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  • 1. Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Bohman, Hannes
    Parent-youth conflict as a predictor of depression in adulthood: a 15-year follow-up of a community-based cohort2020In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 527-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiencing conflictual relations with one's parents while growing up has been linked to onset, recurrence, and worse treatment outcome of adolescent depression. While this suggests that significant problems in the parent-youth relationship make depressive disorders more relentless, it is not clear whether this effect lasts into adulthood. Our aim was to examine if major and minor conflict with parents while growing up predicts depression in adulthood in youth with and without a history of depression. We utilized data from the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study. This community-based cohort was assessed with structured diagnostic interviews both at age 16-17 and at follow-up 15 years later. The analyses included 382 individuals (227 with a history of child or adolescent depression; 155 peers without such a history). Binary logistic regression was used, adjusting for sex, disruptive behavior disorders, and additional family-related adversities. Among individuals with adolescent depression, major conflict with parents was strongly associated with adult depression (adjusted OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.07-4.87). While major conflict with parents was rare among non-depressed controls, a non-significant association of similar magnitude was still observed. Minor conflict, on the other hand, was not significantly associated with adult depression. Overall, conflict with parents did not predict adult anxiety disorders, substance use, suicidal behavior, somatoform disorders, or psychotic disorders. In conclusion, major parent-youth conflict during upbringing seems to be linked with an increased risk of depression in adulthood. These findings underscore the need to consider contextual/familial factors in the prevention and clinical management of early-life depression.

  • 2.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Future orientation climate in the school class: Relations to adolescent delinquency, heavy alcohol use, and internalizing problem2016In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 70, p. 324-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known, based on previous research, that adolescents' thoughts and feelings about their future are related to the risk of delinquency, alcohol use as well as health. However, other well-known facts are that adolescents' actions are substantially shaped in interaction with peers and that, during adolescence, individuals spend a considerable amount of the day at school, in interaction with classmates. Despite this, there is an almost complete lack of studies exploring to what extent the school climate, as measured by thoughts and feelings about the future, can influence individual adolescents. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether the future orientation (FO) climate, measured at the school class level, is related to delinquency, alcohol use and internalizing problems at the individual level, among a sample of Swedish students 14–15 years of age. The data used come from the Swedish part of the Youth in Europe (YES!) study, which is part of the larger project Children of Immigrants - Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU). In the present paper, we use data from the first wave, collected among 8th grade students in 2010/11 (n = 4119–4364). The method used was multilevel modeling (linear probability models (LPM) and linear regression analysis). The results showed that, in school classes where a high proportion of students had a positive future orientation, the risk of heavy alcohol use at the individual level was lower, also after adjusting for individual FO and for individual- and class-level socioeconomic conditions. A similar, but not statistically significant, tendency was found for delinquency. In addition, having a high proportion of students with a positive FO in a school class was associated with fewer internalizing problems, also after controlling for individual FO and socioeconomic conditions at the individual and school class level. We conclude that the surrounding school class, in terms of its general future orientation climate, may play a role for individual outcomes in the form of problem behaviors and mental health.

  • 3.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The Gendered Mirror on the Wall: Satisfaction with Physical Appearance and Its Relationship to Global Self-esteem and Psychosomatic Complaints Among Adolescent Boys and Girls2018In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 525-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated gender differences in satisfaction with physical appearance as a domain-specific aspect of self-esteem, and its association with global self-esteem and psychosomatic complaints. The data used was from the Stockholm School Survey, conducted among ninth grade students (15–16 years), with pooled information from six cross-sectional surveys in 2004–2014 (n = 32,117). Girls reported lower satisfaction with their appearance than boys. Satisfaction with appearance was more strongly associated with global self-esteem among girls, while the association with psychosomatic complaints was similar for both genders. There was a tendency towards a decline in satisfaction with appearance at the end of the study period for both genders, albeit more strong for girls. We conclude that satisfaction with appearance may contribute to our understanding of poor mental well-being among adolescent girls.

  • 4.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bohman, Hannes
    Poor Family Relationships in Adolescence and the Risk of Premature Death: Findings from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 10, article id 1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor family relationships during childhood have been shown to have long-term negative effects on an offspring’s health. However, few studies have followed the offspring to retirement age, and relatedly, knowledge about the link between poor family relationships and premature death is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between poor family relationships in adolescence and the risk of premature death, even when considering other adverse childhood conditions. Prospective data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were used, with 2636 individuals born in 1953 who were followed up until age 65. Information on family relations was based on interviews with the participants’ mothers in 1968. Information on mortality was retrieved from administrative register data from 1969–2018. Cox proportional hazards regressions showed that poor family relationships in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of premature death, even when adjusting for childhood conditions in terms of household social class, household economic poverty, contact with the child services, parental alcohol abuse, and parental mental illness (Hazard Ratio (HR), 2.08, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.40–3.09). The findings show that poor family relationships in adolescence can have severe and long-lasting health consequences, highlighting the importance of early interventions.

  • 5.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bohman, Hannes
    Poor family relationships in adolescence as a risk factor of in-patient somatic care across the life course: Findings from a 1953 cohort2021In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 14, article id 100807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prior research has shown that poor family relations during upbringing have long-term detrimental effects on mental health. Few previous studies have, however, focused on somatic health outcomes and studies rarely cover the life span until retirement age. The aims of the current study were, firstly, to examine the association between poor family relationships in adolescence and in-patient somatic care across the life course whilst adjusting for confounders at baseline and concurrent psychiatric in-patient care; and secondly, to compare the risks of somatic and psychiatric in-patient care across the life course.

    Methods: Prospective data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were used, with 2636 participants born in 1953 who were followed up until 2016. Information on family relationships was collected from the participants' mothers in 1968. Annual information on in-patient somatic and psychiatric care was retrieved from official register data from 1969 to 2016.

    Results: Poisson regressions showed that poor family relationships in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of in-patient somatic care in mid- and especially in late adulthood (ages 44-53 and 54-63 years), even when controlling for the co-occurrence of psychiatric illness and a range of childhood conditions. No statistically significant association was observed in early adulthood (ages 16-43 years), when controlling for confounders. These findings are in sharp contrast to the analyses of inpatient psychiatric care, according to which the association with poor family relations was strongest in early adulthood and thereafter attenuated across the life course.

    Conclusion: Poor family relationships in adolescence are associated with an increased risk of severe consequences for somatic health lasting to late adulthood even when controlling for confounders including in-patient psychiatric care, emphasising the potentially important role of early interventions.

  • 6.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    School effectiveness and students' future orientation: A multilevel analysis of upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden2019In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 70, p. 62-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Future orientation (FO) refers to individuals' beliefs and feelings about their future. Earlier research has primarily investigated correlates of FO at the individual and family level, but it seems likely that FO is also shaped by other central agents or institutions, such as the school. Earlier studies have found positive associations between “school effectiveness” and student performance, and negative associations in relation to e.g., bullying, delinquency, and health risk behaviors. The current study investigated three teacher-reported features of school effectiveness - school leadership, teacher cooperation and consensus, and school ethos - and their links with student-reported FO.

    Methods

    Survey data were collected in 2016 among 5131 students (aged 17–18 years) and 1061 teachers in 46 upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden, and merged with school-level register data. Two-level binary logistic regression analyses were performed.

    Results

    The analyses showed that higher teacher ratings of school leadership and school ethos were associated with a greater likelihood of reporting an optimistic FO among students. Teacher cooperation and consensus was however not associated with students' FO.

