Endre søk
Begrens søket
12 1 - 50 of 71
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1. Achieng, Therezah
    et al.
    Maciejewski, Kristine
    Dyer, Michelle
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Using a Social-ecological Regime Shift Approach to Understand the Transition from Livestock to Game Farming in the Eastern Cape, South Africa2020Inngår i: Land, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 9, nr 4, artikkel-id 97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the shift in land use from livestock farming to game farming in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, from a social-ecological regime shift perspective. A regime shift can be defined as a large, persistent change in the structure and function of the intertwined social and ecological components of a landscape. This research focused on the Amakhala game reserve as a case study to understand how the shift affected the provision of ecosystem services and human wellbeing. We used remote sensing techniques to quantify changes in vegetation and found evidence of vegetation recovery following the shift. We then conducted interviews with both landowners and farmworkers and used participatory mapping to understand their perceptions of the main drivers and social-ecological impacts of the shift in land use. Social narratives revealed stark differences in different stakeholders' perceptions, highlighting that the change in land use had varied implications for, and were perceived differently by, different stakeholders. Farmworkers emphasized changes in social structures that weakened community bonds and erased valued connections to the land. At the same time, they increased employment of women, skills development, and increased wages as benefits of the new game farming regime. Landowners, on the other hand, indicated financial gains from the land use change. The transition therefore resulted in trade-offs that surfaced as social, economic, and cultural losses and gains. These changes, especially in social relationships and community structures, have implications for resilience and possible future pathways of development in the region.

  • 2. Archer, E.
    et al.
    Dziba, L. E.
    Mulongoy, K. J.
    Maoela, M. A.
    Walters, M.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Salem, M-C Cormier
    DeClerck, F.
    Diaw, M. C.
    Dunham, A. E.
    Failler, P.
    Gordon, C.
    Harhash, K. A.
    Kasisi, R.
    Kizito, F.
    Nyingi, W. D.
    Oguge, N.
    Osman-Elasha, B.
    Stringer, L. C.
    de Morais, L. Tito
    Assogbadjo, A.
    Egoh, B. N.
    Halmy, M. W.
    Heubach, K.
    Mensah, A.
    Pereira, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of London, United Kingdom.
    Sitas, N.
    Biodiversity and ecosystem services on the African continent - What is changing, and what are our options?2021Inngår i: Environmental Development, ISSN 2211-4645, E-ISSN 2211-4653, Vol. 37, artikkel-id 100558Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the world, biodiversity and nature's contributions to people are under threat, with clear changes evident. Biodiversity and ecosystem services have particular value in Africa- yet they are negatively impacted by a range of drivers, including land use and climate change. In this communication, we show evidence of changing biodiversity and ecosystem services in Africa, as well as the current most significant drivers of change. We then consider five plausible futures for the African continent, each underlain by differing assumptions. In three out of the five futures under consideration, negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services are likely to persist. Those two plausible futures prioritizing environment and sustainability, however, are shown as the most likely paths to achieving long term development objectives without compromising the continent's biodiversity and ecosystem services. Such a finding shows clearly that achievement of such objectives cannot be separated from full recognition of the value of such services.

  • 3. Bennett, Elena M.
    et al.
    Solan, Martin
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    McPhearson, Timon
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Pereira, Laura
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara
    Biermann, Frank
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Ellis, Erle C.
    Hichert, Tanja
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lahsen, Myanna
    Milkoreit, Manjana
    López, Berta Martin
    Nicholas, Kimberly A.
    Preiser, Rika
    Vince, Gaia
    Vervoort, Joost M.
    Xu, Jianchu
    Bright spots: seeds of a good Anthropocene2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 14, nr 8, s. 441-448Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The scale, rate, and intensity of humans' environmental impact has engendered broad discussion about how to find plausible pathways of development that hold the most promise for fostering a better future in the Anthropocene. However, the dominance of dystopian visions of irreversible environmental degradation and societal collapse, along with overly optimistic utopias and business-as-usual scenarios that lack insight and innovation, frustrate progress. Here, we present a novel approach to thinking about the future that builds on experiences drawn from a diversity of practices, worldviews, values, and regions that could accelerate the adoption of pathways to transformative change (change that goes beyond incremental improvements). Using an analysis of 100 initiatives, or seeds of a good Anthropocene, we find that emphasizing hopeful elements of existing practice offers the opportunity to: (1) understand the values and features that constitute a good Anthropocene, (2) determine the processes that lead to the emergence and growth of initiatives that fundamentally change human-environmental relationships, and (3) generate creative, bottom-up scenarios that feature well-articulated pathways toward a more positive future.

  • 4. Biggs, Duan
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette (Oonsie)
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dakos, Vasilis
    Scholes, Robert J.
    Schoon, Michael
    Are We Entering an Era of Concatenated Global Crises?2011Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 10-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An increase in the frequency and intensity of environmental crises associated with accelerating human-induced global change is of substantial concern to policy makers. The potential impacts, especially on the poor, are exacerbated in an increasingly connected world that enables the emergence of crises that are coupled in time and space. We discuss two factors that can interact to contribute to such an increased concatenation of crises: (1) the increasing strength of global vs. local drivers of change, so that changes become increasingly synchronized; and (2) unprecedented potential for the propagation of crises, and an enhanced risk of management interventions in one region becoming drivers elsewhere, because of increased connectivity. We discuss the oil-food-financial crisis of 2007 to 2008 as an example of a concatenated crisis with origin and ultimate impacts in far removed parts of the globe. The potential for a future of concatenated shocks requires adaptations in science and governance including (a) an increased tolerance of uncertainty and surprise, (b) strengthening capacity for early detection and response to shocks, and (c) flexibility in response to enable adaptation and learning.

  • 5.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Regime Shifts2011Inngår i: Sourcebook in Theoretical Ecology / [ed] A Hastings, L Gross, University of California Press, 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Clements, Hayley S.
    Cumming, Graeme S.
    Cundill, Georgina
    de Vos, Alta
    Hamann, Maike
    Luvuno, Linda
    Roux, Dirk J.
    Selomane, Odirilwe
    Blanchard, Ryan
    Cockburn, Jessica
    Dziba, Luthando
    Esler, Karen J.
    Fabricius, Christo
    Henriksson, Rebecka
    Kotschy, Karen
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Masterson, Vanessa Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Rhodes University, South Africa.
    Nel, Jeanne L.
    O'Farrell, Patrick
    Palmer, Carolyn G.
    Pereira, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa; Utrecht University, The Netherlands; University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Pollard, Sharon
    Preiser, Rika
    Scholes, Robert J.
    Shackleton, Charlie
    Shackleton, Sheona
    Sitas, Nadia
    Slingsby, Jasper A.
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Social-ecological change: insights from the Southern African Program on Ecosystem Change and Society2022Inngår i: Ecosystems and People, ISSN 2639-5908, E-ISSN 2639-5916, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 447-468Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social-ecological systems (SES) research has emerged as an important area of sustainability science, informing and supporting pressing issues of transformation towards more sustainable, just and equitable futures. To date, much SES research has been done in or from the Global North, where the challenges and contexts for supporting sustainability transformations are substantially different from the Global South. This paper synthesises emerging insights on SES dynamics that can inform actions and advance research to support sustainability transformations specifically in the southern African context. The paper draws on work linked to members of the Southern African Program on Ecosystem Change and Society (SAPECS), a leading SES research network in the region, synthesizing key insights with respect to the five core themes of SAPECS: (i) transdisciplinary and engaged research, (ii) ecosystem services and human well-being, (iii) governance institutions and management practices, (iv) spatial relationships and cross-scale connections, and (v) regime shifts, traps and transformations. For each theme, we focus on insights that are particularly novel, interesting or important in the southern African context, and reflect on key research gaps and emerging frontiers for SES research in the region going forward. Such place-based insights are important for understanding the variation in SES dynamics around the world, and are crucial for informing a context-sensitive global agenda to foster sustainability transformations at local to global scales.

