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  • 1. Ali, Nadeem
    et al.
    Kadi, Mohammad W.
    Ali Albar, Hussain Mohammed Salem
    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz
    Chandrasekaran, Sivaraman
    Summan, Ahmed Saleh
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Malarvannan, Govindan
    Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Car Dust: A Pilot Study in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 9, article id 4803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People may spend a significant amount of their daily time in cars and thus be exposed to chemicals present in car dust. Various chemicals are emitted from during car use, contaminating the car dust. In this study, we compiled published and unpublished data on the occurrence of phthalates, flame retardants (FRs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Saudi car dust. Phthalates, a class of chemical commonly used as plasticizers in different car parts, were the major pollutants found in car dust, with a median value of n-ary sumation phthalates 1,279,000 ng/g. Among other chemicals, organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) were found to be between 1500-90,500 ng/g, which indicates their use as alternative FRs in the car industry. The daily exposure to Saudi drivers (regular and taxi drivers) was below the respective reference dose (RfD) values of the individual chemicals. However, the estimated incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values due to chronic exposure to these chemicals was >1 x 10(-5) for taxi drivers for phthalates and PAHs, indicating that the long-term exposure to these chemicals is a cause of concern for drivers who spend considerable time in cars. The study has some limitations, due to the small number of samples, lack of updated RfD values, and missing cancer slope factors for many studied chemicals. Despite these limitations, this study indicates the possible range of exposure to drivers from chemicals in car dust and warrants further extensive studies to confirm these patterns.

  • 2. Alves, Andreia
    et al.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Erratico, Claudio
    Lucattini, Luisa
    Haug, Line S.
    Jacobs, Griet
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Leonards, Pim E. G.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Magner, Jorgen
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    Case Study on Screening Emerging Pollutants in Urine and Nails2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 4046-4053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative plasticizers and flame retardants (FRs) have been introduced as replacements for banned or restricted chemicals, but much is still unknown about their metabolism and occurrence in humans. We identified the metabolites formed in vitro for four alternative plasticizers (acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC), bis(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP), bis(2ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA)), and one FR (2,2-bis (chloromethyl)-propane-1,3-diyltetrakis(2-chloroethyl) bisphosphate (V6)). Further, these compounds and their metabolites were investigated by LC/ESI-Orbitrap-MS in urine and finger nails collected from a Norwegian cohort. Primary and secondary ATBC metabolites had detection frequencies (% DF) in finger nails ranging from 46 to 95%. V6 was identified for the first time in finger nails, suggesting that this matrix may also indicate past exposure to FRs as well as alternative plasticizers. Two isomeric forms of DEHTP primary metabolite were highly detected in urine (97% DF) and identified in finger nails, while no DPHP metabolites were detected in vivo. Primary and secondary DEHA metabolites were identified in both matrices, and the relative proportion of the secondary metabolites was higher in urine than in finger nails; the opposite was observed for the primary metabolites. As many of the metabolites present in in vitro extracts were further identified in vivo in urine and finger nail samples, this suggests that in vitro assays can reliably mimic the in vivo processes. Finger nails may be a useful noninvasive matrix for human biomonitoring of specific organic contaminants, but further validation is needed.

  • 3.
    Björklund, Justina A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Aune, M.
    Lignell, S.
    Darnerud, P. O.
    Comparisons of polybrominated diphenyl ether and hexabromocyclododecane concentrations in dust collected with two sampling methods and matched breast milk samples2012In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 279-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Household dust from 19 Swedish homes was collected using two different sampling methods: from the occupants own home vacuum cleaner after insertion of a new bag and using a researcher-collected method where settled house dust was collected from surfaces above floor level. The samples were analyzed for 16 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Significant correlations (r = 0.600.65, Spearman r = 0.470.54, P < 0.05) were found between matched dust samples collected with the two sampling methods for ?OctaBDE and ?DecaBDE but not for ?PentaBDE or HBCD. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of all PBDE congeners were found in the researcher-collected dust than in the home vacuum cleaner bag dust (VCBD). For HBCD, however, the concentrations were significantly higher in the home VCBD samples. Analysis of the bags themselves indicated no or very low levels of PBDEs and HBCD. This indicates that there may be specific HBCD sources to the floor and/or that it may be present in the vacuum cleaners themselves. The BDE-47 concentrations in matched pairs of VCBD and breast milk samples were significantly correlated (r = 0.514, P = 0.029), indicating that one possible exposure route for this congener may be via dust ingestion. Practical Implications The statistically significant correlations found for several individual polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, ?OctaBDE and ?DecaBDE between the two dust sampling methods in this study indicate that the same indoor sources contaminate both types of dust or that common processes govern the distribution of these compounds in the indoor environment. Therefore, either method is adequate for screening ?OctaBDE and ?DecaBDE in dust. The high variability seen between dust samples confirms results seen in other studies. For hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), divergent results in the two dust types indicate differences in contamination sources to the floor than to above-floor surfaces. Thus, it is still unclear which dust sampling method is most relevant for HBCD as well as for ?PentaBDE in dust and, further, which is most relevant for determining human exposure to PBDEs and HBCD.

  • 4.
    Björklund, Justina Awasum
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    de Wit, Cynthia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lignell, Sanna
    Aune, Marie
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Comparisons of PBDE and HBCD concentrations in dust collected with two sampling methods and matched breast milk samplesIn: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Björklund, Justina Awasum
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thuresson, Kaj
    Cousins, Anna Palm
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Emenius, Gunnel
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Indoor Air Is a Significant Source of Tri-decabrominated Diphenyl Ethers to Outdoor Air via Ventilation Systems2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 5876-5884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ventilation of indoor air has been hypothesized to be a source of PBDEs to outdoors. To study this, tri-decabrominated diphenyl ethers were analyzed in outgoing air samples collected inside ventilation systems just before exiting 33 buildings and compared to indoor air samples from microenvironments in each building collected simultaneously. Median Sigma 10PBDE (BDE- 28, -47, -99, -153, -183, -197, -206, -207, -208, -209) concentrations in air from apartment, office and day care center buildings were 93, 3700, and 660 pg/m(3) for outgoing air, and 92, 4700, and 1200 pg/m(3) for indoor air, respectively. BDE-209 was the major congener found. No statistically significant differences were seen for individual PBDE concentrations in matched indoor and outgoing air samples, indicating that outgoing air PBDE concentrations are equivalent to indoor air concentrations. PBDE concentrations in indoor and outgoing air were higher than published outdoor air values suggesting ventilation as a conduit of PBDEs, including BDE-209, from indoors to outdoors. BDE-209 and sum of BDE-28, -47, -99, and -153 emissions from indoor air to outdoors were roughly estimated to represent close to 90% of total emissions to outdoor air for Sweden, indicating that contaminated indoor air is an important source of PBDE contamination to outdoor air.