    Conclusion

    The findings indicate that the school environment contributes to shaping students' beliefs about their future. Thus, enhancing features of school effectiveness may be a way of promoting a positive development and brighter objective future prospects for the young, via pathways such as good student-teacher relations and academic motivation and achievement.

  • 7.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Sivertsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bohman, Hannes
    Poor family relationships in adolescence as a risk factor of in-patient psychiatric care across the life course: A prospective cohort study2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 726-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research has shown that poor family relations in childhood are associated with adverse mental health in adulthood. Yet, few studies have followed the offspring until late adulthood, and very few have had access to register-based data on hospitalisation due to psychiatric illness. The aim of this study was to examine the association between poor family relations in adolescence and the likelihood of in-patient psychiatric care across the life course up until age 55. Methods: Data were derived from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study, with information on 2638 individuals born in 1953. Information on family relations was based on interviews with the participants' mothers in 1968. Information on in-patient psychiatric treatment was derived from administrative registers from 1969 to 2008. Binary logistic regression was used. Results: Poor family relations in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of later in-patient treatment for a psychiatric diagnosis, even when adjusting for other adverse conditions in childhood. Further analyses showed that poor family relations in adolescence were a statistically significant predictor of in-patient psychiatric care up until age 36-45, but that the strength of the association attenuated over time. Conclusions: Poor family relationships during upbringing can have serious negative mental-health consequences that persist into mid-adulthood. However, the effect of poor family relations seems to abate with age. The findings point to the importance of effective interventions in families experiencing poor relationships.

  • 8.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hälsosamt samspel i skolan2012In: Framtider, ISSN 0281-0492, no 3, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Skolan som social arena och elevers psykiska ohälsa2012In: Den orättvisa hälsan: Om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd / [ed] Mikael Rostila, Susanna Toivanen, Stockholm: Liber, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    B. Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Future Orientation among Students Exposed to School Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 4, article id 605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future orientation can be defined as an individual’s thoughts, beliefs, plans, and hopes for the future. Earlier research has shown adolescents’ future orientation to predict outcomes later in life, which makes it relevant to analyze differences in future orientation among youth. The aim of the present study was to analyze if bullying victimization was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting a pessimistic future orientation among school youth. To be able to distinguish between victims and bully-victims (i.e., students who are both bullies and victims), we also took perpetration into account. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey performed in 2016 among ninth grade students (ages 15–16 years) (n = 5144). Future orientation and involvement in school bullying and in cyberbullying were based on self-reports. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. The results demonstrated that victims and bully-victims of school bullying and of cyberbullying were more likely to report a pessimistic future orientation compared with students not involved in bullying. These associations were shown also when involvement in school bullying and cyberbullying were mutually adjusted. The findings underline the importance of anti-bullying measures that target both school bullying and cyberbullying.

  • 11. Bohman, H
    et al.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Päären, A
    Jonsson, U
    Somatic symptoms in adolescence as a predictor of in-patient care for mental disorders in adulthood2016In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Somatic symptoms such as headache, abdominal pain and dizziness, are common among young people and often associated with poor everyday functioning and concurrent mental disorders. Yet, relatively few studies have examined the long-term consequences of such symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate if somatic symptoms in adolescence predict adulthood hospital based care for mental disorders.

    Methods

    The total school population of 16-17-year olds, in the city of Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991-1993. Adolescents with positive screening and the same number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview of mental disorders. In addition, 21 different self-rated functional somatic symptoms were assessed. The participants were followed up in the national patients register about 20 years later (n = 337). The associations between somatic symptoms in adolescence and in-patient care and out-patient hospital based mental health care in adulthood were analysed using binary logistic regression analysis.

    Results

    Adolescents with somatic symptoms had an excess risk of later psychiatric hospital based health care. The presence of multiple somatic symptoms (≥5) in adolescence was associated with psychiatric hospital based care in adulthood also when controlling for depression and anxiety in adolescence as well as sex and potential psychosocial confounders (OR 3.29, p = 0.046). The presence of just any somatic symptom (≥1) in adolescence predicted later hospital based mental health care for mood disorders (OR 8.49, p = 0.041) whereas adolescent depression, anxiety and sex did not, when mutually adjusted for.

    Conclusions

    Somatic symptoms in adolescence are a strong independent predictor of severe mental health problems in adulthood. The link between adolescent somatic symptoms and adult mood disorders are particularly strong even when somatic symptoms are compared head to head with concurrent depression and anxiety.

  • 12. Bohman, Hannes
    et al.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Cleland, Neil
    Lundberg, Mathias
    Päären, Aivar
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Somatic symptoms in adolescence as a predictor of severe mental illness in adulthood: a long-term community-based follow-up study2018In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 12, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Somatic symptoms are common and costly for society and correlate with suffering and low functioning. Nevertheless, little is known about the long-term implications of somatic symptoms. The objective of this study was to assess if somatic symptoms in adolescents with depression and in their matched controls predict severe mental illness in adulthood by investigating the use of hospital-based care consequent to different mental disorders. Methods: The entire school population of 16-17-year-olds in the city of Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991-1993 (n = 2300). Adolescents with positive screenings (n = 307) and matched non-depressed controls (n = 302) participated in a semi-structured diagnostic interview for mental disorders. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. The adolescents with depression and the matched non-depressed controls were engaged in follow-up through the National Patient Register 17-19 years after the baseline study (n = 375). The outcome measures covered hospital-based mental health care for different mental disorders according to ICD-10 criteria between the participants' ages of 18 and 35 years. Results: Somatic symptoms were associated with an increased risk of later hospital-based mental health care in general in a dose-response relationship when adjusting for sex, adolescent depression, and adolescent anxiety (1 symptom: OR = 1.63, CI 0.55-4.85; 2-4 symptoms: OR = 2.77, 95% CI 1.04-7.39; >= 5 symptoms: OR = 5.75, 95% CI 1.98-16.72). With regards to specific diagnoses, somatic symptoms predicted hospital-based care for mood disorders when adjusting for sex, adolescent depression, and adolescent anxiety (p<0.05). In adolescents with depression, somatic symptoms predicted later hospital-based mental health care in a dose-response relationship (p<0.01). In adolescents without depression, reporting at least one somatic symptom predicted later hospital-based mental health care (p<0.05). Conclusions: Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted severe adult mental illness as measured by hospital-based care also when controlled for important confounders. The results suggest that adolescents with somatic symptoms need early treatment and extended follow-up to treat these specific symptoms, regardless of co-occurring depression and anxiety.

  • 13. Bohman, Hannes
    et al.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Päären, Aivar
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Parental separation in childhood as a risk factor for depression in adulthood: a community-based study of adolescents screened for depression and followed up after 15 years2017In: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 17, article id 117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Earlier research has investigated the association between parental separation and long-term health outcomes among offspring, but few studies have assessed the potentially moderating role of mental health status in adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyze whether parental separation in childhood predicts depression in adulthood and whether the pattern differs between individuals with and without earlier depression. Methods: A community-based sample of individuals with adolescent depression in 1991-93 and matched non-depressed peers were followed up using a structured diagnostic interview after 15 years. The participation rate was 65% (depressed n = 227; non-depressed controls n = 155). Information on parental separation and conditions in childhood and adolescence was collected at baseline. The outcome was depression between the ages 19-31 years; information on depression was collected at the follow-up diagnostic interview. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. Results: Our analyses showed that depressed adolescents with separated parents had an excess risk of recurrence of depression in adulthood, compared with depressed adolescents with non-separated parents. In addition, among adolescents with depression, parental separation was associated with an increased risk of a switch to bipolar disorder in adulthood. Among the matched non-depressed peers, no associations between parental separation and adult depression or bipolar disorder were found. Conclusions: Parental separation may have long-lasting health consequences for vulnerable individuals who suffer from mental illness already in adolescence.