  • 7.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Engström, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Walker, Brian
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Sustainable Ecosystems, Australia.
    General Resilience to Cope with Extreme Events2012Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 4, nr 12, s. 3248-3259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     Resilience to specified kinds of disasters is an active area of research and practice. However, rare or unprecedented disturbances that are unusually intense or extensive require a more broad-spectrum type of resilience. General resilience is the capacity of social-ecological systems to adapt or transform in response to unfamiliar, unexpected and extreme shocks. Conditions that enable general resilience include diversity, modularity, openness, reserves, feedbacks, nestedness, monitoring, leadership, and trust. Processes for building general resilience are an emerging and crucially important area of research.

  • 8.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Diebel, Matthew W.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Gilroy, David
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Kamarainen, Amy M.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Kornis, Matthew S.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Preston, Nicholas D
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Schmitz, Jennifer E.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Uejio, Christopher K.
    Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Van De Bogert, Matthew C.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Weidel, Brian C.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    West, Paul C.
    The Nature Conservancy, Madison.
    Zaks, David PM.
    Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Preparing for the future: teaching scenario planning at the graduate level2010Inngår i: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 267-273Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Are environmental science students developing the mindsets and obtaining the tools needed to help address the considerable challenges posed by the 21st century? Today's major environmental issues are characterized by high-stakes decisions and high levels of uncertainty. Although traditional scientific approaches are valuable, contemporary environmental issues also require new tools and new ways of thinking. We provide an example of how such new, or “post-normal”, approaches have been taught at the graduate level, through practical application of scenario planning. Surveyed students reported that they found the scenario planning course highly stimulating, thought-provoking, and inspiring. Key learning points included recognizing the need for multiple points of view when considering complex environmental issues, and better appreciating the pervasiveness of uncertainty. Collaborating with non-academic stakeholders was also particularly helpful. Most students left the course feeling more positive about the potential contribution they can make in addressing the environmental challenges that society faces.

    Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/080075

  • 9.
    Biggs, Reinette Oonsie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stanebosch University, South Africa.
    Peterson, Gary D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rocha, Juan Carlos
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Regime Shifts Database: A Framework for Analyzing Regime Shifts in Social-Ecological SystemsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the Regime Shifts Database (RSDB), a new online, open-access database that uses a novel consistent framework to systematically analyze regime shifts based on their impacts, key drivers, underlying feedbacks, and management options. The database currently contains 27 generic types of regime shifts, and over 300 specific case studies of a variety of regime shifts. These regime shifts occur across diverse types of systems and are driven by many different types of processes. Besides impacting provisioning and regulating services, our work shows that regime shifts substantially impact cultural and aesthetic ecosystem services. We found that social-ecological feedbacks are difficult to characterize and more work is needed to develop new tools and approaches to better understand social-ecological regime shifts. We hope that the database will stimulate further research on regime shifts and make available information that can be used in management, planning and assessment. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    The Regime Shift Database
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    appendix
  • 10.
    Biggs, Reinette (Oonsie)
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Rhode, Clint
    Archibald, Sally
    Kunene, Lucky Makhosini
    Mutanga, Shingirirai S.
    Nkuna, Nghamula
    Ocholla, Peter Omondi
    Phadima, Lehlohonolo Joe
    Strategies for managing complex social-ecological systems in the face of uncertainty: examples from South Africa and beyond2015Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving our ability to manage complex, rapidly changing social-ecological systems is one of the defining challenges of the 21st century. This is particularly crucial if large-scale poverty alleviation is to be secured without undermining the capacity of the environment to support future generations. To address this challenge, strategies that enable judicious management of socialecological systems in the face of substantive uncertainty are needed. Several such strategies are emerging from the developing body of work on complexity and resilience. We identify and discuss four strategies, providing practical examples of how each strategy has been applied in innovative ways to manage turbulent social-ecological change in South Africa and the broader region: (1) employ adaptive management or comanagement, (2) engage and integrate different perspectives, (3) facilitate self-organization, and (4) set safe boundaries to avoid system thresholds. Through these examples we aim to contribute a basis for further theoretical development, new teaching examples, and inspiration for developing innovative new management strategies in other regions that can help address the considerable sustainability challenges facing society globally.

  • 11.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rocha, Juan C.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    The Regime Shifts Database: a framework for analyzing regime shifts in social-ecological systems2018Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, nr 3, artikkel-id 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Regime shifts, i.e., large, persistent, and usually unexpected changes in ecosystems and social-ecological systems, can have major impacts on ecosystem services, and consequently, on human well-being. However, the vulnerability of different regions to various regime shifts is largely unknown because evidence for the existence of regime shifts in different ecosystems and parts of the world is scattered and highly uneven. Furthermore, research tends to focus on individual regime shifts rather than comparisons across regime shifts, limiting the potential for identifying common drivers that could reduce the risk of multiple regime shifts simultaneously. Here, we introduce the Regime Shifts Database, an open-access database that systematically synthesizes information on social-ecological regime shifts across a wide range of systems using a consistent, comparative framework, providing a wide-ranging information resource for environmental planning, assessment, research, and teaching initiatives. The database currently contains 28 generic types of regime shifts and > 300 specific case studies. Each entry provides a literature-based synthesis of the key drivers and feedbacks underlying the regime shift, as well as impacts on ecosystem services and human well-being, and possible management options. Across the 28 regime shifts, climate change and agriculture-related activities are the most prominent among a wide range of drivers. Biodiversity, fisheries, and aquatic ecosystems are particularly widely affected, as are key aspects of human well-being, including livelihoods, food and nutrition, and an array of cultural ecosystem services. We hope that the database will stimulate further research and teaching on regime shifts that can inform policy and practice and ultimately enhance our collective ability to manage and govern large, abrupt, systemic changes in the Anthropocene.

