr by contributing to this book. The empirical data for the chapter comes from a European project where Gisela Mohr was the German research leader.

  • 46. Isaksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    Oettel, Claudia Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Witte, Hans
    The role of the formal employment contract in the range and fulfilment of the psychological contract: Testing a layered model2010In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 696-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the employment contract (temporary vs. permanent) in relation to psychological contract content and fulfilment. The psychological contract includes employees' perceptions of their obligations and their entitlements. We hypothesize that transactional elements constitute a common core that is shared both by temporary and permanent workers. Relational elements are added to this core to show employees' and employers' loyalty, and their intentions to do more than necessary. These elements are more likely to be perceived by permanent workers as compared to temporary workers. Additionally, we suggest that relational elements are difficult to fulfil. Accordingly, we expect lower levels of perceived fulfilment for permanent workers as compared to temporary workers. Based on exchange theory, we furthermore hypothesize that these perceptions follow a similar pattern in how employees report entitlements (i.e., what they receive from the company) and reports of their own obligations (i.e., what they give in return). Results based on a seven-country sample (Npermanent=3354; Ntemporary=1980) show that permanent workers as compared to temporary workers perceive more relational entitlements and obligations but a similar level of transactional entitlements and obligations. Thus, these results supported the idea of a layered model. The relationship between contract type and fulfilment of the psychological contract was only partly in line with expectations. Temporary workers reported higher fulfilment of entitlements and transactional obligations, but no difference was found for fulfilment of relational obligations.

  • 47. Isaksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Peiró, José Maria
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Caballer, Amparo
    Gracia, Francisco J.
    Ramos, José
    Flexible employment and temporary contracts: the employer’s perspective2010In: Employment contracts, psychological contracts, and worker well-being: an international study / [ed] David E Guest, Kerstin Isaksson and Hans De Witte, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 45-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporary employment has become a focus of policy debate, theory, and research. This book addresses as its core concern the relationship between temporary employment contracts and employee well-being. Covering seven countries, it sheds new light on the nature and role of the psychological contract.

  • 48. Klug, Katharina
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Mäkikangas, Anne
    Kinnunen, Ulla
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Development of perceived job insecurity among young workers: a latent class growth analysis2019In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 901-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Individual differences in the development of perceived job insecurity among young workers may be influenced by characteristics of the first job (contract type and sector) and individual background (education and previous unemployment), and can have implications for subsequent health and well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of perceived job insecurity during the early career, as well as associations between different patterns of development (i.e., trajectories), predictors and outcomes.

    Methods: We conducted a latent class growth analysis to identify trajectories of perceived job insecurity and investigated their respective associations with predictors and outcomes across 6 years in a sample of 1711 German labor market entrants.

    Results: Six trajectories were identified: three showed stable job insecurity perceptions (stable moderate, 36%; stable low, 32%; stable high, 5%), two showed decrease (moderate to low, 12%; high to moderate, 3%), and one showed increasing job insecurity perceptions (low to moderate, 13%). Temporary contracts and previous unemployment predicted trajectories characterized by increasing, higher initial or higher overall levels of perceived job insecurity. In contrast, public sector employees and university graduates were less likely to experience persisting or increasing job insecurity. The trajectories differed in their overall levels of self-rated health and job satisfaction, but not with respect to change in these outcomes. Instead, increasing perceived job insecurity was associated with decreasing life satisfaction.

    Conclusions: The findings suggest that an insecure career start and individual risk factors may predispose young workers to an unfavorable development of both job insecurity perceptions and levels of well-being.

  • 49. Klug, Katharina
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Selenko, Eva
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Temporal and person-oriented perspectives on job insecurity2020In: Handbook on the Temporal Dynamics of Organizational Behavior / [ed] Yannick Griep, Samantha D. Hansen, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020, p. 91-104Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Job insecurity, the subjectively perceived risk of involuntary job loss, has been widely researched as a stressor and linked to negative individual, organizational and extra-organizational outcomes. After providing a brief state-of-the-art review of research on the antecedents and consequences of job insecurity, as well as theoretical frameworks to explain mechanisms underlying the relationship between job insecurity and outcomes, this chapter introduces a dynamic perspective on job insecurity. First, we scrutinize existing theory and research concerning temporal dynamics between job insecurity and outcomes when discussing mechanisms of recovery, adaptation and deterioration. Second, we review an emerging literature of person-oriented research on job insecurity, which investigates patterns of job insecurity with other stressors and resources, as well as patterns of change in job insecurity and its consequences over time. We conclude with a research agenda to advance the field towards a dynamic perspective on job insecurity.

  • 50.
    Langhammer, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Individual Determinants of Behavioral Intentions: What tells us that practitioners really want to change hiring strategies?2012In: International Journal of Selection and Assessment, ISSN 0965-075X, E-ISSN 1468-2389, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 453-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigated hiring managers' intentional readiness to change hiring procedures as a function of individual determinants, such as their self-efficacy beliefs, causal attributions, and past behaviors. Hiring managers from three large organizations were recruited to participate and provide information about their current hiring processes and personal experiences. Results showed that self-efficacy beliefs had a strong negative relationship with intentional readiness to change. Managers' past behavior, in terms of use of unstructured interviews and external attributions of failure, were negatively associated with intentional readiness to change, while use of unstructured interviews and external attribution of success were positively associated with intentional readiness to change. Furthermore, the interactive effect of causal attribution and use of selection methods played a significant role in explaining intentional readiness for change. The results indicated that recruiting managers who preferred using unstructured interviews and attributed failures to external causes were less willing to change hiring practices than those who made less use of unstructured interviews and explained their failure externally. Implications and limitations are discussed.

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