  • 14.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Children's Living Conditions: Studies on Health, Family and School2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation includes four empirical studies, each of which focuses on specific aspects of children’s living conditions.

    Study I analyses the association between young people’s social relations and health complaints using Swedish nationally representative survey data on 10- to 18-year-olds. Both relations with parents and with peers are associated with health complaints. Relational content is more strongly associated with health complaints than is relational structure. With regard to relational content, strained relations are more strongly associated with health complaints than are supportive relations.

    Study II investigates how effort and reward in school are associated with pupils’ subjective health using data from the Stockholm School Survey. Both effort and reward are shown to be positively associated with subjective health, and in particular pupils who report to put in high effort in school have high levels of subjective health. Contextual variation in health is found for girls but not for boys.

    Study III is based on Swedish register data and analyses the association between family type and choice of programme in upper secondary school. Children in single-mother households less often choose the natural science/technology (NT) programme compared with children who live with two original parents. Having a resident or a non-resident parent with NT skills is positively associated with choice of the NT programme.

    Study IV analyses the association between family type and social support, health, and material resources in 24 countries. The data are derived from the international Health Behaviour of School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. In a majority of the countries studied, children in single-mother households report smaller resources compared with children living with two original parents. No clear pattern is found with regard to differences between countries.

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  • 15.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Family structure and children’s living conditions: A comparative study of 24 countries2010In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 127-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses large-scale cross-national data from 24 countries to describe the living conditions of children residing with a single mother as compared with children who live with two original parents. Three central areas are studied: children’s social support, health, and material resources. The data are derived from the international WHO study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) of 2001/02. The survey includes nationally representative samples of school pupils of 11, 13, and 15 years of age in countries in Europe and North America and in Israel. After relevant selections, total n=95,335. The general finding is that children in single-mother households have lower social support from parents, poorer health, and smaller material resources than children living with two original parents. The general tendency is rather similar across a large number of countries although more differences are found in some countries and fewer in others. There is no clear pattern in how the association with family type varies between countries, for example, according to the share of single-mother households, by welfare state regime, or in relation to single parents’ employment rates.

  • 16.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Parent presence and gender-typicalness of educational choice2008In: British Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0007-1315, E-ISSN 1468-4446, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 757-782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given parental influence on children’s educational choices, new family constellations may impact on sex segregation in school and thus in the labour market. This paper addresses the question of what consequence father absence and stepfather presence may have for choice of the male-dominated natural science/technology (NT) programme in Swedish upper secondary school. The data include register information on all pupils who attended the ninth grade of the Swedish compulsory school in 1998 and 1999 and their parents (n=73,824). While children in mother-only households are less likely to choose the NT programme compared with children residing with two original parents, this is accounted for by differences in socioeconomic conditions and in grade sum. Fathers, like mothers, also have a more direct influence on children’s educational choices of field of study via their own education and occupation. However, what has not been noted in previous research is that this also applies to 'absent' fathers and, for boys, to stepfathers as well.

  • 17.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Olsson, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Future orientation, gambling and risk gambling among youth: a study of adolescents in Stockholm2020In: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 52-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between adolescents’ future orientation and their engagement in gambling and in risk gambling, respectively. The data used come from the Stockholm School Survey, collected in 2016 among students in the ninth grade in elementary school (15–16 years) and in the second grade of upper secondary school (17–18 years) in Stockholm municipality (n = 11,661). The results showed that adolescents who expected their future to be ‘much worse’ than that of others were more inclined to engage in gambling and in risk gambling compared with adolescents who expected their future to be similar to that of others. Furthermore, adolescents who expected their future to be ‘much better’ than that of others had an increased likelihood of engaging in gambling but not in risk gambling. The results are discussed in the light of elements from rational choice theory.

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  • 18.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Students' accounts of school-performance stress: a qualitative analysis of a high-achieving setting in Stockholm, Sweden2013In: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 932-949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to examine students' experiences of school performance as a stressor. Accounts of school-performance stress at both the individual level and in relation to group mechanisms are studied through qualitative interviews with eighth-grade students in a high-performing school in Stockholm, Sweden (n=49). Using qualitative content analysis, three overarching themes emerged. Students' aspirations include accounts of students whose own high standards are a source of stress, in particular among girls. High performance as a part of their identity is a recurring topic, as well as striving for high marks for the future. External expectations comprise students' views of parents' and teachers' expectations. Generally, students feel that parents are supportive and have reasonable expectations. Students often compare themselves with high-performing siblings, which may be seen as a way of meeting indirect parental expectations. Few students mention teachers' expectations as a source of stress. The high-performing context shows that respondents bear witness to an MVG culture' meaning that many students aim for the highest possible marks. Girls in particular tend to drive up stress levels by talking to each other about pressure at school. Students also compare themselves with each other, which is experienced as competitive and stressful.

  • 19.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Joint physical custody, turning to parents for emotional support, and subjective health: a study of adolescents in Stockholm, Sweden2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 456-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Among children with separated parents, the arrangement of joint physical custody, i.e. children living equally much in both parents’ homes, has increased substantially during the last decades in Sweden. To date, empirical research on the living conditions of this group is limited. This study analyses family type differences in turning to parents for emotional support and in subjective health among adolescents. The focus of the study is adolescents in joint physical custody, who are compared with those living with two original parents in the same household; those living (only) in a single-parent household; and those living (only) in a reconstituted family. Methods: The data come from the Stockholm School Survey of 2004, a total population survey of students in grade 9 (15–16 years) in Stockholm (n=8,840). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions were conducted. Results: Turning to both parents about problems is most commonly reported by adolescents in intact families, followed by those in joint physical custody. Adolescents in non-traditional family types report worse subjective health than adolescents in intact families, but the difference is smaller for those in joint physical custody than for those living with a single parent. The slightly poorer health of adolescents in joint physical custody than those in intact families is not explained by their lower use of parents as a source of emotional support. Conclusions: The study suggests that joint physical custody is associated with a higher inclination to use parents as a source of emotional support and better subjective health than other post-divorce family types.

  • 20.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Bjereld, Y.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Löfstedt, P.
    Sexual harassment and psychological complaints: Student- and class-level associations2020In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 30, no Suppl 5, p. v881-v881, article id ckaa166.944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Students who are subjected to sexual harassment at school report lower psychological well-being than those who are not exposed. Yet, it is possible that the occurrence of sexual harassment in the school class is stressful also for those who are not directly targeted, with potential negative effects on well-being for all students. The aim was to examine whether sexual harassment at the student- and at the class-level was associated with students' psychological complaints.

    Methods

    Data from the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) of 2017/18 was used, with information from students aged 11, 13 and 15 years (n = 3,720 distributed across 209 classes). Psychological complaints were constructed as a summative index of four items capturing how often the student had felt low, felt irritable or bad tempered, felt nervous, or had difficulties to fall asleep, during the past six months (Cronbach's alpha=0.78). Sexual harassment at the student-level was measured by one item concerning bullying at school: “Other students have exposed me to sexual jokes”. Students who reported that this had happened at least “2 or 3 times a month” were classified as exposed to sexual harassment at school. Sexual harassment at the class-level was defined as the school class proportion of students exposed to sexual harassment, reported in per cent. Two-level linear regression analysis was applied.