  • 12.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Blanchard, Ryan
    Clements, Hayley
    Cockburn, Jessica
    Cumming, Graeme S.
    Cundill, Georgina
    de Vos, Alta
    Dziba, Luthando
    Esler, Karen J.
    Fabricius, Christo
    Hamann, Maike
    Henriksson, Rebecka
    Kotschy, Karen
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Bolincentret för klimatforskning (tills m KTH & SMHI).
    Luvuno, Linda
    Masterson, Vanessa Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nel, Jeanne L.
    O'Farrell, Patrick
    Palmer, Carolyn G.
    Pereira, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Pollard, Sharon
    Preiser, Rika
    Roux, Dirk J.
    Scholes, Robert J.
    Selomane, Odirilwe
    Shackleton, Charlie
    Shackleton, Sheona
    Sitas, Nadia
    Slingsby, Jasper A.
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Tengo, Maria
    The Southern African Program on Ecosystem Change and Society: an emergent community of practice2023Inngår i: Ecosystems and People, ISSN 2639-5908, E-ISSN 2639-5916, Vol. 19, nr 1, artikkel-id 2150317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability-focused research networks and communities of practice have emerged as a key response and strategy to build capacity and knowledge to support transformation towards more sustainable, just and equitable futures. This paper synthesises insights from the development of a community of practice on social-ecological systems (SES) research in southern Africa over the past decade, linked to the international Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS). This community consists of a network of researchers who carry out place-based SES research in the southern African region. They interact through various cross-cutting working groups and also host a variety of public colloquia and student and practitioner training events. Known as the Southern African Program on Ecosystem Change and Society (SAPECS), its core objectives are to: (1) derive new approaches and empirical insights on SES dynamics in the southern African context; (2) have a tangible impact by mainstreaming knowledge into policy and practice; and (3) grow the community of practice engaged in SES research and governance, including researchers, students and practitioners. This paper reflects on experiences in building the SAPECS community, with the aim of supporting the development of similar networks elsewhere in the world, particularly in the Global South.

  • 13.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germany.
    Biggs, Duan
    Bohensky, Erin L.
    BurnSilver, Shauna
    Cundill, Georgina
    Dakos, Vasilis
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
    Evans, Louisa S.
    Kotschy, Karen
    Leitch, Anne M.
    Meek, Chanda
    Quinlan, Allyson
    Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara
    Robards, Martin D.
    Schoon, Michael L.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    West, Paul C.
    Toward Principles for Enhancing the Resilience of Ecosystem Services2012Inngår i: Annual Review Environment and Resources, ISSN 1543-5938, E-ISSN 1545-2050, Vol. 37, s. 421-448Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancing the resilience of ecosystem services (ES) that underpin human well-being is critical for meeting current and future societal needs, and requires specific governance and management policies. Using the literature, we identify seven generic policy-relevant principles for enhancing the resilience of desired ES in the face of disturbance and ongoing change in social-ecological systems (SES). These principles are (P1) maintain diversity and redundancy, (P2) manage connectivity, (P3) manage slow variables and feedbacks, (P4) foster an understanding of SES as complex adaptive systems (CAS), (P5) encourage learning and experimentation, (P6) broaden participation, and (P7) promote polycentric governance systems. We briefly define each principle, review how and when it enhances the resilience of ES, and conclude with major research gaps. In practice, the principles often co-occur and are highly interdependent. Key future needs are to better understand these interdependencies and to operationalize and apply the principles in different policy and management contexts.

  • 14.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Westley, Frances R.
    University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
    Navigating the Back Loop: Fostering Social Innovation and Transformation in Ecosystem Management2010Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 9-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Addressing the environmental challenges of the 21st century requires substantial changes to the way modern society views and manages ecosystems. In particular, many authors contend that fundamental transformation of the largely sectoral, expert-centered ecosystem-management institutions of modern, Western societies is needed. There is increasing agreement that more adaptive, integrated, collaborative ecosystem-management approaches, interlinked at multiple scales, would improve society's ability to sustainably manage complex social-ecological systems. Therefore, understanding processes of transformation, and factors that may enable transformation in ecosystem management, has become an active research area. We explore ecosystem-management transformations using a social-innovation framework. Based on three local-level case studies of transformation in freshwater management, we provide a pilot assessment of factors that may promote the emergence and adoption of integrated, collaborative ecosystem-management approaches. Our analysis suggests that ongoing environmental degradation, increasing environmental awareness, and shifting societal values are creating fertile ground for the emergence and adoption of new approaches to ecosystem management. Based on the case studies we examined, we suggest that initiatives that foster environmental awareness and attachment to local ecosystems, develop capacity for social entrepreneurship in the environmental arena, promote dialogue between key stakeholders, and provide institutional support to new institutions may facilitate the emergence of integrated, collaborative ecosystem-management approaches.

  • 15. Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    et al.
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Kofinas, Gary P.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Abel, Nick
    Clark, William C.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Smith, D. Mark Stafford
    Walker, Brian
    Young, Oran R.
    Berkes, Fikret
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Grove, J. Morgan
    Naylor, Rosamond L.
    Pinkerton, Evelyn
    Steffen, Will
    Swanson, Frederick J.
    Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet2010Inngår i: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 241-249Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster the social ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses; focusing on proactive policies that shape change; and avoiding or escaping unsustainable social ecological traps. As we discuss here, all social ecological systems are vulnerable to recent and projected changes but have sources of adaptive capacity and resilience that can sustain ecosystem services and human well-being through active ecosystem stewardship.

  • 16. Chapin III, F. Stuart
    et al.
    Weber, Elke U.
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    van den Bergh, Jeroen
    Adger, W. Neil
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Polasky, Stephen
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Scheffer, Marten
    Segerson, Kathleen
    Anderies, John M.
    Barrett, Scott
    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Fischer, Joern
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Levin, Simon A.
    Shogren, Jason F.
    Walker, Brian
    Wilen, James
    de Zeeuw, Aart
    Earth stewardship: Shaping a sustainable future through interacting policy and norm shifts2022Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, nr 9, s. 1907-1920Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformation toward a sustainable future requires an earth stewardship approach to shift society from its current goal of increasing material wealth to a vision of sustaining built, natural, human, and social capital—equitably distributed across society, within and among nations. Widespread concern about earth’s current trajectory and support for actions that would foster more sustainable pathways suggests potential social tipping points in public demand for an earth stewardship vision. Here, we draw on empirical studies and theory to show that movement toward a stewardship vision can be facilitated by changes in either policy incentives or social norms. Our novel contribution is to point out that both norms and incentives must change and can do so interactively. This can be facilitated through leverage points and complementarities across policy areas, based on values, system design, and agency. Potential catalysts include novel democratic institutions and engagement of non-governmental actors, such as businesses, civic leaders, and social movements as agents for redistribution of power. Because no single intervention will transform the world, a key challenge is to align actions to be synergistic, persistent, and scalable.