  • 6.
    Björklund, Justina Awasum
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thuresson, Kaj
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    De Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in indoor dust: concentrations, human exposure estimates, and sources2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 2276-2281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are globally distributed, persistent, toxic, and are found in human blood and serum. Exposure pathways are not well characterized. To better understand indoor dust ingestion as a potential pathway for human exposure, we determined the concentrations of these compounds in dust collected from 10 houses, 38 apartments, 10 day care centers, 10 offices, and 5 cars. Samples were prepared using a rapid extraction and cleanup method and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. PFOS and PFOA were found in dust samples from all microenvironments and their concentrations were significantly positively correlated to each other. Highest median concentrations were seen in offices (PFOS: 110 ng/g dry weight) and apartments (PFOA: 93 ng/g dw). Adult and toddler dust ingestion exposures were estimated and compared to dietary exposure data from Canada and Spain. Results show that diet is the most important exposure route, but in a worst case scenario, dust ingestion may also be significant.

  • 7. Boyi, Joy Ometere
    et al.
    Stokholm, Iben
    Hillmann, Miriam
    Søndergaard, Jens
    Persson, Sara
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Siebert, Ursula
    Kristina, Lehnert
    Relationships between gene transcription and contaminant concentrations in Baltic ringed seals: A comparison between tissue matrices2022In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 242, article id 106035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ringed seals (Pusa hispida) are slowly recovering in the eastern and northern parts of the Baltic Sea after years of hunting pressure and contaminant exposure. Still, consequences of anthropogenic activities such as contaminant exposure and increasing temperatures are stressors that continue to have deleterious effects on their habitat and health. Transcription profiles of seven health-related genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, endocrine disruption and stress were evaluated in blood, blubber, and liver of Baltic ringed seals in a multi-tissue approach. Selected persistent organic pollutants and total mercury concentrations were measured in blubber and liver, and muscle and liver of these animals, respectively. Concentrations of contaminants varied across tissues on a lipid weight basis but not with sex. mRNA transcript levels for all seven target genes did not vary between sexes or age classes. Transcript levels of thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TR alpha), retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) correlated with levels of persistent organic pollutants. TR alpha transcript levels also correlated positively with mercury concentrations in the liver. Of the three tissues assessed in this multi-tissue approach, blubber showed highest transcription levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor beta (TSH beta), oestrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha). The wide range of genes expressed highlights the value of minimally invasive sampling (e.g. biopsies) for assessing health endpoints in free-ranging marine wildlife and the importance of identifying optimal matrices for targeted gene expression studies. This gene transcript profile study has provided baseline information on transcript levels of biomarkers for early on-set health effects in ringed seals and will be a useful guide to assess the impacts of environmental change in Baltic pinnipeds for conservation and management.

  • 8. Brandsma, Sicco H.
    et al.
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    de Boer, Jacob
    Leonards, Pim E.G.
    Two organophosphorus flame retardants, resorcinol bis (diphenylphosphate)(PBDPP) and bisphenol A bis (diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP) used as alternatives for BDE209 detected in dust2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1086-931X, E-ISSN 1520-6912, Vol. 47, no 24, p. 14434-14441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resorcinol bis(diphenylphosphate) (RBDPP) and bisphenol A bis(diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP) are two halogen-free organophosphorus flame retardant (PFRs) that are used as an alternative for the decabromodiphenyl ether (Deca-BDE) technical mixture in TV/flatscreen housing and other electronic consumer products.' In this study, dust samples were collected from various microenvironments in The Netherlands (houses, cars), Greece.(houses), and Sweden (apartments, cars, furniture stores, electronics stores) and analyzed for RBDPP and BPA-BDPP. Additionally, the dust samples from The Netherlands were analyzed for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) for comparison and for TPHP, which is a byproduct in the RBDPP and BPA-BDPP technical products. BPA-BDPP was detected in almost all dust samples from The Netherlands, Greece, and Sweden. Highest concentrations were found in dust samples collected on electronic equipment from all three countries with BPA-BDPP levels ranging from <0.1 to 1300 mu g/g and RBDPP levels from <0.04 to 520 mu g/g. RBDPP and BPA-BDPP levels in dust collected further away from the electronics (source) were usually lower. BDE-209 levels in The Netherlands dust samples collected on and around the electronics were similar and much lower than the BPA-BDPP/RBDPP levels, indicating that the electronics were not the source of BDE-209. Strong positive correlations were found between TPHP concentrations and those of RBDPP (r = 0.805) and BPA-BDPP (r = 0.924), probably due to TPHP being a byproduct in commercial RBDPP and BPA-BDPP mixtures in electronics. To our knowledge, this is the first time that RBDPP and BPA-BDPP were detected in dust samples from Europe.

  • 9.
    Bui, Thuy T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Human exposure, hazard and risk of alternative plasticizers to phthalate esters2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 541, p. 451-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative plasticizers to phthalate esters have been used for over a decade, but data regarding emissions, human exposure and health effects are limited. Here we review 20 alternative plasticizers in current use and their human exposure, hazard and risk. Physicochemical properties are collated for these diverse alternatives and log K-OW values range over 15 orders of magnitude and log K-AW and log K-OA values over about 9 orders of magnitude. Most substances are hydrophobic with low volatility and are produced in high volumes for use in multiple applications. There is an increasing trend in the total use of alternative plasticizers in Sweden compared to common phthalate esters in the last 10 years, especially for DINCH. Evaluative indoor fate modeling reveals that most alternatives are distributed to vertical surfaces (e.g. walls or ceilings). Only TXIB and GTA are predicted to be predominantly distributed to indoor air. Human exposure data are lacking and clear evidence for human exposure only exists for DEHT and DINCH, which show increasing trends in body burdens. Human intake rates are collected and compared with limit values with resulting risk ratios below 1 except for infant's exposure to ESBO. PBT properties of the alternatives indicate mostly no reasons for concern, except that TEHPA is estimated to be persistent and TCP toxic. A caveat is that non-standard toxicological endpoint results are not available and, similar to phthalate esters, the alternatives are likely pseudo-persistent. Keydata gaps for more comprehensive risk assessment are identified and include: analytical methods to measure metabolites in biological fluids and tissues, toxicological information regarding non-standard endpoints such as endocrine disruption and a further refined exposure assessment in order to consider high risk groups such as infants, toddlers and children.

  • 10. Carney Almroth, Bethanie
    et al.
    Cornell, Sarah E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Diamond, Miriam L.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Fantke, Peter
    Wang, Zhanyun
    Understanding and addressing the planetary crisis of chemicals and plastics2022In: One Earth, ISSN 2590-3330, E-ISSN 2590-3322, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 1070-1074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planetary functions are destabilized by the releases of large quantities and numbers of anthropogenic chemicals, which go beyond planetary boundaries and threaten the safe operating space for humanity. Here, we call for urgent action to mitigate these threats and identify opportunities for intervention along the impact pathway of anthropogenic chemicals, including plastics.