    Results

    Students who had been exposed to sexual harassment had higher levels of psychological complaints (b = 2.74, p < 0.001). The proportion of students in the school class who had been exposed to sexual harassment was also associated with higher levels of psychological complaints, even when adjusting for sexual harassment at the student-level, gender and grade (b = 0.03, p = 0.015).

    Conclusions

    Sexual harassment is harmful for those who are exposed, but may also affect other students negatively. Thus, a school climate free from sexual harassment will profit all students.

    Key messages 

    • Using data collected among students aged 11, 13 and 15 years, this study showed that sexual harassment at the student- and class-level was associated with higher levels of psychological complaints.
    • Sexual harassment is harmful for those who are exposed, but may also affect other students negatively. Thus, a school climate free from sexual harassment will profit all students.
  • 21.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bjereld, Ylva
    Modin, Bitte
    Löfstedt, Petra
    Sexual jokes at school and psychological complaints: Student- and class-level associations.2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 285-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Students who are subjected to sexual harassment at school report lower psychological well-being than those who are not exposed. Yet, it is possible that the occurrence of sexual harassment in the school class is also stressful for those who are not directly targeted, with potential negative effects on well-being for all students. Aim: The aim was to examine whether exposure to sexual jokes at the student level and at the class level was associated with students' psychological complaints, and if these associations differed by gender. Method: Data from the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) of 2017/18 was used, with information from students aged 11, 13 and 15 years (N=3720 distributed across 209 classes). Psychological health complaints were constructed as an index based on four items. Exposure to sexual jokes at the student level was measured by one item, and at the class level as the class proportion of students exposed to sexual jokes, in per cent. Two-level linear regression analyses were performed.Results: Students who had been exposed to sexual jokes at school reported higher levels of psychological complaints, especially boys. Furthermore, the class proportion of students who had been exposed to sexual jokes was also associated with psychological complaints, even when adjusting for student-level exposure to sexual jokes, gender, grade and class size. Conclusions: Sexual jokes seem to be harmful for those who are directly exposed, but may also affect indirectly exposed students negatively. Thus, a school climate free from sexual jokes may profit all students.

  • 22.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bjereld, Ylva
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Löfstedt, Petra
    Sexual jokes at school and students' life satisfaction: findings from the 2017/18 Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study2021In: BMC Research Notes, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In a previous study we demonstrated that the occurrence of sexual jokes in the class was associated with higher levels of psychological health complaints. Building on and extending these findings, the aim of the current study was to examine if exposure to sexual jokes at the student and at the class level was inversely associated with students' life satisfaction. Data were derived from the 2017/18 Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, with students aged 11, 13 and 15 years (n = 3710 distributed across 209 classes). Exposure to sexual jokes at the student level was captured by one item. Exposure to sexual jokes at the class level was calculated by aggregating this measure. The Cantril ladder was used to operationalise life satisfaction. Two-level logistic regression analyses were performed.

    Results: Students who were exposed to sexual jokes at school were less likely to report high life satisfaction (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.27-0.53). An inverse association was found between the class proportion of students who were exposed to sexual jokes and students' likelihood of reporting high life satisfaction, whilst adjusting for exposure to sexual jokes at the student level (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.9994). The findings highlight the importance of promoting a school climate without sexual harassment.

  • 23.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    National data study showed that adolescents living in poorer households and with one parent were more likely to be bullied2017In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 106, no 12, p. 2048-2054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to assess whether sociodemographic household characteristics were associated with which Swedish adolescents were more likely to be bullied.

    Methods

    The data were derived from the Swedish Living Conditions Survey and its child supplements from the survey years 2008-2011. The analyses included information on 3,951 adolescents aged 10-18 years. Exposure to bullying was reported by adolescents and information on sociodemographic household characteristics was reported by parents and obtained from official registers. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the data.

    Results

    Adolescents were more likely to be bullied if they lived in households with no cash margin, defined as the ability to pay an unexpected bill of 8,000 Swedish Kronor or about 800 Euros, and if they lived with just one custodial parent. In the unadjusted analyses, elevated risks were identified if adolescents lived in working class households and had unemployed and foreign-born parents. However, these associations were at least partly accounted for by other sociodemographic household characteristics, in particular the lack of a cash margin.

    Conclusion

    This study showed that Swedish adolescents living in households with more limited financial resources had an increased risk of being bullied, supporting results from previous international research.

  • 24.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Sociodemographic inequalities in adolescents’ health-related behaviours: The case of Sweden2016In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Earlier research suggests that socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviours exist among young people, but with less clearcut patterns than among adults. The aim of the study is to examine to what extent sociodemographic inequalities in health behaviours in terms of alcohol use, smoking, physical inactivity, and regularly skipping breakfast and lunch, exist among adolescents in Sweden.

    Methods

    The data were obtained from the Swedish Living Conditions Survey (ULF) and its child supplements (Child-ULF) from 2008-2011 (n = 4001). Health-related behaviours were reported by adolescents aged 10-18 years and information on sociodemographic characteristics was derived from parents and from official registers. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted.

    Results

    Clear sociodemographic inequalities in health-related behaviours were shown. Compared with their peers with parents in upper non-manual occupations, adolescents in working-class households were more likely to smoke (OR 1.53, p = 0.033), to be physically inactive (OR 1.54, p = 0.004), and to regularly skip breakfast (OR 1.78, p = 0.000) and lunch (OR 1.42, p = 0.011). Adolescents in households lacking a cash margin were more inclined to smoke (OR 1.47, p = 0.033) and to skip breakfast (OR 1.62, p = 0.000) as well as to skip lunch (OR 1.31, p = 0.041) than those in better off households. Not living in a nuclear family was linked with a higher risk of drinking alcohol (OR 1.57, p = 0.002), smoking (OR 2.32, p = 0.000), and skipping breakfast (OR 1.54, p = 0.000) and lunch (OR 1.55, p = 0.000). Adolescents with foreign-born parents were more likely to be physically inactive (OR 1.67, p = 0.001) and to regularly skip breakfast (OR 1.55, p = 0.002) compared with those whose parents were born in Sweden.

    Conclusions

    Sociodemographic inequalities in health-related behaviours clearly exist among adolescents in Sweden, along lines of household social class, financial strain, family structure and parental country of birth.

  • 25.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Granvik Saminathen, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Löfstedt, Petra
    Excellent Self-Rated Health among Swedish Boys and Girls and Its Relationship with Working Conditions in School: A Cross-Sectional Study2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 3, article id 1310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which school demands, teacher support, and classmate support were associated with excellent self-rated health among students, and to examine if any such statistical predictions differed by gender. Data were drawn from the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study of 2017/18, performed among adolescents in grades five, seven, and nine (n = 3701). Linear probability models showed that school demands were negatively associated with excellent self-rated health, whereas teacher and classmate support showed positive associations. The link with school demands was stronger for girls than boys, driven by the finding that in grades five and nine, school demands were associated with excellent self-rated health only among girls. In conclusion, the study suggests that working conditions in school in terms of manageable school demands and strong teacher and classmate support may benefit adolescents' positive health. The finding that the link between school demands and excellent self-rated health was more evident among girls than among boys may be interpreted in light of girls' on average stronger focus on schoolwork and academic success. The study contributes with to knowledge about how working conditions in school may impede or promote students' positive health.