  • 17. Chapin, III F.S.
    et al.
    Kofinas, G.P.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Carpenter, S.R.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Abel, N
    Biggs, Reinette Oonsie
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Naylor, R.L
    Pinkerton, E
    Stafford-Smith, D.M.
    Steffen, W.L.
    Walker, B.H.
    Young, O.R
    Resilience-based stewardship: Strategies for navigating sustainable pathways in a changing world.2009Inngår i: Principles of ecosystem stewardship:: Resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world / [ed] F.S. Chapin, III, G.P. Kofinas and C. Folke, New York: Springer Verlag , 2009, s. 319-337Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerated global changes in climate, environment, and social–ecological systems demand a transformation in human perceptions of our place in nature and patterns of resource use. The biology and culture of Homo sapiens evolved for about 95% of our species’ history in hunting-and-gathering societies before the emergence of settled agriculture. We have lived in complex societies for about 3%, and in industrial societies using fossil fuels for about 0.1% of our history. The pace of cultural evolution, including governance arrangements and resource-use patterns, appears insufficient to adjust to the rate and magnitude of technological innovations, human population increases, and environmental impacts that have occurred. Many of these changes are accelerating, causing unsustainable exploitation of ecosystems, including many boreal and tropical forests, drylands, and marine fisheries. The net effect has been serious degradation of the planet’s life-support system on which societal development ultimately depends (see Chapters 2 and 14.

  • 18. Clements, Harley S.
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Dalerum, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. University of Pretoria, South Africa; Biodiversity Research Institute (CSIC-UO-PA), Spain.
    Woodhouse, Galena M.
    The bii4africa dataset of faunal and floral population intactness estimates across Africa's major land uses2024Inngår i: Scientific data, ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id 191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sub-Saharan Africa is under-represented in global biodiversity datasets, particularly regarding the impact of land use on species' population abundances. Drawing on recent advances in expert elicitation to ensure data consistency, 200 experts were convened using a modified-Delphi process to estimate 'intactness scores': the remaining proportion of an 'intact' reference population of a species group in a particular land use, on a scale from 0 (no remaining individuals) to 1 (same abundance as the reference) and, in rare cases, to 2 (populations that thrive in human-modified landscapes). The resulting bii4africa dataset contains intactness scores representing terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods: ±5,400 amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals) and vascular plants (±45,000 forbs, graminoids, trees, shrubs) in sub-Saharan Africa across the region's major land uses (urban, cropland, rangeland, plantation, protected, etc.) and intensities (e.g., large-scale vs smallholder cropland). This dataset was co-produced as part of the Biodiversity Intactness Index for Africa Project. Additional uses include assessing ecosystem condition; rectifying geographic/taxonomic biases in global biodiversity indicators and maps; and informing the Red List of Ecosystems.

  • 19. Clements, Hayley S.
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Cumming, Graeme S.
    Cross-scale and social-ecological changes constitute main threats to private land conservation in South Africa2020Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 274, artikkel-id 111235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conserving biodiversity in the long term will depend in part on the capacity of Protected Areas (PAs) to cope with cross-scale, social-ecological disturbances and changes, which are becoming more frequent in a highly connected world. Direct threats to biodiversity within PAs and their interactions with broader-scale threats are both likely to vary with PA spatial and management characteristics (e.g., location, dependence on ecotourism revenues, governmental support). Private Land Conservation Areas (PLCAs) are interesting case study systems for assessing cross-scale threats to PAs and their determinants. Despite the growing number of PLCAs around the world, there is considerable uncertainty regarding the long-term capacity of these privately owned areas to conserve biodiversity. Their potential impermanence is commonly raised as a key concern. To better understand the threats to which different types of PLCAs are likely to be vulnerable, we asked 112 PLCA landholders in South Africa what they perceived as the top threats to their PLCAs. Landowners identified direct threats to the biodiversity within their PLCAs (e.g., poaching, extreme weather, inappropriate fire regimes, alien species) as well as describing broader socio-economic threats (e.g., regional crime, national legislation and politics, global economic recessions), which were noted to interact across scales. We found support for the hypothesis that patterns in the perceived multi-scale threats to a PLCA correspond with its management and spatial characteristics, including its remoteness, dependence on ecotourism or hunting revenues, and richness of megafaunal species. Understanding the threats to which different PLCAs may be vulnerable is useful for developing more nuanced, targeted strategies to build PLCA resilience to these threats (for example, by strengthening the capacity of self-funded PLCAs to cope with the threat of economic downturns through more innovative financial instruments or diversified revenue streams). Our findings highlight the importance of considering interactions between broad-scale socio-economic changes and direct threats to biodiversity, which can influence the resilience of PAs in ways that are not anticipated by more traditional, discipline-specific consideration of direct threats to the biodiversity within their boundaries.

  • 20. de Vos, Alta
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Preiser, Rika
    Methods for understanding social-ecological systems: a review of place-based studies2019Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 24, nr 4, artikkel-id 16Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, social-ecological systems (SES) have emerged as a prominent analytical framing with which to investigate pressing sustainability issues associated with the Anthropocene era. Despite the growth of SES research, the lack of a delineated set of methods commonly contributes to disorientation for those entering into a field where methodological pluralism is the norm. We conduct a review of SES research, focusing particularly on methods used in this field. Our results reflect the rapid growth in SES research relative to other publications in relevant subject areas, and suggest a maturation of the field. Whilst institutions investigating SES have been mostly based in the global north, focal SES has been more globally distributed, although key regions, especially island regions, remain poorly studied. Key problems addressed in the studies related to policy, trade, conservation, adaptation, land use change, water, forests, sustainability, urban problems, and governance and institutions. We identified 311 methods, which we grouped into 27 method categories that can serve as a guide to SES research methods for newcomers to the field. We also performed an exploratory assessment of the ability of these methods to account for key features of SES as complex adaptive systems. We found that methods do better at accounting for the relational and context-dependent nature of SES, and least well with complex causality. Our study highlights the plurality of methods used in SES research, and helps highlight key areas in need of further methodological development.

  • 21. Fischer, Joern
    et al.
    Gardner, Toby A.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Balvanera, Patricia
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Carpenter, Stephen
    Daw, Tim
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Hill, Rosemary
    Hughes, Terry P.
    Luthe, Tobias
    Maass, Manuel
    Meacham, Megan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Seppelt, Ralf
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Tenhunen, John
    Advancing sustainability through mainstreaming a social–ecological systems perspective2015Inngår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 14, s. 144-149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of social-ecological systems is useful for understanding the interlinked dynamics of environmental and societal change. The concept has helped facilitate: (1) increased recognition of the dependence of humanity on ecosystems; (2) improved collaboration across disciplines, and between science and society; (3) increased methodological pluralism leading to improved systems understanding; and (4) major policy frameworks considering social-ecological interactions. Despite these advances, the potential of a social-ecological systems perspective to improve sustainability outcomes has not been fully realized. Key priorities are to: (1) better understand and govern social-ecological interactions between regions; (2) pay greater attention to long-term drivers; (3) better understand the interactions among power relations, justice, and ecosystem stewardship; and (4) develop a stronger science-society interface.