  • 11. Christia, Christina
    et al.
    Poma, Giulia
    Harrad, Stuart
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sjöström, Ylva
    Leonards, Pim
    Lamoree, Marja
    Covaci, Adrian
    Occurrence of legacy and alternative plasticizers in indoor dust from various EU countries and implications for human exposure via dust ingestion and dermal absorption2019In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 171, p. 204-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasticizers are a category of chemicals extensively used in consumer products and, consequently, their presence is ubiquitous in the indoor environment. In the present study, an analytical method has been developed for the quantification of plasticizers (7 legacy phthalate esters (LPEs) and 14 alternative plasticizers (APs)) in indoor floor dust based on ultrasonic and vortex extraction, Florisil fractionation and GC-(EI)-MS analysis. Dust samples (n = 54) were collected from homes, offices, and daycare centers from different EU countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, Ireland and Sweden). Method LOQs ranged from 0.2 to 5 mu g/g. Tri-n-hexyl trimellitate (THTM) was not detected in any sample, whereas dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diphenyl phthalate and acetyl triethyl citrate (ATEC) were detected only in 6, 2 and 1 out of 54 samples, respectively. The highest concentrations of plasticizers were measured in Swedish offices, at a mean concentration of total plasticizers of 1800 mu g/g, followed by Swedish daycare centers at 1200 and 670 mu g/g for winter and spring sampling, respectively. Generally, the contribution of APs was slightly higher than for LPEs for all indoor environments (mean contribution 60% and 40%, respectively based on contributions per indoor environment). For the APs, main contributors were DINP in Belgian homes (28%), Swedish offices (60%), Swedish daycare centers (48%), and Dutch offices (31%) and DEHT in Belgian (28%), Irish (40%) and Dutch homes (37%) of total APs. The predominant LPE was bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP) with a mean contribution varying from 60% to 85% of total LPEs. Human exposure was evaluated for dust ingestion and dermal absorption using hazard quotients (HQs) of plasticizers (ratio between average daily doses and the reference dose). None of the HQs of plasticizers exceeded 1, meaning that the risk for adverse human health effects from these plasticizers via dust ingestion and dermal absorption is unlikely.

  • 12. Covaci, Adrian
    et al.
    Harrad, Stuart
    Abdallah, Mohamed A. -E.
    Ali, Nadeem
    Law, Robin J.
    Herzke, Dorte
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Novel brominated flame retardants: A review of their analysis, environmental fate and behaviour2011In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 532-556Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review summarises current knowledge about production volumes, physico-chemical properties, analysis, environmental occurrence, fate and behaviour and human exposure to the novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs). We define the term NBFRs as relating to BFRs which are new to the market or newly/recently observed in the environment. Restrictions and bans on the use of some polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulations, in many jurisdictions, have created a market for the use of NBFRs. To date, most data on NBFRs have arisen as additional information generated by research designed principally to study more traditional BFRs, such as PBDEs. This has led to a wide variety of analytical approaches for sample extraction, extract purification and instrumental analysis of NBFRs. An overview of environmental occurrence in abiotic matrices, aquatic biota, terrestrial biota and birds is presented. Evidence concerning the metabolism and absorption of different NBFRs is reviewed. Human exposure to NBFRs via different exposure pathways is discussed, and research gaps related to analysis, environmental sources, fate, and behaviour and human exposure are identified.

  • 13.
    de Wit,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Environmental behavior of brominated POPs in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, particularly higher brominated PBDEs2007In: SETAC North America, Milwaukee, Wisconsin: 12-15 November, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    de Wit,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nylund, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Haglund, M.
    Kierkegaard,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Brominated flame retardants in sludge from 50 Swedish sewage treatment plants: Evidence of anaerobic degradation of HBCD and TBBPA.2007In: Dioxin 2007, Tokyo, Japan: 2-7 September, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Acknowledgement2019In: Emerging Contaminants, ISSN 2405-6650, E-ISSN 2405-6642, Vol. 5, p. 35-35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. de Wit, Cynthia A
    An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment.2002In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 583-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of brominated flame retardant (BFR) chemicals, and particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), has become of increasing concern to scientists over the past decade. Environmental studies conducted primarily in Europe, Japan and North America indicate that these chemicals are ubiquitous in sediment and biota. The levels of PBDEs seem to be increasing, and several trends, including in humans, indicate that this increase may be rapid. The occurrence of high concentrations of certain PBDE isomers may be sufficient to elicit adverse effects in some wildlife. There is also concern that levels could cause adverse effects in sensitive human populations such as young children, indigenous peoples, and fish consumers. However, our knowledge about these chemicals, their sources, environmental behavior, and toxicity is limited, making risk assessment difficult. In this paper, the current state of knowledge is reviewed and areas for further research recommended to improve future monitoring and risk assessment efforts.

  • 17. de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Alaee, Mehran
    Muir, Derek C.G.
    Levels and trends of brominated flame retardants in the Arctic2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 209-233Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Balmer, Jennifer
    Muir, Derek C.G.
    Vorkamp, Katrin
    Wilson, Simon
    Chemicals of Emerging Arctic Concern: Preface2019In: Emerging Contaminants, ISSN 2405-6650, E-ISSN 2405-6642, Vol. 5, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Björklund, Justina Awasum
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thuresson, Kaj
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Tri-decabrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in indoor air and dust from Stockholm microenvironments 2: Indoor sources and human exposure2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 141-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) concentrations from Stockholm, Sweden, indoor microenvironments were combined with information from detailed questionnaires regarding the sampling location characteristics, including furnishing and equipment present. These were used to elucidate relationships between possible flame-retarded sources and the contaminant concentrations found in air and dust. Median concentration ranges of Sigma Penta-, Sigma Octa-, Sigma DecaBDE and HBCD from all microenvironments were 19-570, 1.7-280, 29-3200 and <1.6-2 pg/m(3) in air and 22-240, 6.1-80, 330-1400 and 45-340 ng/g in dust, respectively. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of some PBDEs and HBCD in air and/or dust and the presence of electronic/electrical devices, foam furniture, PUF mattresses and synthetic bed pillows in, as well as floor area and construction year of the microenvironment. Car interiors were a source to indoor air in dealership halls. Using median and maximum concentrations of Sigma Penta-, Sigma Octa-, Sigma DecaBDE and HBCD in air and dust, adult and toddler (12-24 months) intakes from inhalation and dust ingestion were estimated. Toddlers had higher estimated intakes of Sigma Penta-, Sigma DecaBDE and HBCD (7.8, 43, 7.6 ng/d, respectively) from dust ingestion than adults (5.8, 38, 6.0 ng/d, respectively). Air inhalation in offices was also an important exposure pathway for Sigma Penta-, Sigma Octa- and Sigma DecaBDE in adults. For Sigma PentaBDE and HBCD, air inhalation and dust ingestion play minor roles when compared to previously published Swedish dietary intakes (median exposures). However, in worst case scenarios using maximum concentrations, dust ingestion may represent 77 and 95% of toddler intake for Sigma PentaBDE and HBCD, respectively.

