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  • 1.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Ansvar för medhjälp till upphovsrättsintrång - särskilt i onlinemiljö2012In: Lov & Data : Tidsskrift for Rettsinformatikk, ISSN 0800-7853, E-ISSN 1503-8289, no 109, p. 28-34Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 2.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Avtalslicenser i en gränsöverskridande kontext: [Extended Collective Licenses in a Cross-Border Context]2012In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, Vol. 2012, no 6, p. 651-653Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 3.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Copyright in a borderless online environment2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2011, the Institute for Legal Research (Institutet för Rättsvetenskaplig Forskning) organized a symposium to explore various aspects of the theme copyright in a borderless online environment. The symposium gathered prominent Nordic and International scholars and practitioners in the field of copyright and international private law. This volume is in essence the collection of papers presented at the symposium.

    Participants and contributors are Stig Strömholm, Paul Torremans, Gillian Davies, Ulf Maunsbach, Jan osén, Daniel Gervais, Silke von Lewinski, Gunnar arnell, Peter Danowsky, Marianne Levin, Marcus Norrgård and Bernt Hugenholtz. Editor is Johan xhamn.

  • 4.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Cross-Border Extended Collective Licensing: A Solution to Online Dissemination of Europe’s Cultural Heritage?2011In: Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries / [ed] Stefan Gradmann, Francesca Borri, Carlo Meghini, Heiko Schuldt, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 501-504Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 5.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Databasdirektivet: EG-domstolen tolkar begreppet "utdrag"2008In: Lov & Data : Tidsskrift for Rettsinformatikk, ISSN 0800-7853, E-ISSN 1503-8289, no 96, p. 28-32Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 6.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Databasrättens föremål i ljuset av nya förhandsavgöranden2009In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, no 2, p. 144-168Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 7.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Databasskydd2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity to assemble, store, and make available information in databases is ever growing. This development has accelerated in recent decades, driven by the advent and increased use of digital networks. Already at an early stage, it led to demands for legal protection of databases. In most countries databases have been protected in national legislation based on copyright principles. However, this kind of protection has been regarded as insufficient. The reason for this is that copyright protection only covers the selection or arrangement of the contents of the database. By rearranging the contents, it is possible to avoid liability for copyright infringement. To address the specific needs of producers of databases, the then European community adopted a directive in 1996 on the legal protection of databases. The Directive aims to harmonise copyright protection for databases and to introduce a new, sui generis, right for the legal protection of databases. The sui generis right protects the investments in obtaining, verifying, and presenting the contents in a database. The sui generis right has been described in the literature as one of the most complex intellectual property rights ever established. Its complexity resides in the unclear relationship between the requirements for protection and the content and scope of protection.

    This dissertation describes, analyses, compares and systematises the legal protection for databases as provided for in the EU Database Directive – both in relation to copyright and sui generis protection, but also in relation to the intellectual property system in general and principles and rules on unfair competition. The study also describes and analyses the Directive as implemented into Swedish law. To do this, it makes use of relevant legal sources, with particular account taken of relevant sources of EU law such as the Directive itself, adjacent directives in the field of copyright and related rights, as well as unfair competition law and the case law and legal method developed by the Court of Justice of the European Union. The study also draws on underlying theories of intellectual property protection and unfair competition law, as well as arguments based on unjust enrichment and pure economic loss.

    The study establishes how the sui generis right serves as a legal hybrid between traditional intellectual property rights and protection against unfair competition. The structure of the right resembles traditional intellectual property rights, with requirements for protection, provisions on exclusive rights, exceptions and limitations and a term of protection. At the same time, the content and scope of protection provide measures similar to those countering unfair competition with aspects of protection against pure economic loss. The right protects against certain activities carried out in the market rather than providing protection for a traditional object of intellectual property law. When implementing the Directive, the Swedish legislator overlooked these aspects of the sui generis right, creating legal uncertainties when interpreting and applying the national legislation. The study concludes with a look forward and suggestions for future research.

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    Databasskydd
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  • 8.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Direktivkonform tolkning av 49 § upphovsrättslagen i ljuset av databasdirektivet. En kommentar och analys av NJA 2005 s. 9242006In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, no 3, p. 280-296Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 9.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    EG-domstolen tolkar begreppet överföring till allmänheten2007In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, no 2, p. 148-156Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 10.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    EU-domstolen tolkar originalitetskriteriet och inskränkningen till förmån för vissa tillfälliga former av mångfaldigande2010In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, no 4, p. 339-353Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 11.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Exceptions, limitations and collective management of rights as vehicles for access to information2013In: Access To Information And Knowledge: 21st Century Challenges in Intellectual Property and Knowledge Governance / [ed] Dana Beldiman, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, p. 164-186Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copyright law reflects a balance between the competing interests of protection and access. It is often held that this balance has been disturbed by recent technological and related legal developments. This article describes and compares two vehicles to enhance access to information in the online environment, while also taking into account the interest of protection: (i) the introduction of (broader) exceptions and limitations, and (ii) the encouragement of collective rights management.