  • 22.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden,.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-ecological resilience and biosphere-based sustainability science2016Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, nr 3, artikkel-id 41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere. The focus is shifting from the environment as externality to the biosphere as precondition for social justice, economic development, and sustainability. In this article, we exemplify the intertwined nature of social-ecological systems and emphasize that they operate within, and as embedded parts of the biosphere and as such coevolve with and depend on it. We regard social-ecological systems as complex adaptive systems and use a social-ecological resilience approach as a lens to address and understand their dynamics. We raise the challenge of stewardship of development in concert with the biosphere for people in diverse contexts and places as critical for long-term sustainability and dignity in human relations. Biosphere stewardship is essential, in the globalized world of interactions with the Earth system, to sustain and enhance our life-supporting environment for human well-being and future human development on Earth, hence, the need to reconnect development to the biosphere foundation and the need for a biosphere-based sustainability science.

  • 23. Gaertner, Mirijam
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Te Beest, Mariska
    Hui, Cang
    Molofsky, Jane
    Richardson, David M.
    Invasive plants as drivers of regime shifts: identifying high-priority invaders that alter feedback relationships2014Inngår i: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 20, nr 7, s. 733-744Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim A major challenge for invasion ecology is to identify high-impact invaders to guide prioritization of management interventions. We argue that species with the potential to cause regime shifts (altered states of ecosystem structure and function that are difficult or impossible to reverse) should be prioritized. These are species that modify ecosystems in ways that enhance their own persistence and suppress that of native species through reinforcing feedback processes. Methods Using both systems analysis and meta-analysis approaches, we synthesized changes to ecosystems caused by 173 invasive plant species. For the systems analysis, we examined published studies of impacts of invasive plants to determine which presented evidence consistent with a reinforcement of feedback processes. For the meta-analysis, we calculated the effect size ratio between standardized changes in recipient ecosystem and in the status of introduced species as an indication of a reinforcing feedback in particular species-environment combinations. The systems analysis approach allowed us to conceptualize regime shifts in invader-dominated landscapes and to estimate the likelihood of such changes occurring. The meta-analysis allowed us to quantitatively verify the conceptual model and the key invader-context feedbacks and to detect the strength and direction of feedbacks. Results Most reinforcing feedbacks involve impacts on soil-nutrient cycling by shrub and tree invaders in forests and herbaceous invaders in wetlands. Feedbacks resulting in regime shifts were most likely related to processes associated with seed banks, fire and nutrient cycling. Results were used to derive a key for identifying high-impact invaders. Main conclusions Identifying combinations of plant life-forms and ecosystems most likely to result in regime shifts is a robust approach for predicting high-impact invasions and therefore for prioritizing management interventions. The meta-analysis revealed the need for more quantitative studies, including manipulative experiments, on ecosystem feedbacks.

  • 24.
    González-Mon, Blanca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mancilla García, María
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Malherbe, Willem
    Sitas, Nadia
    Pringle, Catherine B.
    Biggs, Reinette (Oonsie)
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The importance of cross-scale social relationships for dealing with social-ecological change in agricultural supply chains2024Inngår i: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 105, artikkel-id 103191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural systems are important for the livelihoods and food security of millions of people. These systems are increasingly interconnected across scales and face challenges in responding to multiple, and coalescing types of environmental, social, and economic change. Most studies on how actors respond to change have focused on farmers and farming communities. In this study, we investigate the connectivity of farming systems to markets, to understand how social relationships across the supply chain influence how actors respond to multiple types of changes. We used a participatory network mapping method to interview actors across a fruit supply chain in the Western Cape, South Africa, that is connected to both global and national markets. We identified droughts, climatic variations, changes related to the COVID-19 pandemic, and other social shifts as the most important changes affecting the production and trade of fruit in this region. We also identified three types of responses to these changes: i) responses concerning the dynamics of trade relationships (e.g., changing or maintaining trade relationships); ii) responses based on changes at the individual level (e.g., changes in farm management); and iii) responses based on social relationships (categorized into four types, namely collaboration, knowledge transfer, financial assistance, and marketing coordination). Within these four types, we found that different types of social networks, that include actors operating at different scales and within and outside of supply chains, mediate responses to change. We also found that networks of collaboration, knowledge exchange and financial assistance show a positive correlation, where actors with an export orientation engage in multiple social relationships that enable responding to changes. However, we found limited participation of local market actors in most of these networks. Further investigating these social networks, and the actors participating in them, is essential to better understand and anticipate how and why agricultural systems respond to multiple types of changes, ultimately influencing their trajectory in an increasingly changing world.

  • 25. Hamann, M.
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette (Oonsie)
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Pereira, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa; University of London, UK.
    Preiser, R.
    Hichert, T.
    Blanchard, R.
    Warrington-Coetzee, H.
    King, N.
    Merrie, Andrew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nilsson, W.
    Odendaal, P.
    Poskitt, S.
    Betancourt, D. Sanchez
    Ziervogel, G.
    Scenarios of Good Anthropocenes in southern Africa2020Inngår i: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 118, artikkel-id 102526Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the rapidly changing and uncertain world of the Anthropocene, positive visions of the future could play a crucial role in catalysing deep social-ecological transformations to help guide humanity towards more sustainable and equitable futures. This paper presents the outcomes from a novel visioning process designed to elicit creative and inspirational future scenarios for southern Africa. The approach based scenario development on seeds of good Anthropocenes, i.e. existing initiatives or technologies that represent current, local-scale innovations for sustainability. A selection of seeds was used to create four distinct, positive visions in a participatory workshop process. Common themes that independently emerged in all four visions were i) decentralized governance and decision-making; ii) a strong emphasis on equity and empathy; iii) high levels of connectedness between people; and iv) a reinforced, respectful relationship with nature. The visions mainly differ in the extent of fusion between people and technology in everyday life, and how much nature plays a role in defining the human experience. The narratives presented here describe worlds that have undergone a more significant paradigm shift towards shared human values and stewardship of resources than is explored in most other ambient narratives for the region. These Good Anthropocene scenarios therefore demonstrate more radical, previously unimagined ways of thinking about sustainability futures on the African continent and beyond.