  • 20.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Bossi, Rossana
    Dietz, Rune
    Dreyer, Annekatrin
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Garbus, Svend Erik
    Hellström, Peter
    Koschorreck, Jan
    Lohmann, Nina
    Roos, Anna
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Sonne, Christian
    Treu, Gabriele
    Vorkamp, Katrin
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Eulaers, Igor
    Organohalogen compounds of emerging concern in Baltic Sea biota: Levels, biomagnification potential and comparisons with legacy contaminants2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 144, article id 106037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While new chemicals have replaced major toxic legacy contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), knowledge of their current levels and biomagnification potential in Baltic Sea biota is lacking. Therefore, a suite of chemicals of emerging concern, including organophosphate esters (OPEs), short-chain, medium-chain and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, MCCPs, LCCPs), halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), were analysed in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), common eider (Somateria mollissima), common guillemot (Uria aalge) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) from the Baltic Proper, sampled between 2006 and 2016. Results were benchmarked with existing data for legacy contaminants. The mean concentrations for Sigma OPEs ranged from 57 to 550 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw), for Sigma CPs from 110 to 640 ng g(-1) lw for Sigma HFRs from 0.42 to 80 ng g(-1) lw, and for Sigma PFAS from 1.1 to 450 ng g(-1) wet weight. Perfluoro-4-ethyl-cyclohexanesulfonate (PFECHS) was detected in most species. Levels of OPEs, CPs and HFRs were generally similar or higher than those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). OPE, CP and HFR concentrations were also similar to PCBs and DDTs in blue mussel, viviparous eelpout and Atlantic herring. In marine mammals and birds, PCB and DDT concentrations remained orders of magnitude higher than those of OPEs, CPs, HFRs and PFAS. Predator-prey ratios for individual OPEs (0.28-3.9) and CPs (0.40-5.0) were similar or somewhat lower than those seen for BDE-47 (5.0-29) and HBCDD (2.4-13). Ratios for individual HFRs (0.010-37) and PFAS (0.15-47) were, however, of the same order of magnitude as seen for p,p'-DDE (4.7-66) and CB-153 (31-190), indicating biomagnification potential for many of the emerging contaminants. Lack of toxicity data, including for complex mixtures, makes it difficult to assess the risks emerging contaminants pose. Their occurence and biomagnification potential should trigger risk management measures, particularly for MCCPs, HFRs and PFAS.

  • 21.
    de Wit, Cynthia A
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Herzke, Dorte
    Vorkamp, Katrin
    Brominated flame retardants in the Arctic environment - trends and new candidates.2010In: The Science of the total environment, ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 15, p. 2885-2918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) containing two to 10 bromines are ubiquitous in the Arctic, in both abiotic and biotic samples. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is also ubiquitous in the Arctic, with the gamma-HBCD isomer predominating in air, the alpha-HBCD isomer predominating in biota and similar concentrations of alpha-, beta- and gamma-HBCD found in marine sediments. Other brominated flame retardants (BFRs) found in some Arctic samples are polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HxBBz), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), pentabromotoluene (PBT), and 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH). Temporal trends of tetra- to heptaBDEs and HBCD show increasing concentrations or a tendency to levelling off depending on the matrix (air, sediment, biota) and location, but no uniform picture for the Arctic emerges. BDE-209 concentrations are increasing in air. PBDEs and HBCD spatial trends in seabirds and marine mammals are similar to those seen previously for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with highest concentrations found in organisms from East Greenland and Svalbard. These trends indicate western Europe and eastern North America as important source regions of these compounds via long range atmospheric transport and ocean currents. Latitudinal trends showed lower concentrations and fluxes of PBDEs at higher latitudes. The tetra-hexaBDEs and alpha-HBCD biomagnify in Arctic food webs. Results for BDE-209 are more conflicting, showing either only low or no biomagnification potential. PBDE and HBCD concentrations are lower in terrestrial organisms and higher in marine top predators such as some killer whale populations in Alaska and glaucous gulls from the Barents Sea area. Higher concentrations are seen near populated areas indicating local sources. Findings of BTBPE, HxBBz, PBEB, PBT and TBECH in seabirds and/or marine mammals indicate that these compounds reach the Arctic, most probably by long range atmospheric transport and accumulate in higher trophic level organisms and that increasing use as PBDE replacements will lead to increasing concentrations.

  • 22.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Peter
    Mass balance study of brominated flame retardants in female captive peregrine falcons2019In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 1115-1131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about brominated flame retardant (BFR) dynamics in birds, especially large molecules such as decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). In particular, bioaccumulation from food and transfer dynamics to eggs are poorly understood. Therefore, an input-output mass balance study of tri-decaBDEs, DBDPE and HBCDD was performed in three female peregrine falcons from a captive breeding program by analyzing their naturally contaminated food (quail, chicken (cockerels)), plasma, feces and eggs. Predominant BFRs in cockerels and quail were BDE-209 and DBDPE, as well as HBCDD in quail. The predominant BFRs found in falcon plasma were BDE-209, -153 and -183, in eggs, HBCDD, BDE-209 and -153 and in feces, BDE-209. Mean absorption efficiencies (AE) for the tetra-octabrominated BDEs ranged from 84-100% and 70% for HBCDD. The AEs for BDE-206, -207, -208 and -209 varied due to the large variability seen for feces fluxes. All egg/plasma ratios for BDEs were similar and greater than one (range 1.1-2.7), including for BDE-209, indicating efficient transfer from females to the eggs. Excretion via egg-laying was approximately 6.0-29% of the initial, pre-breeding body burden of individual penta-decaBDE congeners, (15-45% for BDE-206). HBCDD was not detected in plasma but was found in eggs, also indicating efficient transfer and excretion via eggs. Input fluxes from food exceeded the output fluxes (feces, eggs) indicating considerable metabolism for tetra-octaBDEs, possibly also for the nona-decaBDEs and HBCDD. Bioaccumulation factors calculated from lipid weight concentrations in plasma and food (BAF(p)) were highest for BDE-208 (31), -153 (23), -209 (19) and -207 (16) and from eggs and food (BAF(e)), were highest for HBCDD (140), BDE-153 (41), -208 (42), BDE-207 (24) and BDE-209 (21). BAF(e) and BAF(p) values were below 10 for BDE-47, -99 and -100. For one falcon, egg results were available from three different years and estimated half-lives were 65 d (BDE-99), 624 d (BDE-153), 31 d (BDE-154), 349 d (BDE-183), 77 d (BDE-196) and 89 d (BDE-197).

  • 23.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Muir, Derek
    Levels and trends of new contaminants, temporal trends of legacy contaminants and effects of contaminants in the Arctic: Preface2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 15, p. 2852-2853Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thuresson, Kaj
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Björklund, Justina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds in air and dust from apartment buildings in Stockholm2008Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thuresson, Kaj
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Björklund, Justina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds in air and dust from indoor environments in Stockholm2008Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Vorkamp, Katrin
    Muir, Derek
    Influence of climate change on persistent organic pollutants and chemicals of emerging concern in the Arctic: state of knowledge and recommendations for future research2022In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 1530-1543Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have accumulated in polar environments as a result of long-range transport from urban/industrial and agricultural source regions in the mid-latitudes. Climate change has been recognized as a factor capable of influencing POP levels and trends in the Arctic, but little empirical data have been available previously. A growing number of recent studies have now addressed the consequences of climate change for the fate of Arctic contaminants, as reviewed and assessed by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). For example, correlations between POP temporal trends in air or biota and climate indices, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation Index, have been found. Besides the climate indices, temperature, precipitation and sea-ice were identified as important climate parameters influencing POP levels in the Arctic environment. However, the physical changes are interlinked with complex ecological changes, including new species habitats and predator/prey relationships, resulting in a vast diversity of processes directly or indirectly affecting levels and trends of POPs. The reviews in this themed issue illustrate that the complexity of physical, chemical, and biological processes, and the rapid developments with regard to both climate change and chemical contamination, require greater interdisciplinary scientific exchange and collaboration. While some climate and biological parameters have been linked to POP levels in the Arctic, mechanisms underlying these correlations are usually not understood and need more work. Going forward there is a need for a stronger collaborative approach to understanding these processes due to high uncertainties and the incremental process of increasing knowledge of these chemicals. There is also a need to support and encourage community-based studies and the co-production of knowledge, including the utilization of Indigenous Knowledge, for interpreting trends of POPs in light of climate change.