  • 26.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Grigorian, Karina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Lundin, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Raninen, Jonas
    Bullying experiences before and after the transition from lower to upper secondary school: associations with subsequent mental health in a Swedish cohort2024In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research has shown that exposure to bullying is linked to long-term adverse mental health consequences. However, prospective studies examining the persistence of bullying, using information from repeated time points, are limited. The aim of this study was to examine, firstly, the extent to which exposure to bullying among adolescents in Sweden changes between grades 9 (age 15-16) and 11 (age 17-18) (i.e., before and after the transition from lower to upper secondary school); secondly, whether being bullied in grade 9 or 11 is associated with depression and anxiety symptoms at age 20-21; and thirdly, if being bullied in both grade 9 and 11 is linked to an even higher likelihood of subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms. Potential differences by gender were investigated throughout.

    Methods: Data was derived from the Swedish cohort study Futura01 involving individuals attending grade 9 in the school year 2016/17 (n = 2323). We utilised self-reported information from three survey waves conducted in 2017, 2019, and 2022, and linked registry information on sociodemographic characteristics. Bullying was assessed using a single item in waves 1 and 2. Depression and anxiety symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) in wave 3. Gender stratified binary logistic regressions were performed.

    Results: Among those who were bullied in grade 9, 22.6% of males and 35.8% of females continued to experience bullying in grade 11. For females, exposure to bullying in grade 9 or 11 was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting depression and anxiety symptoms at age 20-21, with the highest odds for those bullied at both time points. For males, only one statistically significant association was identified - specifically, between being bullied in grade 9 and subsequent depression symptoms.ConclusionsFor a majority of adolescents who experience bullying in lower secondary school, but not all, the transition to upper secondary school proves to be beneficial as the bullying typically does not persist. However, bullying can have long-term health effects, in particular for females. These findings emphasise the importance of effective measures to address bullying within schools.

  • 27.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Do health complaints in adolescence negatively predict the chance of entering tertiary education in young adulthood?2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 878-885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Self-reported psychological and psychosomatic health complaints, such as nervousness, sadness, headache and stomach-ache, are common among adolescents, particularly among girls, and studies suggest that the prevalence has risen among adolescent girls during the last few decades. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the potential long-term consequences of such health complaints. The aim of the current study was to assess whether psychological and psychosomatic health complaints in adolescence predict the chance of entering tertiary education in young adulthood among women and men. Methods: The data used are from the Swedish Young-LNU, which is based on a nationally representative sample with self-reported survey information from adolescents aged 10–18 years in 2000 and from the same individuals at ages 20–28 in 2010 (n=783). Information was also collected from parents and from official registers. Results: Linear probability models showed that self-reported psychological complaints in adolescence were associated with a lower chance of having entered tertiary education 10 years later. This association was accounted for by differences in grade point average (GPA), suggesting that GPA may mediate the association between psychological complaints and later education. The pattern was similar for both genders. Furthermore, among men, psychosomatic complaints in adolescence were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of having entered tertiary education 10 years later when adjusting for GPA and social class in adolescence. A similar but non-significant tendency was found among women. Conclusions: The findings suggest that health complaints in adolescence may have long-term consequences in terms of lower educational attainment.

  • 28.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Olsson, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Wahlström, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Problematic alcohol use in the family and adolescents’ stress-related complaints2021In: European Journal of Public Health: Supplement 3, October 2021. Supplement 14th European Public Health Conference Public health futures in a changing world, 2021, Vol. 31, article id ckab165.519Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. A non-negligible proportion of children grow up in families where problematic alcohol use is present. From a resilience perspective and for the implementation of effective interventions, it is relevant to examine to what extent favourable conditions in other contexts may buffer against such family adversities. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between problematic familial alcohol use and offspring stress-related complaints. Another aim was to explore whether teacher ratings of the school's degree of student focus can buffer against negative health consequences of problem drinking at home.

    Methods. Data were drawn from four cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2014 and in 2016 among 8,728 students (∼15-16 years) and 2,024 teachers in 147 Stockholm senior-level school units, with linked school-level register information. Stress-related complaints were measured from students' reports on the weekly co-occurrence of stomach-ache and headache. Teachers' ratings of the school's student focus were measured by an index based on four items which was aggregated to the school level. Student-level sociodemographic characteristics were included as control variables along with the schools' composition and student-teacher ratio. Two-level binary logistic regression analyses were performed.

    Results. Problematic familial alcohol use was associated with an increased likelihood of stress-related complaints among students (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.44-2.10). The cross-level interaction revealed that this association was weaker among students in schools with higher levels of student focus.

    Conclusions. The study showed that the association between problematic familial alcohol use and students' stress-related complaints was less pronounced in schools with higher teacher ratings of student focus. This finding indicates that favourable conditions in schools can buffer against problematic conditions in the family, thus serving a compensatory role.

    Key messages. Students reporting problematic familial alcohol use were more likely to suffer from stress-related complaints.High teacher ratings of the school’s student focus buffered against the association between problematic familial alcohol use and stress-related complaints.

  • 29.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Olsson, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Wahlström, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Perceived problematic alcohol use in the family and adolescents’ stress-related complaints: examining the buffering role of the school’s degree of student focus as rated by its teachers2023In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, article id 1754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background A non-negligible proportion of children grow up with problematic alcohol use in the family. Problematic familial drinking can be regarded as a stressor, and prior studies have consistently reported poorer mental health among adolescents who are exposed. However, it is also of relevance to identify modifiable protective factors which may buffer against stress-related ill-health in this group of adolescents. One context where such factors may be present is the school. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between perceived problematic familial alcohol use and students’ stress-related complaints, and specifically to explore if the school’s degree of student focus can buffer against any such negative health consequences of problem drinking at home.

    Methods Data were drawn from four separate surveys, the Stockholm School Survey (SSS) and the Stockholm Teacher Survey (STS) conducted in 2014 and 2016 among 7,944 students (~ 15–16 years) and 2,024 teachers in 147 Stockholm senior-level school units. Perceived problematic familial alcohol use was measured by one item in the SSS. Stress-related complaints were captured by co-occurring somatic complaints and psychological distress, and reported by students in the SSS. The school’s student focus was measured by an index based on teachers’ ratings of four items in the STS. A set of covariates at the student and the school level were also included. Two-level binary logistic and linear regression models were performed.

    Results Perceived problematic familial alcohol use was linked with an increased likelihood of reporting co-occurring somatic complaints as well as psychological distress. Cross-level interactions revealed that the association between perceived problematic familial alcohol use and co-occurring somatic complaints was weaker among students attending schools with stronger teacher-rated student focus. Regarding psychological distress, the association was weaker for students attending schools with intermediate or strong teacher-rated student focus, compared with those attending schools with weaker teacher-rated student focus.

    Conclusions The findings provide support for the assumption that favourable conditions in schools can buffer against negative health consequences of problematic conditions in the family, thus serving a compensatory role.

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  • 30.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Peer Victimization among Classmates—Associations with Students’ Internalizing Problems, Self-Esteem, and Life Satisfaction2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 10, article id 1218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullying is a major problem in schools and a large number of studies have demonstrated that victims have a high excess risk of poor mental health. It may however also affect those who are not directly victimized by peers. The present study investigates whether peer victimization among classmates is linked to internalizing problems, self-esteem, and life satisfaction at the individual level, when the student's own victimization has been taken into account. The data were derived from the first wave of the Swedish part of Youth in Europe Study (YES!), including information on 4319 students in grade 8 (14-15 years of age) distributed across 242 classes. Results from multilevel analyses show a significant association between classes with a high proportion of students being victimized and higher levels of internalizing problems, lower self-esteem, and lower life satisfaction at the student level. This association holds when the student's own victimization has been taken into account. This suggests that peer victimization negatively affects those who are directly exposed, as well as their classmates. We conclude that efficient methods and interventions to reduce bullying in school are likely to benefit not only those who are victimized, but all students.