  • 26.
    Hamann, Maike
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Biodiversity change in South Africa: connections to ecosystem services and human well-beingManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Hamann, Maike
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa.
    An exploration of human well-being bundles as identifiers of ecosystem service use patternsArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Hamann, Maike
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa.
    An Exploration of Human Well-Being Bundles as Identifiers of Ecosystem Service Use Patterns2016Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 10, artikkel-id e0163476Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We take a social-ecological systems perspective to investigate the linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being in South Africa. A recent paper identified different types of social-ecological systems in the country, based on distinct bundles of ecosystem service use. These system types were found to represent increasingly weak direct feed-backs between nature and people, from rural green-loop communities to urban red-loop societies. Here we construct human well-being bundles and explore whether the well-being bundles can be used to identify the same social-ecological system types that were identified using bundles of ecosystem service use. Based on national census data, we found three distinct well-being bundle types that are mainly characterized by differences in income, unemployment and property ownership. The distribution of these well-being bundles approximates the distribution of ecosystem service use bundles to a substantial degree: High levels of income and education generally coincided with areas characterised by low levels of direct ecosystem service use (or red-loop systems), while the majority of low well-being areas coincided with medium and high levels of direct ecosystem service use (or transition and green-loop systems). However, our results indicate that transformations from green-loop to red-loop systems do not always entail an immediate improvement in well-being, which we suggest may be due to a time lag between changes in the different system components. Using human well-being bundles as an indicator of social-ecological dynamics may be useful in other contexts since it is based on socio-economic data commonly collected by governments, and provides important insights into the connections between ecosystem services and human well-being at policy-relevant sub-national scales.

  • 29.
    Hamann, Maike
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa.
    Mapping social-ecological systems: Identifying 'green-loop' and 'red-loop' dynamics based on characteristic bundles of ecosystem service use2015Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 34, s. 218-226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an approach to identify and map social-ecological systems based on the direct use of ecosystem services by households. This approach builds on the premise that characteristic bundles of ecosystem service use represent integrated expressions of different underlying social-ecological systems. We test the approach in South Africa using national census data on the direct use of six provisioning services (freshwater from a natural source, firewood for cooking, firewood for heating, natural building materials, animal production, and crop production) at two different scales. Based on a cluster analysis, we identify three distinct ecosystem service bundles that represent social-ecological systems characterized by low, medium and high levels of direct ecosystem service use among households. We argue that these correspond to 'green-loop', 'transition' and 'red-loop' systems as defined by Cumming et al. (2014). When mapped, these systems form coherent spatial units that differ from systems identified by additive combinations of separate social and biophysical datasets, the most common method of mapping social-ecological systems to date. The distribution of the systems we identified is mainly determined by social factors, such as household income, gender of the household head, and land tenure, and only partly determined by the supply of natural resources. An understanding of the location and characteristic resource use dynamics of different social-ecological systems allows for policies to be better targeted at the particular sustainability challenges faced in different areas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Hamann, Maike
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Selomane, Odirilwe
    Polasky, Stephen
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Four perspectives on ecosystem servicesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31. Homer-Dixon, Thomas
    et al.
    Walker, Brian
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Lambin, Eric F.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Scheffer, Marten
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Australian National University, Australia.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Synchronous failure: the emerging causal architecture of global crisis2015Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, nr 3, artikkel-id 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent global crises reveal an emerging pattern of causation that could increasingly characterize the birth and progress of future global crises. A conceptual framework identifies this pattern's deep causes, intermediate processes, and ultimate outcomes. The framework shows how multiple stresses can interact within a single social-ecological system to cause a shift in that system's behavior, how simultaneous shifts of this kind in several largely discrete social-ecological systems can interact to cause a far larger intersystemic crisis, and how such a larger crisis can then rapidly propagate across multiple system boundaries to the global scale. Case studies of the 2008-2009 financial-energy and food-energy crises illustrate the framework. Suggestions are offered for future research to explore further the framework's propositions.

  • 32. Leadley, Paul
    et al.
    Proenca, Vania
    Fernandez-Manjarres, Juan
    Pereira, Henrique Miguel
    Alkemade, Rob
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Bruley, Enora
    Cheung, William
    Cooper, David
    Figueiredo, Joana
    Gilman, Eric
    Guenette, Sylvie
    Hurtt, George
    Mbow, Cheikh
    Oberdorff, Thierry
    Revenga, Carmen
    Scharlemann, Joern P. W.
    Scholes, Robert
    Smith, Mark Stafford
    Sumaila, U. Rashid
    Walpole, Matt
    Interacting Regional-Scale Regime Shifts for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services2014Inngår i: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 64, nr 8, s. 665-679Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Current trajectories of global change may lead to regime shifts at regional scales, driving coupled human-environment systems to highly degraded states in terms of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being. For business-as-usual socioeconomic development pathways, regime shifts are projected to occur within the next several decades, to be difficult to reverse, and to have regional- to global-scale impacts on human society. We provide an overview of ecosystem, socioeconomic, and biophysical mechanisms mediating regime shifts and illustrate how these interact at regional scales by aggregation, synergy, and spreading processes. We give detailed examples of interactions for terrestrial ecosystems of central South America and for marine and coastal ecosystems of Southeast Asia. This analysis suggests that degradation of biodiversity and, ecosystem services over the twenty-first century could be far greater than was previously predicted. We identify key policy and management opportunities at regional to global scales to avoid these shifts.

  • 33. Lindow, Megan
    et al.
    Preiser, Rika
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Exploring resilience capacities with food innovators: A narrative approach2020Inngår i: Global Sustainability, E-ISSN 2059-4798, Vol. 3, artikkel-id e28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 34. Luvuno, Linda
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Stevens, Nicola
    Esler, Karen
    Perceived impacts of woody encroachment on ecosystem services in Hluhluwe, South Africa2022Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 27, nr 1, artikkel-id 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anticipating, avoiding, and managing disruptive environmental change such as regime shifts and the impacts it has on human well-being is a key sustainability challenge. Woody encroachment is a globally important example of a regime shift that occurs in savanna systems, where a large fraction of the world’s poor live. Woody encroachment is known to negatively impact a variety of ecosystem services, but few studies have investigated the impact of woody encroachment on local land users and their livelihoods. In this study, we conducted semi-structured interviews to determine how different land users—local subsistence communities and managers of conservation tourism areas—perceive woody encroachment in the Hluhluwe region of South Africa, how it affects the ecosystem services they rely upon, and what costs they incur in undertaking activities to reverse woody encroachment. Most interviewees perceived trees to be increasing in the landscape (83%). However, perceptions about the causes of woody encroachment differed: community members cited the reduced usage of trees as the reason for woody encroachment, whereas conservation managers mostly attributed the change to increased CO2. Most community members felt woody encroachment was harmful to their household and general well-being, citing loss of grazing for livestock, and fear of attacks by wild animals and criminals as the main impacts. In contrast, conservation managers perceived woody encroachment to have both harmful and beneficial impacts, with the main negative impacts being loss of grazing for wildlife and impacts on tourism through reduced visibility for game viewing. All the conservation areas invested in tree clearing compared to only 20% of respondents in the community areas, where an average of ZAR367 (US$25) was spent per year on clearing, compared to ZAR293,751 (US$20,000) and ZAR163,000 (US$11,000) spent in private game reserves and government reserves, respectively. Our findings highlight the negative impacts of ongoing woody encroachment, the differentiated impacts it has on different land users, and differences in capacity to combat encroachment. These findings highlight the need for state-funded management interventions to support clearing of trees in encroached areas, particularly in communal areas.