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  • 12.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Hyperlinking: Case C-466/12 Svensson and Others and its Impact on Swedish Copyright Law2015In: Europarättslig tidskrift, ISSN 1403-8722, E-ISSN 2002-3561, Vol. 2015, no 4, p. 847-866Article in journal (Other academic)
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    Hyperlinking: Case C-466/12 Svensson and Others and its impact on Swedish Copyright Law
  • 13.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Infopaq II: CJUE elucideaza unele aspecte ale exceptiei privitoare la anumite acte de reproducere temporara2012In: Pandectele române, ISSN 1582-4756, no 2, p. 173-178Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Any derogation from copyright must be interpreted in a strict manner, since it is a derogation from the general principle that the holder must authorize any reproduction of a work protected by copyright. The temporary reproduction acts performed during a "data capture", such as those in the case presented before the national court, must be considered as entirely meeting the conditions of the test made up of three stages, as provided in art. 5 par. (5) of Directive 2001/29/EC, if they meet the requirements under art. 5 par. (1) of Directive 2001/29/EC.

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  • 14.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Internet Linking and the Notion of "New Public"2014In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, Vol. 2014, no 2, p. 110-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the ability to make available, locate and access copyright protected content over the Internet has increased considerably. Some business models are directly aimed at linking or locating content already made available by other services. Such business models may create value for end users by making it easier to locate and find content on the Internet, but at the same time, they may be deemed to appropriate value from the rightholders or their service providers. In some cases, this has led to tensions and even litigations between the providers of these new business models and the rightholders or their service providers. These tensions are reflections of the underlying policy concerns inherent in the field of copyright law on the necessity to strike a fair balance between the protection of creative content and measures to foster its dissemination. This article will discuss, analyse and draw conclusions from two recent cases from the Court of Justice of the European Union on Internet linking and meta search engines, Svensson and Others and Innoweb, and relate them to the underlying policy concerns in copyright law.

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    Linking NIR 2014-02
  • 15.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Mellanhandsansvar på internet: En rapport kring internetleverantörers roll och ansvar2010Report (Other academic)
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  • 16.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Musik och film på Internet – hot eller möjlighet?2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Utredaren har övervägt åtgärder för att stimulera utvecklingen av konsumentvänliga lagliga alternativ för tillgång till framför allt musik och film på Internet.I promeorian skriver utredaren bl.a. att konsumentskyddslagstiftningen inte är tillämplig på handel med digitala produkter när produkterna levereras elektroniskt. Ett konsumentskydd motsvarande det som finns i konsumentköp- och konsumentjänstlagen bör därför införas för dessa slag av avtal.Ett införande av en "bredbandsavgift", som i praktiken innebär en utvidgning av systemet med kassettersättning eller införandet av tvångslicens, är enligt utredarens bedömning inte önskvärd.Utredaren föreslår att en referensgrupp med representanter för Regeringskansliet, nättjänster och rättighetshavare bör tillsättas för att utarbeta förslag till informations- och utbildningsinsatser. Gruppen bör också följa upp insatserna för att främja användarvänligheten. De omfattande intrång som olovlig fildelning gör i upphovsrättigheter är enligt utredarens bedömning ett betydande hinder för investeringsviljan i, och utvecklingen av, de lagliga alternativen. Därför föreslås att Internetleverantören ska kunna vitesföreläggas att vidta åtgärder, t.ex. säga upp avtalet med abonnenten, för att hindra fortsatta intrång med hjälp av den tjänst Internetleverantören tillhandahåller. Abonnentens intresse av att behålla uppkopplingen ska beaktas vid bedömningen av om avtalet får sägas upp och om ett föreläggande ska meddelas.