  • 27. Diamond, Miriam L.
    et al.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Molander, Sverker
    Scheringer, Martin
    Backhaus, Thomas
    Lohmann, Rainer
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    Bergman, Åke
    Hauschild, Michael
    Holoubek, Ivan
    Persson, Linn
    Suzuki, Noriyuki
    Vighi, Marco
    Zetzsch, Cornelius
    Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 78, p. 8-15Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rockstrom et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if unacceptable global change is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social approaches to mitigate global chemical pollution that emphasize a preventative approach; coordinate pollution control and sustainability efforts; and facilitate implementation of multiple (and potentially decentralized) control efforts involving scientists, civil society, government, non-governmental organizations and international bodies.

  • 28. Dietz, R.
    et al.
    Sonne, C.
    Jenssen, B. M.
    Das, K.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Harding, K. C.
    Siebert, U.
    Olsen, M. T.
    The Baltic Sea: An ecosystem with multiple stressors2021In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 147, article id 106324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introductory chapter to our Environment International VSI does not need an abstract and therefore we just include our recommendations below in order to proceed with the resubmission. Future work should examine waterbirds as food web sentinels of multiple stressors as well as Baltic Sea food web dynamics of hazardous substances and how climate change may modify it. Also, future work should aim at further extending the new frameworks developed within BALTHEALTH for energy and contaminant transfer at the population level (Des forges et al., 2018, Cervin et al., 2020/this issue Silva et al., 2020/this issue) and their long term effects on Baltic Sea top predators, such as harbour porpoises, grey seals ringed seals, and white-tailed eagles. Likewise, the risk evaluation conducted for PCB in connection with mercury on Arctic wildlife (Dietz et al., 2019, not a BONUS BALTHEALTH product) could be planned for Baltic Sea molluscs, fish, bird and marine mammals in the future. Finally, future efforts could include stressors not covered by the BONUS BALTHEALTH project, such as food web fluxes, overexploitation, bycatches, eutrophication and underwater noise.

  • 29. DiGangi, Joseph
    et al.
    Blum, Arlene
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lucas, Donald
    Mortimer, David
    Schecter, Arnold
    Scheringer, Martin
    Shaw, Susan
    Webster, Tomas F.
    San Antonio Statement on brominated and chlorinated flame retardants2010In: Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, Vol. 118, no 12, p. A516-A518Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Drage, Daniel S.
    et al.
    Newton, Seth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Harrad, Stuart
    Concentrations of legacy and emerging flame retardants in air and soil on a rural-urban transect in the UK West Midlands2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 148, p. 195-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passive air samples were collected monthly for 6 months from 8 sites along a transect of Birmingham, United Kingdom between June 2012 and January 2013. Soil samples were collected once at each site. Average concentrations of BDE-209, ΣPBDEs17:183 and ΣPBDEs in ambient air were 150, 49, and 180 pg m−3, respectively. Atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs were negatively correlated with distance from the city centre, exhibiting an “urban pulse”. The average ΣHBCDD air concentration was 100 pg m−3, however concentrations were not correlated with distance from the city centre. Several emerging flame retardants (EFRs) were identified in air and/or soil samples: 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEH-TEBP), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH or DBE-DBCH), allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and dechlorane plus (DP or DDC-CO). Average concentrations of BDE-209, ΣPBDEs17:183 and ΣPBDEs in soil were 11, 3.6, and 15 ng g−1 soil organic matter. PBDE concentrations in soil were higher at sites closest to the city centre, however correlations with distance from the city centre were not significant. BDEs-47 and -99 contributed more to ΣPBDEs in soil samples than air samples, but in both, the predominant congener was BDE-209. BATE was more abundant in air than soil but ATE was abundant in soil but not air.

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  • 31. Du, Xinyu
    et al.
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Zhou, Yihui
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Zheng, Ziye
    Yin, Ge
    Chlorinated Paraffins in Two Snake Species from the Yangtze River Delta: Tissue Distribution and Biomagnification2020In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 2753-2762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Very-short, short-, medium-, and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (vSCCPs, SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs, respectively) were analyzed in different tissues of the terrestrial short-tailed mamushi (Gloydius brevicaudus) and the semi-aquatic red-backed rat snake (Elaphe rufodorsata) from the Yangtze River Delta, China. The total CP concentrations in liver, muscle, and adipose tissues in the two snake species were in the range of 2500-24 000, 4900-48 000, and 12-630 ng/g lw, respectively. Tissue burdens indicated that vSCCPs (C6-9) and SCCPs (C10-3) preferentially distributed to snake liver, while adipose was an important storage site and sink of MCCPs (C14-17) and LCCPs (C->18). On a lipid weight basis, vSCCPs and SCCPs were found in highest concentrations in red-backed rat snake liver and MCCPs and LCCPs in muscle, whereas for short-tailed mamushi, all CP groups were predominant in muscle, probably reflecting ecosystem/food web differences. Moreover, vSCCPs, SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were found to be biomagnified from black-spotted frogs to red-backed rat snakes with mean (maximum) biomagnification factors of 2.2 (3.4), 1.9 (3.7), 1.8 (2.8), and 1.7 (4.5), respectively. This is the first field study of biomagnification potential involving vSCCPs and LCCPs and highlights the need to include all CPs in studies.

  • 32. Ebinghaus, Ralf
    et al.
    Barbaro, Elena
    Bengtson Nash, Susan
    de Avila, Cristina
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Dulio, Valeria
    Felden, Janine
    Franco, Antonio
    Gandrass, Juergen
    Grotti, Marco
    Herata, Heike
    Hughes, Kevin A.
    Jartun, Morten
    Joerss, Hanna
    Kallenborn, Roland
    Koschorreck, Jan
    Küster, Anette
    Lohmann, Rainer
    Wang, Zhanyun
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Pugh, Rebecca
    Rauert, Caren
    Slobodnik, Jaroslav
    Sühring, Roxana
    Vorkamp, Katrin
    Xie, Zhiyong
    Berlin statement on legacy and emerging contaminants in polar regions2023In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 327, article id 138530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polar regions should be given greater consideration with respect to the monitoring, risk assessment, and management of potentially harmful chemicals, consistent with requirements of the precautionary principle. Protecting the vulnerable polar environments requires (i) raising political and public awareness and (ii) restricting and preventing global emissions of harmful chemicals at their sources. The Berlin Statement is the outcome of an international workshop with representatives of the European Commission, the Arctic Council, the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), environmental specimen banks, and data centers, as well as scientists from various international research institutions. The statement addresses urgent chemical pollution issues in the polar regions and provides recommendations for improving screening, monitoring, risk assessment, research cooperation, and open data sharing to provide environmental policy makers and chemicals management decision-makers with relevant and reliable contaminant data to better protect the polar environments. The consensus reached at the workshop can be summarized in just two words: “Act now!”