  • 35. Luvuno, Linda
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Stevens, Nicola
    Esler, Karen
    Woody Encroachment as a Social-Ecological Regime Shift2018Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 7, artikkel-id 2221Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    African savannas are increasingly affected by woody encroachment, an increase in the density of woody plants. Woody encroachment often occurs unexpectedly, is difficult to reverse, and has significant economic, cultural and ecological implications. The process of woody encroachment represents a so-called regime shift that results from feedback loops that link vegetation and variables such as fire, grazing and water availability. Much of the work on woody encroachment has focused on the direct drivers of the process, such as the role of fire or grazing in inhibiting or promoting encroachment. However, little work has been done on how ecological changes may provide feedback to affect some of the underlying social processes driving woody encroachment. In this paper, we build on the ecological literature on encroachment to present a qualitative systems analysis of woody encroachment as a social-ecological regime shift. Our analysis highlights the underlying indirect role of human population growth, and we distinguish the key social-ecological processes underlying woody encroachment in arid versus mesic African savannas. The analysis we present helps synthesize the impacts of encroachment, the drivers and feedbacks that play a key role and identify potential social and ecological leverage points to prevent or reverse the woody encroachment process.

  • 36. Mace, Georgina M.
    et al.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa .
    Alkemade, Rob
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    Cornell, Sarah E.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Diaz, Sandra
    Jennings, Simon
    Leadley, Paul
    Mumby, Peter J.
    Purvis, Andy
    Scholes, Robert J.
    Seddon, Alistair W. R.
    Solan, Martin
    Steffen, Will
    Woodward, Guy
    Approaches to defining a planetary boundary for biodiversity2014Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 28, s. 289-297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea that there is an identifiable set of boundaries, beyond which anthropogenic change will put the Earth system outside a safe operating space for humanity, is attracting interest in the scientific community and gaining support in the environmental policy world. Rockstrom et al. (2009) identify nine such boundaries and highlight biodiversity loss as being the single boundary where current rates of extinction put the Earth system furthest outside the safe operating space. Here we review the evidence to support a boundary based on extinction rates and identify weaknesses with this metric and its bearing on humanity's needs. While changes to biodiversity are of undisputed importance, we show that both extinction rate and species richness are weak metrics for this purpose, and they do not scale well from local to regional or global levels. We develop alternative approaches to determine biodiversity loss boundaries and extend our analysis to consider large-scale responses in the Earth system that could affect its suitability for complex human societies which in turn are mediated by the biosphere. We suggest three facets of biodiversity on which a boundary could be based: the genetic library of life; functional type diversity; and biome condition and extent. For each of these we explore the science needed to indicate how it might be measured and how changes would affect human societies. In addition to these three facets, we show how biodiversity's role in supporting a safe operating space for humanity may lie primarily in its interactions with other boundaries, suggesting an immediate area of focus for scientists and policymakers.

  • 37. Malherbe, Willem
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Sitas, Nadia
    Comparing apples and pears: Linking capitals and capacities to assess the resilience of commercial farming operations2024Inngår i: Agricultural Systems, ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267, Vol. 217, artikkel-id 103934Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: As the concept of social-ecological resilience gains increasing policy attention, there is growing demand for approaches that operationalise it. Amongst these demands is the need to empirically assess absorptive, adaptive and transformative capacities that underpin resilience to better understand the ways in which social-ecological systems can navigate change and uncertainty.

    OBJECTIVE: We explore the application of a capitals approach for assessing resilience capacities, using an example of deciduous fruit farming operations in the Western Cape region of South Africa.

    METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted, thematically coded, and analysed using causal loop diagrams and co-occurrence analyses to identify changes experienced by farming operations, their responses to these changes, and the effects of both on capital resources. We then apply the criteria developed for the classification of resilience capacities.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A variety of changes affect farming operations at multiple points across the value chain, and have effects across capital resources. Most significant to farmers are changes which impact the amount of water available and the cashflow they require to sustain their operations. The most common responses employed by farmers consisted of activities which either increase the availability of an affected resource, or decrease its demand in order to maintain the same functions (adaptive capacity). In fewer cases, farming operations were able to absorb the depletion of their capital resources due to pre-emptive management (absorptive capacity). In similarly few cases, the potential or realised resource deficiencies caused by changes were either corrected or decoupled from the farming operation through structural reorganisation towards a different or additional function and types of output being delivered (transformative capacity). Evidence of changes being anticipated prior to their onset were also identified, leading to responses which are used in conjunction with the preceding three capacities.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that the criteria we developed for classifying resilience capacities offer a useful means of operationalising resilience. In particular, the approach we pilot in this paper enables the application of a systems perspective to identify interactions between changes and responses, which broadens the options for identifying management strategies and interventions. The approach we propose can be used to identify key leverage points to strengthen the capacities of vulnerable farmers. Further work is required to integrate consideration of cross-scale effects of farm-scale resilience strategies on the broader social-ecological system.

  • 38. Manyani, Amanda
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Hill, Lloyd
    Preiser, Rika
    The evolution of social-ecological systems (SES) research: a co-authorship and co-citation network analysis2024Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 29, nr 1, artikkel-id 33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social-ecological systems (SES) research has gained substantial momentum, as witnessed by the growth in SES publications, theories, and frameworks, and the traction these concepts have gained in development and policy arenas. However, the growth and development of the SES field has only been partially examined, which limits our ability to make sense of and support the future development of the field and its ability to inform pressing sustainability challenges. The aim of this study is to understand how SES research has grown and changed over time as a field of study using bibliometric methods, co-authorship and co-citation network analysis. Our study is informed by broader bodies of work that have sought to understand the development of scientific fields, concepts, and research agendas. We highlight key trends that have influenced the organization of the field as well as how key thematic areas of SES research have evolved over time. Our results indicate that the research on SES is (i) mainly carried out by authors located in North America and Europe, (ii) characterized by changes in the terminology employed, as identified through our search terms, (iii) linked to the emergence of major conferences and centers dedicated to SES research, as well as its growth over time, (iv) characterized by a highly interconnected structure, with almost 80% of scholars being connected to each other, and (v) characterized by a shift in citation patterns, with newcomers in the network carving out their niche and replacing the founding figures as the central focus. We discuss the implications of these findings, including the nature of SES research as an epistemic network, the highly collaborative nature of SES research, and the role played by open -access journals in the growth of SES research in the digital era. We further suggest that the SES research field is at a critical transition point, with contending visions of its future following a more disciplinary path or remaining as a more open interdisciplinary space. We conclude with the questions this raises for future SES research regarding the implications of this duality on the nature, production, and validation of knowledge and its evolution.