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  • 17.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Nya normer för kollektiv rättighetsförvaltning på upphovsrättens område2015In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, Vol. 2015, no 6, p. 675-696Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 18.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Något om ansvar för medhjälp till upphovsrättsintrång – särskilt i onlinemiljö: [Contributory Liability for Copyright Infringement – Especially in the Online Environment]2012In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, Vol. 2012, no 1, p. 26-42Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 19.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Några förtydliganden beträffande databasskyddet2007In: Lov & Data : Tidsskrift for Rettsinformatikk, ISSN 0800-7853, E-ISSN 1503-8289, no 89, p. 28-29Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 20.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Redaktören2018In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 3-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 21.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Redaktören [The Editor]2018In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, Vol. 87, no 3, p. 289-289Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 22.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Redaktören: The Editor2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 23.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Respekträttsligt skydd för upphovsmannens anseende och egenart. Några reflektioner med anledning av NJA 2008 s. 309 (Reklamavbrott)2008In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, no 5, p. 460-501Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 24.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Striking a fair balance between the protection of creative content and the need to foster its dissemination: The challenges posed by Internet linking and meta search engines2014In: Regulating eTechnologies in the European union: Normative Realities and Trends / [ed] Tanel Kerikmäe, Cham: Springer, 2014, p. 95-118Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the ability to make available, locate and access copyright protected content over the Internet has increased considerably. Some business models are directly aimed at linking or locating content already made available by other services. Such business models may create value for end users by making it easier to locate and find content on the Internet, but at the same time, they may be deemed to appropriate value from the rightholders or their service providers. In some cases, this has led to tensions and even litigations between the providers of these new business models and the rightholders or their service providers. These tensions are reflections of the underlying policy concerns inherent in the field of copyright law on the necessity to strike a fair balance between the protection of creative content and measures to foster its dissemination. This article will discuss, analyse and draw conclusions from two recent cases from the Court of Justice of the European Union on Internet linking and meta search engines, Svensson and Others and Innoweb, and relate them to the underlying policy concerns in copyright law.

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  • 25.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Striving for Coherence in EU Intellectual Property Law: A Question of Methodology2016In: Liber Amicorum Jan Rosén / [ed] Gunnar Karnell, Annette Kur, Per Jonas Nordell, Daniel Westman, Johan Axhamn, Stephan Carlsson, Visby: eddy.se , 2016, p. 35-60Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 26.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Sui generis-skydd för databaser2006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning fokuserar på det skydd som ges åt framställare av databaser, eller sammanställningar med en traditionell benämning. Digitaliseringen, i kombination med upphovsrättens oförmåga att skydda annat än originella alster, har medfört att databaser är i behov av en ny skyddsform, eftersom den investering som krävs för att framställa en databas ofta utgörs av betydande finansiella och mänskliga insatser. Europaparlamentets och Rådets direktiv 96/9/EG av den 11 mars 1996 om rättsligt skydd för databaser syftade till att möta denna utmaning. Direktivets centrala bestämmelse är den nya rätt av sitt eget slag, en rätt sui generis, som är ägnad att skydda databasproducentens investering. Före implementeringen av databasdirektivet i svensk rätt fanns i 49 § svenska upphovsrättslagen ett skydd mot eftergörande av kataloger, tabeller eller annat arbete som bestod av ett stort antal uppgifter. Direktivets sui generis-rätt kom att inarbetas i nämnda lagrum. Ämnesvalet för framställningen kan således ses i ett större perspektiv där upphovsrättens europeisering och funktion som industriellt rättsskydd samvarierar med digitaliseringens inverkan på informationsbearbetning.

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    innehållsförteckning
  • 27.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    The Nordic Countries2010In: Moral Rights / [ed] Gillian Davies, Kevin Garnett, Sweet & Maxwell, 2010, p. 505-535Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 28.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    The Nordic Countries2016In: Moral Rights / [ed] Gillian Davies, Kevin Garnett, London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2016, 2 uppl., p. 605-635Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Tillfälliga framställningar av exemplar och rättsligt skydd för åtkomstspärrar i digital miljö2011In: Utblick och inblick : vänbok till Claes Sandgren / [ed] Tom Madell, Per Bergling, Örjan Edström & Jan Rosén, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2011, p. 11-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 30.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Utredningen om upphovsrätten på Internet – en översiktlig presentation2008In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, no 1, p. 39-52Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 31.
    Axhamn, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Guibault, Lucie
    Cross-border extended collective licensing: a solution to online dissemination of Europe’s cultural heritage?: Final report prepared for EuropeanaConnect2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An issue which recently has gained increased attention from legislators is how to stimulate the digitization and online availability of the collections held by libraries, museums and other cultural institutions – sometimes referred to as our “common heritage” – and at the same time give full respect to established copyright norms. At European level, this attention is evident in the Digital Libraries Initiative, the Communication from the European Commission on Copyright in the Knowledge Economy, the Commission’s Digital Agenda for Europe and its recent Communication on a Single Market for Intellectual Property Rights. Inherent in these policy documents is the recognition that the new information technologies have created vast opportunities to make the common heritage of Europe more accessible for users online. It is also a shared belief that such access – if coherent with basic copyright principles – will befor the mutual benefit of users, right holders and the society at large. In line with this the Commission has supported the creation and development of a common access point for Europe’s cultural heritage, Europeana.