    Specifically, “Act now!” to reduce the presence and impact of anthropogenic chemical pollution in polar regions by.

    •Establishing participatory co-development frameworks in a permanent multi-disciplinary platform for Arctic-Antarctic collaborations and establishing exchanges between the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) of the Arctic Council and the Antarctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AnMAP) of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) to increase the visibility and exchange of contaminant data and to support the development of harmonized monitoring programs.

    •Integrating environmental specimen banking, innovative screening approaches and archiving systems, to provide opportunities for improved assessment of contaminants to protect polar regions.

  • 33. Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Berglund, Åsa M. M.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Engström, Emma
    Plassmann, Merle M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Sörlin, Dieke
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Spatio-temporal variation of metals and organic contaminants in bank voles (Myodes glareolus)2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 713, article id 136353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental contamination with metals and organic compounds is of increasing concern for ecosystem and human health. Still, our knowledge about spatial distribution, temporal changes and ecotoxicological fate of metals and organic contaminants in wildlife is limited. We studied concentrations of 69 elements and 50 organic compounds in 300 bank voles (Myodes glareolus), Europe's most common mammal, sampled in spring and autumn 2017-2018 in five monitoring areas, representing three biogeographic regions. In addition, we compared measured concentrations with previous results from bank voles sampled within the same areas in 1995-1997 and 2001. In general, our results show regional differences, but no consistent patterns among contaminants and study areas. The exception was for the lowest concentrations of organic contaminants (e.g. perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS), which were generally found in the northern Swedish mountain area Concentrations of metals and organic contaminants in adults varied seasonally with most organic contaminants being higher in spring; likely induced by diet shifts but potentially also related to age differences. In addition, metal concentrations varied between organs (liver vs. kidney), age classes (juveniles vs. adults; generally higher in adults) as well as between males and females. Concentrations of chromium and nickel in kidney and liver in the northernmost mountain area were lower in 2017-2018 than in 1995-1997 and in three of four areas, lead concentrations were lower in 2017-2018 than in 2001. Current metal concentrations (except mercury) are not expected to negatively affect the voles. Concentrations of hexachlorobenzene displayed highest concentrations in 2001 in the mountains, while it was close to detection limit in 2017-2018. Likewise, PFOS concentrations decreased in the mountains and in south-central lowland forests between 2001 and 2017-2018. Our results suggest that season, age class and sex need to be considered when designing and interpreting results from monitoring programs targeting inorganic and organic contaminants in wildlife.

  • 34. Fisk, Aaron T.
    et al.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Wayland, Mark
    Kuzyk, Zou Zou
    Burgess, Neil
    Letcher, Robert
    Braune, Birgit
    Norstrom, Ross
    Blum, Susan Polischuk
    Sandau, Courtney
    Lie, Elisabeth
    Larsen, Hans Jørgen S.
    Skaare, Janneche Utne
    Muir, Derek C.G.
    An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife2005In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 351-352, p. 57-93Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Alves, Andreia
    Bui, Thuy
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Covaci, Adrian
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    de Wit, Cynthia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Human exposure to plasticizer chemicals – correlation between indirect and biomonitoring exposure estimates in a Norwegian human cohort2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Bui, Thuy
    Stockholm University.
    Xu, Fuchao
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Padilla-Sanchez, Juan A.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Haug, Line S.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Corrigendum to “Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCH” [Environ. Int. 112 (2018) 115–126]2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 143, p. 106071-106071, article id 106071Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bui, Tuong Thuy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Xu, Fuchao
    Covaci, Adrian
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCHManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters are substances mainly used as plasticizers in various applications. Some have been restricted and phased out due to their adverse health effects and ubiquitous presence, leading to the introduction of alternative plasticizers, such as DINCH. Using a comprehensive dataset from a Norwegian study population, human exposure to DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, DEHP, DINP, DIDP, DPHP and DINCH was assessed by measuring their presence in external exposure media, allowing an estimation of the total intake, as well as the relative importance of different uptake pathways. Intake via different uptake routes, in particular inhalation, dermal absorption, and oral uptake was estimated and total intake based on all uptake pathways was compared to the back-calculated intake from biomonitoring data. Hand wipe results were used to determine dermal uptake and compared to other exposure sources such as air, dust and personal care products. Results showed that the calculated total intakes were similar, but slightly higher than those based on biomonitoring methods by 1.1 to 2.8 times (median), indicating a good understanding of important uptake pathways. The relative importance of different uptake pathways was comparable to other studies, where inhalation was important for lower molecular weight phthalates, and negligible for the higher molecular weight phthalates and DINCH. Dietary intake was the predominant exposure route for all analyzed substances. The dermal uptake assessed by hand wipes was much lower (median up to 2000 times) than the sum of dermal uptake via air, dust and personal care products and unlikely represents an integrative dermal exposure. Dermal uptake is not a well-studied exposure pathway and several research gaps (e.g. absorption fractions) remain. Based on calculated intakes, the exposure risk for the Norwegian participants to the phthalates and DINCH was lower than health based limit values. Nevertheless, exposure to alternative plasticizers, such as DPHP and DINCH, is expected to increase in the future and continuous monitoring is required.

  • 38. Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    de Wit, Cynthia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Assessment of external routes for human exposure to phthalate plasticizers in indoor environment. A case study based on a Norwegian cohort of 61 adults in Oslo area.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Xu, Fuchao
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Padilla-Sanchez, Juan A.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Haug, Line S.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCH2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 112, p. 115-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters are substances mainly used as plasticizers in various applications. Some have been restricted and phased out due to their adverse health effects and ubiquitous presence, leading to the introduction of alternative plasticizers, such as DINCH. Using a comprehensive dataset from a Norwegian study population, human exposure to DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, DEHP, DINP, DIDP, DPHP and DINCH was assessed by measuring their presence in external exposure media, allowing an estimation of the total intake, as well as the relative importance of different uptake pathways. Intake via different uptake routes, in particular inhalation, dermal absorption, and oral uptake was estimated and total intake based on all uptake pathways was compared to the calculated intake from biomonitoring data. Hand wipe results were used to determine dermal uptake and compared to other exposure sources such as air, dust and personal care products. Results showed that the calculated total intakes were similar, but slightly higher than those based on biomonitoring methods by 1.1 to 3 times (median), indicating a good understanding of important uptake pathways. The relative importance of different uptake pathways was comparable to other studies, where inhalation was important for lower molecular weight phthalates, and negligible for the higher molecular weight phthalates and DINCH. Dietary intake was the predominant exposure route for all analyzed substances. Dermal uptake based on hand wipes was much lower (median up to 2000 times) than the total dermal uptake via air, dust and personal care products. Still, dermal uptake is not a well-studied exposure pathway and several research gaps (e.g. absorption fractions) remain. Based on calculated intakes, the exposure for the Norwegian participants to the phthalates and DINCH was lower than health based limit values. Nevertheless, exposure to alternative plasticizers, such as DPHP and DINCH, is expected to increase in the future and continuous monitoring is required.