  • 31.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    School-performance indicators and subjective health complaints: are there gender differences?2012In: Sociology of Health and Illness, ISSN 0141-9889, E-ISSN 1467-9566, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 608-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although boys and girls are generally located in the same physical school environment, it may be experienced differently by, and have varying implications for, boys and girls. Girls like school more and achieve higher school marks, but they also perceive more school-related pressure. Based on a total sample of 8456 ninth grade pupils in Stockholm in 2004, this study uses multilevel linear regression to analyse differences between boys and girls with regard to a number of school-performance indicators (demands, motivation, teacher support and school marks) and their association with subjective health complaints. Results showed that girls perceive more demands, show greater academic motivation, perform better in school and report more emotional support from teachers than boys. In contrast, instrumental and appraisal support from teachers are more commonly reported by boys. Associations between school-performance indicators and subjective health complaints were slightly stronger for girls than for boys. Contextual variation in health complaints, especially between classes, was found only for girls. High achievement motivation and emotional teacher support in the school class was associated with better pupil health, suggesting that a positive climate in terms of motivation and support favours class health as a whole.

  • 32.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    School-related stress and subjective health: Effort and reward among school pupilsArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study analyses the relationship between effort and reward in school and the subjective health of ninth grade pupils in Stockholm, Sweden. Effort is constructed from two items: the pupil’s own assessment of his or her effort in very difficult school tasks, and whether he or she chooses to do something else if the school task is perceived as boring. Reward is operationalized in two alternate ways: as school marks, and as appreciation from teachers. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey (Stockholmsenkäten) of 2004, a survey of all pupils in the greater Stockholm area who attended the ninth and final grade of comprehensive school in 2004 (n=8,695). Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted. The main findings are that both effort and reward are positively related to pupils’ subjective health, and that high effort in particular is associated with better subjective health. Low effort combined with low reward in terms of school marks is associated with the poorest health, although this is largely accounted for by confounding variables. Low effort and low reward in terms of little appreciation from teachers are associated with the poorest health also when potential confounders are controlled for. Contextual effects on subjective health are found for girls but not for boys.

  • 33.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Granvik Saminathen, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Löfstedt, Petra
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Psychosocial School Conditions and Mental Wellbeing Among Mid-adolescents: Findings From the 2017/18 Swedish HBSC Study2023In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 67, article id 1605167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate mid-adolescent boys’ and girls’ experiences of school demands, teacher support, and classmate support, and explore the associations of these factors with mental wellbeing.

    Methods: Data were derived from the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study of 2017/18, with information collected among 1,418 students in grade 9 (∼15–16 years). School demands, teacher support, and classmate support were measured by indices based on three items each. Mental wellbeing was measured by the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (SWEMWBS). Linear regression analyses were performed.

    Results: Higher demands were associated with lower mental wellbeing. Conversely, mental wellbeing increased with greater teacher support and classmate support. Interactions between demands and the support variables showed that at the lowest levels of teacher and of classmate support, mental wellbeing was low and not associated with school demands. With increasing levels of teacher and classmate support, the overall level of mental wellbeing increased and revealed an inverse association between school demands and mental wellbeing.

    Conclusion: The study contributes with knowledge about how psychosocial conditions in school may hinder or enhance wellbeing among students.

  • 34.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Granvik Saminathen, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Löfstedt, Petra
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Psychosocial school conditions and students’ positive mental well-being2021In: European Journal of Public Health: Supplement 3, October 2021 Supplement 14th European Public Health Conference Public health futures in a changing world, 2021, Vol. 31, article id ckab165.518Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. School is a key social determinant of adolescent health. However, earlier research on psychosocial school conditions has largely focused on their relationship with aspects of adverse health, and fewer studies have examined the links with positive health. The aim of this study was to investigate boys' and girls' experiences of school demands, teacher support, and classmate support and their associations with positive mental well-being.

    Methods. Data were derived from the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study of 2017/18, with information collected among 1,418 students in grade 9 (∼15-16 years). School demands, teacher support, and classmate support were captured by indices based on multiple items. Positive mental well-being was measured by the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (SWEMBWS). Gender-stratified linear regression analyses were performed, clustering for school class.

    Results. Higher demands were associated with lower mental well-being (boys: b=-0.36, p < 0.05; girls: b=-0.65, p < 0.05). Conversely, mental well-being increased with greater teacher support (boys: b = 0.53, p < 0.05; girls: b = 0.56, p < 0.05) and classmate support (boys: b = 0.70, p < 0.05; girls: b = 0.50, p < 0.05). Interactions between demands and the support variables showed that at the lowest levels of teacher and of classmate support, mental well-being was low and not associated with school demands. With increasing levels of teacher and classmate support, the overall level of mental-well-being increased and revealed an inverse association between school demands and mental well-being.

    Conclusions. The findings indicate that psychosocial school conditions are important not only for adverse health among adolescents, but also for their positive health. The study contributes with knowledge about how psychosocial conditions in school may hinder or enhance positive health among students.

    Key messages. School demands, teacher and classmate support were associated with mental well-being among both boys and girls, although the association with demands was seen only at higher levels of support.

  • 35.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Olsson, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    School ethos and adolescent gambling: a multilevel study of upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden2020In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gambling is not uncommon among adolescents, and a non-trivial minority has serious problems with gambling. Therefore, enhanced knowledge about factors that may prevent against problematic gambling among youth is needed. Prior research has shown that a strong school ethos, which can be defined as a set of attitudes and values pervading at a school, is associated with a lower inclination among students to engage in various risk behaviours. Knowledge about the link between school ethos and adolescent gambling is however scarce. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between teacher-rated school ethos and student-reported gambling and risk gambling, when controlling also for sociodemographic characteristics at the student- and the school-level.

    Methods: Data from two separate cross-sectional surveys were combined. The Stockholm School Survey (SSS) was performed among 5123 students (aged 17–18years) in 46 upper secondary schools, and the Stockholm Teacher Survey (STS) was carried out among 1061 teachers in the same schools. School ethos was measured by an index based on teachers’ ratings of 12 items in the STS. Adolescent gambling and risk gambling were based on a set of single items in the SSS. Sociodemographic characteristics at the student-level were measured by student-reported information from the SSS. Information on sociodemographic characteristics at the school-level was retrieved from administrative registers. The statistical method was multilevel regression analysis. Two-level binary logistic regression models were performed.

    Results: The analyses showed that higher teacher ratings of the school’s ethos were associated with a lower likelihood of gambling and risk gambling among students, when adjusting also for student- and school-level sociodemographic characteristics.

    Conclusions: This study showed that school ethos was inversely associated with students’ inclination to engage in gambling and in risk gambling. In more general terms, the study provides evidence that schools’ values and norms as reflected by the teachers’ ratings of their school’s ethos have the potential to counteract unwanted behaviours among the students.