    However, several issues from a copyright perspective have to be solved before undertaking mass-digitization and online dissemination of the collections held by these institutions. One of them is how to make the said digitization and online dissemination lawful from a copyright perspective. To the extent that an item in a cultural institution’s collection is (still) protected by copyright, those acts fall under the author’s exclusive right to authorize and prohibit use of his or her work. As the administrative (“transaction”) costs of finding and negotiating an individual license with every right holder would rise to astronomical levels, there is an obvious risk that major parts of the collections will not be digitized and disseminated online. For this reason, the most practical solution would probably lie in the area of collective rights management.

    A way forward is the extended collective license (ECL) model as established and developed in the Nordic countries. The essential component of the ECL model is that it extends a freely negotiated agreement between a Collective Management Organization (CMO) and a user so that it binds also non-members’ rights, sometimes referred to as “outsiders’ rights”. The legal implication of this extension effect is that the agreement not only gives the user the right to use outsider’s rights without any risk of civil remedies but that that it also provides full limitation against criminal sanctions.

    To safeguard the outsiders’ interests, the legally supported extended effect only occurs provided that certain conditions have been met. These conditions are, mainly, outsiders’ possibility to opt out, equal treatment vis-à-vis members of the organization and receipt of remuneration. There are also conditions related to the representativeness and supervision of the eligible CMOs. The ECL model has been under consideration by the Commission as a possible solution to stimulate the digitization and online availability of the collections held by cultural institutions.

    An additional challenge is to make the collections available cross-border, i.e. also to other countries (territories) than the one where the cultural institution is located. It is inherent in the policy documents of the European commission and also the establishment of Europeana that there is a clear political aim to stimulate such cross-border dissemination. According to prevalent copyright rules, rights for dissemination online have to be cleared in every country where the content can be accessed. Applied to cultural institutions this means that they would have to get a license from CMOs in every EU member state. This would of course lead to substantial administrative costs for the institutions. However, so far no solution have been brought forward which takes into account and could be acceptable by both cultural institutions and right holders.

    Two viable cross-border solutions are a country of transmission principle or a solution based on voluntary measures by the national CMOs. A country of transmission principle holds that cultural institutions should only be obliged to obtain a license in the country where the institution initiated the online dissemination. This solution would require legislative intervention at EU level. The other solution essentially means that national CMOs would give each other a mandate to issue multi-territory licenses.

    At first glance, an ECL provision combined with either of the cross-border solutions outlined above may be regarded as favoring the cultural institutions’ interests, as it gives them the privilege of both an ECL provision and a simplified measure for cross-border rights clearance. However, the scope of an ECL provision for the benefit of these institutions would primarily be to make available content that is not of a contemporary commercial nature. Hence, the model would aim at establishing a mechanism which would create a supply of cultural heritage content. It is in the interest of the society as a whole that also this content is made available online.

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    ECL final report
  • 32.
    Axhamn, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Institute of Intellectual Property Law and Marketing Law.
    Guibault, Lucie
    Solving Europeana’s mass-digitization issuesthrough Extended Collective Licensing?2011In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, no 6, p. 509-516Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 33. Malm, Annika
    Kollektiv rättighetsförvaltning på upphovsrättsområdet: Betänkande av Utredningen om kollektiv rättighetsförvaltning på upphovsrättsområdet2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Direktivet om kollektiv rättighetsförvaltning innehåller krav för att säkerställa att kollektiva förvaltningsorganisationer förvaltar upphovsrätt och närstående rättigheter på ett välfungerande sätt. Direktivet innehåller också bestämmelser om gränsöverskridande licensiering av upphovsrättigheter till musikaliska verk för användning på nätet.

    Utredningen har i huvudsak föreslagit ett genomförande som inte går längre än vad som krävs enligt direktivet, eftersom längre gående bestämmelser kan medföra konkurrensnackdelar. Utredningens utgångspunkt har varit att förslaget till nya bestämmelser ska ansluta sig till den nivå på krav som direktivet ställer.

    Utredningen har bedömt att de bestämmelser som är nödvändiga för att genomföra direktivet bör komma till uttryck i en ny lag. Utredningen har genomgående strävat efter lösningar som är förenliga med befintliga svenska principer och systematik, såväl vad gäller regelverket som de praktiska ordningarna för kollektiv förvaltning.

    Direktivet om kollektiv rättighetsförvaltning innehåller krav i fråga om i) styrning och kontroll över den kollektiva förvaltningen, ii) organisationernas inkassering, förvaltning och utbetalning av inkasserade medel, iii) organisationernas relationer till andra förvaltningsorganisationer, iv) förhållandet till användare samt v) insyn, tillhandahållande av information och rapportering. Därutöver innehåller direktivet villkor och krav för gränsöverskridande licensiering i vissa fall och slutligen bestämmelser om efterlevnad och kontroll.

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