  • 40. Harrad, Stuart
    et al.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa
    Bergh, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Björklund, Justina A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Covaci, Adrian
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    de Boer, Jacob
    Diamond, Miriam
    Huber, Sandra
    Leonards, Pim
    Mandalakis, Manolis
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Haug, Line Småstuen
    Thomsen, Cathrine
    Webster, Thomas F.
    Indoor Contamination with Hexabromocyclododecanes, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, and Perfluoroalkyl Compounds: An Important Exposure Pathway for People?2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 3221-3231Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review underlines the importance of indoor contamination as a pathway of human exposure to hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs). There is ample evidence of substantial contamination of indoor dust with these chemicals and that their concentrations in indoor air exceed substantially those outdoors. Studies examining the relationship between body burden and exposure via indoor dust are inconsistent while some indicate a link between body burdens and PBDE and HBCD exposure via dust ingestion, others find no correlation. Likewise, while concentrations in indoor dust and human tissues are both highly skewed, this does not necessarily imply causality. Evidence suggests exposure via dust ingestion is higher for toddlers than adults. Research priorities include identifying means of reducing indoor concentrations and indoor monitoring methods that provide the most ""biologically-relevant"" measures of exposure as well as monitoring a wider range of microenvironment categories. Other gaps include studies to improve understanding of the following: emission rates and mechanisms via which these contaminants migrate from products into indoor air and dust; relationships between indoor exposures and human body burdens; relevant physicochemical properties; the gastrointestinal uptake by humans of these chemicals from indoor dust; and human dust ingestion rates.

  • 41.
    Johansson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    de Wit,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lindberg, P.
    Congener patterns of PBDEs in eggs from peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) breeding in Sweden.2007In: Fourth International Worskhop on Brominated Flame Retardants BFR 2007, Amsterdam, the Netherlands: 24-27 April, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Johansson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lindberg, Peter
    Bignert, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    De Wit, Cynthia A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Polybrominated diphenyl ether congener patterns, hexabromocyclododecane, and brominated biphenyl 153 in eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) breeding in Sweden.2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous analyses of 52 peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs collected from two wild and one captive population in Sweden 1987 through 1999 were complemented by including additional polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE-35, -183, -184, -185, -196, -197, -203, and -207). In addition, 31 eggs not previously analyzed for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and BDE-209 were analyzed for these. Geometric mean concentrations of BPBDEs, HBCD, and the hexabrominated biphenyl (BB-153) were 3,100, 140, and 81 ng/g of lipid weight for the southern population; 2,500, 110, and 84 ng/g of lipid weight for the northern population; and 47, not detected, and 8 ng/g of lipid weight for the captive population. The BDE congener pattern was dominated by BDE-153, -99, and -100. The results were used to investigate whether a difference in PBDE congener pattern could be distinguished between the two wild populations of peregrine falcons due to different diets, as the southern population preys mainly on birds belonging to the terrestrial food chain while the northern population preys more on aquatic birds. A multivariate t-test showed a subtle but significant (p < 0.001) difference in PBDE congener pattern between the two populations. However, our hypothesis that higher-brominated congeners of PBDEs would be present to a greater extent in the terrestrial food chain was not supported by principal component analysis. The average brood size for individual females from the southern population decreased with increasing concentrations of IPBDE in the eggs (log-linear regression p < 0.01).

  • 43.
    Johansson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lindberg, Peter
    Bignert, Anders
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in Swedish Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinus) eggs2011In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 678-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A temporal trend study of brominated flame retardants in eggs from peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinus), a terrestrial bird of prey, is presented. Eggs collected between 1974 and 2007 were analyzed for the major constituents of the Penta-. Octa- and Decabromodiphenyl ether technical products (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -183 and -209), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Concentrations of BDE-99, -100, -153, -183, -209 and HBCD increased from 1974 to 2000. After the early 2000s. BDE-99, -100, -153 and -183 concentrations decreased, whereas BDE-209 and HBCD concentrations continued to increase. No temporal trend was detected for BDE-47. Rates of increase also differed, with BDE-99 and -100 increasing 3-fold between the 1980s and mid-1990s, and BDE-153 and -183 increasing approximately 10-fold during the same period. The average yearly increase was 15% and 11% for BDE-209 and HBCD, respectively, based on log-linear regression trends. There is a change in BDE congener patterns over time, with a shift from the predominance of BDE-99 and -47 until the late 1980s. to BDE-153 becoming the predominant congener later on. BFR temporal trends in Swedish peregrine falcon eggs reflect European BFR usage patterns.

  • 44. Kademoglou, Aikaterinin
    et al.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Collins, Chris
    de Wit, Cynthia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    In vitro bioaccessibility of plasticisers in indoor dust using simulated lung fluids2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45. Kademoglou, Katerina
    et al.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    Palm-Cousins, Anna
    Padilla-Sanchez, Juan Antonio
    Magnér, Jörgen
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Collin, Christopher D.
    In Vitro Inhalation Bioaccessibility of Phthalate Esters and Alternative Plasticizers Present in Indoor Dust Using Artificial Lung Fluids2018In: Environmental Science and Technology Letters, E-ISSN 2328-8930, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 329-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters (PEs) are used as plasticizers in consumer products. Their low migration stability has resulted in the classification of PEs as major indoor contaminants. Because of PE's ubiquity and adverse health effects on humans and especially children, non-phthalate alternative plasticizers have been introduced into the market. This is the first study of in vitro inhalation bioaccessibility of PEs (e.g., DMP, DEP, and DEHP) and alternative plasticizers (e.g., DEHT and DINCH) via indoor dust to assess inhalation as an alternative route of exposure. Two artificial lung fluids were used, mimicking two distinctively different pulmonary environments: (1) artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF, pH 4.5) representing the intracellular acidic lung fluid inhaled particle contact after phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages and (2) Gamble's solution (pH 7.4), the extracellular healthy fluid for deep lung deposition of dust. DMP and DEP were highly bioaccessible (>75%), whereas highly hydrophobic compounds such as DEHP, DINCH, and DEHT were <5% bioaccessible via both artificial lung fluids. Our findings show that the inhalation bioaccessibility of PEs is primarily governed by their hydrophobicity and water solubility. Further research is necessary to develop unified and biologically relevant inhalation bioaccessibility tests, employed as part of human risk assessment of volatile and semivolatile organic pollutants.