  • 36.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Cyberbullying and subjective health: A large-scale study of students in Stockholm, Sweden2013In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 112-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in the use of mobile phones and the Internet has given rise to new opportunities for people to meet and communicate. However, there are also dark sides to these new forms of communication. One of these is cyberbullying, i.e. bullying via mobile phone and the Internet. Given that cyberbullying is a relatively new phenomenon, empirical knowledge is still limited and particularly so in Sweden, which in international comparison has reported low rates of bullying in general. The aim of the study is to investigate: 1) the prevalence of cyberbullying among students in Stockholm, Sweden; 2) the overlap between cyberbullying and traditional forms of school bullying, and 3) the association between the experience of cyberbullying and subjective health. The study uses the Stockholm School Survey of 2008 which is a total population survey of students in grade 9 of compulsory school (i.e. aged 15-16) and in the second year of upper secondary school (i.e. aged 17-18) in Stockholm and eighteen of its surrounding municipalities (N=22,544). About 5% of the students are victims of cyberbullying, 4% are perpetrators, and 2% are both victims and perpetrators. There is some overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying: those who are victims of traditional bullying are at increased risk of also being victims of cyberbullying; while being a traditional bully is strongly associated with the likelihood of also being a cyberbully. However, many students who are involved in cyberbullying are not involved in traditional bullying. OLS regression analyses show that being a victim of cyberbullying remains associated with worse subjective health when being the victim of traditional bullying and socioeconomic factors are taken into account. In addition, perpetrators of cyberbullying as well as students who are both victims and bullies, have worse subjective health than those who are not involved in cyberbullying.

  • 37.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hoven, Hanno
    Plenty, Stephanie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Effort-reward imbalance in the school setting: associations with Somatic pain and self-rated health2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 123-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: According to the workplace theory of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), individuals who perceive a lack of reciprocity between their effort spent at work and the rewards received in turn are at an increased risk of stress-related ill-health. It is also assumed that being overcommitted to work is linked to an increased risk of stress-related ill-health. This study applies the effort-reward imbalance model to the school setting. It aims to analyse the associations that effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment share with somatic pain and self-rated health among adolescents. Methods: Data are from the School Stress and Support Study (TriSSS), involving students in grades 8 and 9 (ages 14-16 years) in two schools in Stockholm, Sweden, during 2010 (n=403). Information on effort-reward imbalance and health outcomes was gathered from self-report questionnaires. An adjusted short version of ERI was used. Factor analysis showed that extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment constitute three distinct dimensions. The designed measures demonstrated sound psychometric properties both for the full sample and for subgroups. Ordered logistic regressions were conducted. Results: The analyses showed that low reward and higher overcommitment were associated with greater somatic pain and poorer self-rated health. Furthermore, effort-reward imbalance was linked with an elevated risk of somatic pain and poorer self-rated health. Conclusions: Students are more likely to experience stress-related ill-health when they perceive an imbalance between their effort and rewards. In addition, high overcommitment is associated with an increased risk of ill-health among students.

  • 38.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Ramberg, Joacim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    School ethos and recurring sickness absence: A multilevel study of ninth grade students in Stockholm2019In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, no supplement 4, article id ckz187.052Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 39.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Ramberg, Joacim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    School Ethos and Recurring Sickness Absence: A Multilevel Study of Ninth-Grade Students in Stockholm2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 3, article id 745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School absence has been identified as a severe problem in Sweden, both at the individual level and for society as a whole. Despite the multitude and complexity of reasons behind school absence, health-related problems are likely to be one important determinant. This indicates that knowledge about factors that may contribute to preventing health-related absence among students is relevant. The aim was to investigate whether a higher level of teacher-reported school ethos was associated with less recurring sickness absence among students. Data from four cross-sectional surveys performed in 2014 and 2016 were combined. The Stockholm School Survey was carried out among 9482 ninth-grade students (ages 15–16 years) in 150 school units, and the Stockholm Teacher Survey was performed among 2090 teachers in the same units. School ethos was operationalised by an index of 12 teacher-reported items that was aggregated to the school-level. Recurring student sickness absence was captured by self-reports and defined as absence on >10 occasions during the current school year. Two-level logistic regressions were performed. The results show that about 9.5% of the students reported recurring sickness absence. Students attending schools with higher levels of teacher-rated school ethos were less likely to reporting recurring sickness absence than those attending schools with lower levels of ethos, even when adjusting for potential confounders (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65–0.97). In conclusion, recurring sickness absence was less common among students attending schools with higher levels of teacher-rated ethos. The findings suggest that schools may contribute to promoting student health.

  • 40.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Raninen, Jonas
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Trust in adolescence and depression and anxiety symptoms in young adulthood: findings from a Swedish cohort2024In: BMC Research Notes, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 17, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Trust and health are both fundamental elements of a socially sustainable society. While much research has shown that trust is associated with better mental health outcomes in adults, studies of young people are relatively scarce, despite the fact that mental health problems are common in young ages. In particular, there are few longitudinal studies that cover different dimensions of trust. Building on a previous study on trust and psychosomatic complaints in adolescents, the aim was to examine the links between generalised and institutional trust in adolescence and depression and anxiety symptoms in young adulthood. Data was obtained from a Swedish cohort study with self-reported information on generalised and institutional trust at ages 15–16 and 17–18 and depression and anxiety symptoms at age 20–21 (n = 2,668). Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics and indicators of prior mental health status.

    Results Binary logistic and linear regressions showed that higher levels of generalised trust at ages 15–16 and 17–18 were inversely associated with depression and anxiety symptoms at age 20–21. Institutional trust was however not linked with subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms when adjusting for generalised trust and covariates. The findings indicate that generalised trust is a social determinant for mental health in young people.

  • 41.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Pros and cons of social relations: An analysis of adolescents’ health complaints2006In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 611-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the association between social relations and psychological and psychosomatic health complaints, among adolescents in Sweden. We focused on relationships with parents, as well as relationships with peers in school and in leisure time. Both the structure and the content of relations were analysed. For the latter, we looked at supportive as well as strained relations. The data was the pooled child supplements of the Swedish welfare surveys conducted in 2000–2003. This constitutes a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample of 10–18-year-olds (n=5137), where information was collected from both adolescents and their parents. Results showed that young people's social relations with parents and peers clearly covaried with their health complaints. With regard to family relations and psychological complaints, the association was more pronounced for relational content than for relational structure. For instance, whether relations with parents were strained or not seemed more relevant than family structure and parental working hours. Moreover, strained relations were more strongly associated with health complaints, especially psychosomatic complaints, than were supportive relations. This applied to relationships with parents as well as with peers in school.

  • 42.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Psychological complaints in adolescence: do they track into young adulthood?2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Psychological complaints, such as feeling sad or nervous, are common among adolescents, especially girls. The prevalence also appears to have risen during the last decades in Sweden, in particular among girls. Yet, knowledge about whether there are long-term associations with adverse health outcomes later in life is scarce. The aim of the current study is to assess to what extent psychological complaints in adolescence track into young adulthood, and whether there are gender differences.

    Methods

    The data used were derived from the Swedish Young-LNU, which is a prospective study based on a nationally representative sample with survey information from adolescents aged 10-18 years in 2000 and from the same individuals at ages 20-28 years in 2010 (n = 792). Information on household characteristics at baseline was provided by parents. Psychological complaints in adolescence were measured by self-reported items on feeling sad and down, tense and nervous, and grouchy and irritated. Psychological complaints in young adulthood were measured by self-reported items on anxiety and depression. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression.

    Results

    Psychological complaints in adolescence were associated with an excess risk of psychological complaints in young adulthood (OR = 2.08, p = 0.003) also when adjusting for sex, age group, and family structure and household social class at baseline. Gender-separate analyses revealed that the association was statistically significant for females (OR = 2.22, p = 0.007) but not for males (OR = 1.83, p = 0.148).

    Conclusions

    For females, psychological complaints in adolescence predicted psychological complaints in young adulthood. This underlines the importance that adolescents who suffer from this type of health problems should be identified and provided support, for instance through the school health services.

  • 43.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    School climate and exposure to bullying: a multilevel study2017In: School Effectiveness and School Improvement, ISSN 0924-3453, E-ISSN 1744-5124, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 153-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates associations between aspects of school climate, measured by students’ assessments aggregated to the class level, and exposure to bullying, measured at the individual level. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey of 2006–2010 with information from 16,418 ninth-grade students (aged 15–16 years) distributed over 871 classes and 259 schools. Three-level binary logistic regression was applied. Two of the studied school climate aspects in particular were linked with the occurrence of bullying: In classes where a high proportion of students claimed to be aware of the school rules and in classes where a high proportion of students stated that adults intervene against bullying, fewer students reported having been bullied. The findings imply that striving toward a school climate characterized by transparent rules and clear disapproval of harassments may help to reduce bullying.

  • 44.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    School Leadership and Cyberbullying: A Multilevel Analysis2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 10, article id 1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyberbullying is a relatively new form of bullying, with both similarities and differences to traditional bullying. While earlier research has examined associations between school-contextual characteristics and traditional bullying, fewer studies have focused on the links to students’ involvement in cyberbullying behavior. The aim of the present study is to assess whether school-contextual conditions in terms of teachers’ ratings of the school leadership are associated with the occurrence of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration among students. The data are derived from two separate data collections performed in 2016: The Stockholm School Survey conducted among students in the second grade of upper secondary school (ages 17–18 years) in Stockholm municipality, and the Stockholm Teacher Survey which was carried out among teachers in the same schools. The data include information from 6067 students distributed across 58 schools, linked with school-contextual information based on reports from 1251 teachers. Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration are measured by students’ self-reports. Teachers’ ratings of the school leadership are captured by an index based on 10 items; the mean value of this index was aggregated to the school level. Results from binary logistic multilevel regression models show that high teacher ratings of the school leadership are associated with less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. We conclude that a strong school leadership potentially prevents cyberbullying behavior among students.

  • 45.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Raninen, Jonas
    Trust and Psychosomatic Complaints in Adolescence: Findings From a Swedish Cohort Study2023In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 68, article id 1606032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between generalised and institutional trust and psychosomatic complaints in mid and late adolescence.

    Methods: Data were derived from the Swedish cohort study Futura01, using survey information collected amongst 3,691 grade 9 students (∼15–16 years, t1) who were followed-up 2 years later (∼17–18 years, t2). Registry information on sociodemographic characteristics was linked to the data. Linear regression analyses were performed. The longitudinal analyses applied the first difference (FD) approach as well as the lagged dependent variable (LDV) approach. Covariates included gender, family type, parental education, parental country of birth, and upper secondary programme.

    Results: Higher levels of generalised and institutional trust were cross-sectionally associated with lower levels of psychosomatic complaints at both time points. The FD analyses showed that increases in generalised and in institutional trust between ages 15–16 and 17–18 years were associated with corresponding decreases in psychosomatic complaints. The LDV analyses demonstrated reciprocal temporal associations between trust and psychosomatic complaints.

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that trust is a social determinant of psychosomatic complaints in adolescents, but also that health may affect trust.

  • 46.
    Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wellbeing among children with single parents in Sweden: focusing on shared residence2018In: The triple bind of single-parent families: Resources, employment and policies to improve well-being / [ed] Rense Nieuwenhuis, Laurie C. Maldonado, Bristol: Policy Press, 2018, p. 145-167Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The Living Conditions of Children with Shared Residence – the Swedish Example2018In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 861-883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among children with separated parents, shared residence–i.e., joint phys-ical custody where the child is sharing his or her time equally between two custodialparents’homes–is increasing in many Western countries and is particularly commonin Sweden. The overall level of living among children in Sweden is high; however, thepotential structural differences between children in various post-separation familyarrangements have not been sufficiently studied. Potential risks for children with sharedresidence relate to the daily hassles and stress when having two homes. This study aimsat investigating the living conditions of children with shared residence compared withchildren living with two custodial parents in the same household and those living withone custodial parent, respectively. Swedish national survey data collected from childrenaged 10–18 years (n≈5000) and their parents were used. The outcomes were groupedinto: Economic and material conditions, Social relations with parents and peers, Healthand health behaviors, Working conditions and safety in school and in the neighbor-hood, and Culture and leisure time activities. Results from a series of linear probabilitymodels showed that most outcomes were similar for children with shared residence andthose living with two custodial parents in the same household, while several outcomeswere worse for children living with one parent. However, few differences due to livingarrangements were found regarding school conditions. This study highlights the in-equalities in the living conditions of Swedish children, with those living with oneparent having fewer resources compared with other children.

  • 48.
    Granvik Saminathen, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Effective schools, school segregation, and the link with school achievement2018In: School Effectiveness and School Improvement, ISSN 0924-3453, E-ISSN 1744-5124, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 464-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether 3 teacher-rated aspects of school effectiveness differ across school segregation profiles in Stockholm, and to what extent these indicators are associated with the academic achievement of 9th-grade students. Analyses were based on 2 cross-sectional data collections performed in 2014 and 2016, respectively (147 school units), one among teachers (= 2,024) and the other among 9th-grade students (= 9,151). Multilevel analysis was applied, estimating 2-level random intercept linear regression models. Results show that teachers’ ratings of school leadership, teacher cooperation, and school ethos, as well as student-reported marks differ across school segregation profiles. Findings further reveal significant associations between these school effectiveness indicators and student performance, even when taking student family background and the school’s student body composition into consideration. In part, these associations are also identified within segregation profiles. Moreover, results show that school ethos acts as a mediator between school segregation profile and student achievement.

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  • 49.
    Granvik Saminathen, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    En fungerande skola för alla: skolmiljön som skyddsfaktor för ungas psykiska välbefinnande2020In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 97, no 5-6, p. 804-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Schools have the potential to protect children and adolescents from psycho-logical problems, both by preparing students for adulthood and employment, and by providing a conducive social context. A qualitatively strong and equitable work environment for both teachers and students can reduce bullying and promote student performance and psychological wellbeing. Based on examples from a research project at Stockholm University and related research, this article accounts for the role of the school as a protective factor for adolescents’ wellbeing. The article highlights the importance of teachers and their work environment for functioning schools. Moreover, the role of the sociodemographic student composition for a school’s capacity to create a successful and health-promoting school environment is discussed.

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  • 50.
    Granvik Saminathen, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Låftman, Sara B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    School Choice at a Cost? Academic Achievement, School Satisfaction and Psychological Complaints among Students in Disadvantaged Areas of Stockholm2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 11, article id 1912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School choice allows students from more disadvantaged district areas in metropolitan Swedish cities to commute to more prestigious schools outside of their residential area. This study examined how such students fare compared to their peers who attend more deprived schools in their own district area. Multilevel analysis was applied, estimating 2-level random intercept linear regression models based on cross-sectional survey data collected among ninth grade students in 2014 and 2016 (n = 2105). Analyses showed that students living in relatively disadvantaged district areas of Stockholm who chose to attend more prestigious schools outside of their residential area performed better academically compared to students who opted to remain at more deprived schools in their catchment area, an association that was partly mediated by school quality in terms of teacher-rated school ethos. Yet, commuting students reported lower school satisfaction and more psychological complaints than students who stayed behind, even when taking academic achievement and school ethos into account. The association with psychological complaints was partly mediated by school satisfaction. Thus, the academic gain associated with having chosen to commute from a disadvantaged area to a more prestigious school does not appear to translate into higher school satisfaction and better psychological well-being.

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