  • 46.
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    de Wit, Cynthia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thomas, G.O.
    Sweetman, A.J.
    Jones, K.C.
    Fate of Higher Brominated PBDEs in Lactating Cows2007In: Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 41, p. 417-423Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    De Wit, Cynthia A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thomas, Gareth O
    Sweetman, Andrew J
    Jones, Kevin C
    A mass balance of tri-hexabrominated diphenyl ethers in lactating cows.2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 2602-2607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beef and dairy products can be important vectors of human exposure to polybrominated diphenylethers (BDEs), and hence an understanding of BDE transfer from feed to cows' milk and tissue is important for BDE exposure assessment The fate of tri- to hexaBDEs in lactating cows exposed to a naturally contaminated diet was studied by analyzing feed, feces, and milk samples from a mass balance study. Tissue distribution was studied in one cowslaughtered afterthe experiment The carryover rates from feed to milk ranged from 0.15 to 0.35 for the major congeners. Lower values were observed for several of the tetrabrominated congeners, and this was attributed to metabolism. The dietary absorption efficiency decreased with increasing octanol-water partition coefficient of the BDE congener. The absorption behavior was consistent with a model based on chemical lipophilicity, but agreed less well with a model based on effective molecular diameter, and it violated Lipinski's "rule of 5". The lipid normalized concentrations were similar in all tissues analyzed including liver and milk, suggesting that tissue distribution is governed by partitioning into lipids. Overall, the behavior of the tri- to hexaBDEs was consistent with that observed for other classes of halogenated aromatic contaminants such as PCBs and PCDD/Fs, but it differed markedly from the behavior of the hepta- decaBDEs.

  • 48. Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Spaan, Kyra M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Lange, Frank Thomas
    Nguyen, Minh Anh
    Plassmann, Merle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Scheurer, Marco
    Awad, Raed
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Can determination of extractable organofluorine (EOF) be standardized? First interlaboratory comparisons of EOF and fluorine mass balance in sludge and water matrices2021In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high proportion of unidentified extractable organofluorine (EOF) observed globally in humans and the environment indicates widespread occurrence of unknown per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). However, efforts to standardize or assess the reproducibility of EOF methods are currently lacking. Here we present the first EOF interlaboratory comparison in water and sludge. Three participants (four organizations) analyzed unfortified and PFAS-fortified ultrapure water, two unfortified groundwater samples, unfortified wastewater treatment plant effluent and sludge, and an unfortified groundwater extract. Participants adopted common sample handling strategies and target lists for EOF mass balance but used in-house combustion ion-chromatography (CIC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. EOF accuracy ranged from 85-101% and 76-109% for the 60 and 334 ng L-1 fluorine (F) - fortified water samples, respectively, with between-laboratory variation of 9-19%, and within-laboratory variation of 3-27%. In unfortified sludge and aqueous samples, between-laboratory variation ranged from 21-37%. The contribution from sum concentrations of 16 individual PFAS ( n-ary sumation PFAS-16) to EOF ranged from 2.2-60% but extended analysis showed that other targets were prevalent, in particular ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (e.g. trifluoroacetic acid) in aqueous samples and perfluoroalkyl acid-precursors (e.g. polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters) in sludge. The EOF-CIC method demonstrated promising accuracy, robustness and reporting limits but poor extraction efficiency was observed for some targets (e.g. trifluoroacetic acid).

  • 49. Land, Magnus
    et al.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Herzke, Dorte
    Johansson, Jana H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Alberta, Canada.
    What is the effect of phasing out long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in the environment? A systematic review2018In: Environmental Evidence, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 7, no 1, article id UNSP 4Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a concern that continued emissions of man-made per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may cause environmental and human health effects. Now widespread in human populations and in the environment, several PFASs are also present in remote regions of the world, but the environmental transport and fate of PFASs are not well understood. Phasing out the manufacture of some types of PFASs started in 2000 and further regulatory and voluntary actions have followed. The objective of this review is to understand the effects of these actions on global scale PFAS concentrations. Methods: Searches for primary research studies reporting on temporal variations of PFAS concentrations were performed in bibliographic databases, on the internet, through stakeholder contacts and in review bibliographies. No time, document type, language or geographical constraints were applied in the searches. Relevant subjects included human and environmental samples. Two authors screened all retrieved articles. Dual screening of 10% of the articles was performed at title/abstract and full-text levels by all authors. Kappa tests were used to test consistency. Relevant articles were critically appraised by four reviewers, with double checking of 20% of the articles by a second reviewer. Meta-analysis of included temporal trends was considered but judged to not be appropriate. The trends were therefore discussed in a narrative synthesis. Results: Available evidence suggests that human concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) generally are declining, while previously increasing concentrations of perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) have begun to level off. Rapid declines for PFOS-precursors (e.g. perfluorooctane sulfonamide, FOSA) have also been consistently observed in human studies. In contrast, limited data indicate that human concentrations of PFOS and PFOA are increasing in China where the production of these substances has increased. Human concentrations of longer-chained perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 9-14 carbon atoms are generally increasing or show insignificant trends with too low power to detect a trend. For abiotic and biological environmental samples there are no clear patterns of declining trends. Most substances show mixed results, and a majority of the trends are insignificant with low power to detect a trend. Conclusions: For electrochemically derived PFASs, including PFOS and PFOA, most human studies in North America and Europe show consistent statistically significant declines. This contrasts with findings in wildlife and in abiotic environmental samples, suggesting that declining PFOS, PFOS-precursor and PFOA concentrations in humans likely resulted from removal of certain PFASs from commercial products including paper and board used in food packaging. Increasing concentrations of long-chain PFCAs in most matrices, and in most regions, is likely due to increased use of alternative PFASs. Continued temporal trend monitoring in the environment with well-designed studies with high statistical power are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of past and continuing regulatory mitigation measures. For humans, more temporal trend studies are needed in regions where manufacturing is most intense, as the one human study available in China is much different than in North America or Europe.

  • 50. Land, Magnus
    et al.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Herzke, Dorte
    Johansson, Jana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    What is the effect of phasing out long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in the environment? A systematic review protocol2015In: Environmental Evidence, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 3Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There is a growing concern in Sweden and elsewhere that continued emissions of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may cause environmental as well as human health effects. PFASs are a broad class of man-made substances that have been produced and used in both commercial products and industrial processes for more than 60 years. Although the production and use of some PFASs has been phased-out in some parts of the world, it is not known what effect these actions to date have had on PFAS concentrations in the environment. Owing to the wide diversity of PFASs, it is difficult to generalize their properties, environmental fate and production histories. However, the strength and stability of the C-F bond renders the perfluoroalkyl moieties resistant to heat and environmental degradation. Several PFASs are now occurring even in very remote areas in large parts of the world, but the environmental transport and fate of substances within this group is not well understood. A systematic review may be able to determine whether the concentrations of these substances in different environments are changing in any particular direction with time, and whether the phase-outs have had any effects on the concentration trends.

    Methods

    Searches for primary research studies reporting on temporal variations of PFAS concentrations in the environment will be performed in the scientific literature as well as in other reports. Relevant samples include both abiotic and biological samples including humans. No particular time, document type, language or geographical constraints will be applied. Two authors will screen all retrieved articles. Double screening of about 10% of the articles will be performed by all authors at both title/abstract and full-text levels. Kappa tests will be used to test if the screening is consistent. Relevant articles will be critically appraised by four authors (double checking of 25% of the articles). Quality assessment will focus on selection bias, dating of samples, sample integrity and analytical procedures. Data synthesis will be based on statistical analysis of temporal concentration trends.

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