  • 39.
    Meacham, Megan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. North-West University, South Africa.
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Biggs, Reinette (Oonsie)
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Crouzat, Emilie
    Cord, Anna F.
    Enfors, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Felipe-Lucia, María R.
    Fischer, Joern
    Hamann, Maike
    Hanspach, Jan
    Hicks, Christina
    Jacobs, Sander
    Lavorel, Sandra
    Locatelli, Bruno
    Martín-López, Berta
    Plieninger, Tobias
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Advancing research on ecosystem service bundles for comparative assessments and synthesis2022Inngår i: Ecosystems and People, ISSN 2639-5908, E-ISSN 2639-5916, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 99-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social-ecological interactions have been shown to generate interrelated and reoccurring sets of ecosystem services, also known as ecosystem service bundles. Given the potential utility of the bundles concept, along with the recent surge in interest it is timely to reflect on the concept, its current use and potential for the future. Based on our ecosystem service bundle experience, expertise, and ecosystem service bundle analyses, we have found critical elements for advancing the utility of ecosystem service bundle concept and deepening its impact in the future. In this paper we 1) examine the different conceptualizations of the ecosystem service bundle concept; 2) show the range of benefits of using a bundles approach; 3) explore key issues for improving research on ecosystem service bundles, including indicators, scale, and drivers and relationships between ecosystem services; and 4) outline priorities for the future by facilitating comparisons of ecosystem service bundle research. 

  • 40. Metelerkamp, Luke
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Drimie, Scott
    Learning for transitions: a niche perspective2020Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 25, nr 1, artikkel-id 14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Roughly eight hundred million youth are projected to enter the African job market by 2050. This presents both an opportunity and a challenge for urgently needed sustainability transitions on the continent, because with appropriate training and skills this youth bulge could be instrumental in driving systemic change. By training the youth in new practices and approaches, they could be central to creating new systems and African futures that are more sustainable and just. We focus on the question of where the new skills and competencies needed to underpin such transitions could come from and, in turn, how youth might access these competencies. We investigate these questions by exploring an emerging sustainability niche around organic agriculture in the South African food system. We used a network and power-mapping tool, Net-Map, to map the key knowledge resources used by successful organic farmers, as well as to understand how actor learning networks develop and disseminate new skills and competencies. We found that although a substantial volume of knowledge has been generated and sophisticated informal learning networks exist within the niche we studied, knowledge is highly fragmented. The development and transfer of knowledge is impeded by the absence of teaching capacity and poor institutional alignment at a provincial and national level. Our findings suggest that state-led extension services and formal training institutions are of little help to niche pioneers and instead contribute toward the path-dependency of the current food regime. The substantial implications of these findings underscore the need for further studies to investigate whether similar patterns hold elsewhere on the continent, and for other niches. If they do, our findings imply that addressing the sustainability challenges on the African continent will require creative approaches and new models of learning that are capable of developing and transferring the knowledge and practices emerging in sustainability niches to the 90% of youth in Africa who will not progress to formal tertiary training but will be central to driving potential sustainability transitions.

  • 41. Metelerkamp, Luke
    et al.
    Drimie, Scott
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    We're ready, the system's not - youth perspectives on agricultural careers in South Africa2019Inngår i: Agrekon, ISSN 0303-1853, Vol. 58, nr 2, s. 154-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of rising levels of youth unemployment in South Africa, now at 50 per cent, research was undertaken to better understand the paradox of young people turning away from agricultural employment in spite of such high levels of unemployment in the country. The research brings to light new evidence of youth perspectives on contemporary attitudes, experiences and expectations of work in the agricultural sector in South Africa.The research took a narrative-based approach using SenseMaker as a tool for blended qualitative and quantitative data collection. A sample of 573 youth narratives was drawn from across three sites in the KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo and Western Cape provinces of South Africa.Findings show that attitudes towards careers in agriculture vary greatly. While a set of negative perceptions emerged from the narratives as anticipated, approximately one third of the respondents expressed a clear interest in and passion for agriculture. This interest persisted in spite of a range of pervasive social norms and stigmas. However, these positive aspirations tended to be at odds with the kinds of jobs created by an increasingly corporatised food regime.The research addresses two key policy documents: The National Development Plan and the National Youth Policy, contributing toward the growing body of literature seeking to understand how agricultural policy based on principles of accumulation from below may be formulated. It also provides an empirical evidence base for activists, educators and policy-makers interested in the role of the agricultural sector in addressing youth unemployment in South Africa and elsewhere in Africa.

  • 42.
    Norström, Albert V.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Agarwal, Bina
    Balvanera, Patricia
    Baptiste, Brigitte
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Brondízio, Eduardo
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Campbell, Bruce
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Castilla, Juan Carlos
    Castro, Antonio J.
    Cramer, Wolfgang
    Cumming, Graeme S.
    Felipe-Lucia, María
    Fischer, Joern
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Columbia University, USA; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile.
    DeFries, Ruth
    Gelcich, Stefan
    Groth, Juliane
    Speranza, Chinwe Ifejika
    Jacobs, Sander
    Hofmann, Johanna
    Hughes, Terry P.
    Lam, David P. M.
    Loos, Jacqueline
    Manyani, Amanda
    Martín-López, Berta
    Meacham, Megan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moersberger, Hannah
    Nagendra, Harini
    Pereira, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Belgian Biodiversity Platform, Belgium.
    Polasky, Stephen
    Schoon, Michael
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Selomane, Odirilwe
    Spierenburg, Marja
    The programme on ecosystem change and society (PECS) - a decade of deepening social-ecological research through a place-based focus2022Inngår i: Ecosystems and People, ISSN 2639-5908, E-ISSN 2639-5916, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 598-608Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS) was established in 2011, and is now one of the major international social-ecological systems (SES) research networks. During this time, SES research has undergone a phase of rapid growth and has grown into an influential branch of sustainability science. In this Perspective, we argue that SES research has also deepened over the past decade, and helped to shed light on key dimensions of SES dynamics (e.g. system feedbacks, aspects of system design, goals and paradigms) that can lead to tangible action for solving the major sustainability challenges of our time. We suggest four ways in which the growth of place-based SES research, fostered by networks such as PECS, has contributed to these developments, namely by: 1) shedding light on transformational change, 2) revealing the social dynamics shaping SES, 3) bringing together diverse types of knowledge, and 4) encouraging reflexive researchers.

  • 43. O´Brien, K.
    et al.
    Patwardhan, A.
    Pelling, M.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Toward a Sustainable and Resilient Future2011Inngår i: Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX): Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) / [ed] Christopher B. Field, Vicente Barros, Thomas F. Stocker, Qin Dahe., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, s. 437-485Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44. Parker, Kim
    et al.
    De Vos, Alta
    Clements, Hayley S.
    Biggs, Duan
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Impacts of a trophy hunting ban on private land conservation in South African biodiversity hotspots2020Inngår i: Conservation science and practice, ISSN 2578-4854, Vol. 2, nr 7, artikkel-id e214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Private land conservation areas (PLCAs) have become critical for achieving global conservation goals, but we lack understanding of how and when these areas respond to global pressures and opportunities. In southern Africa, where many PLCAs rely on trophy hunting as an income-generating strategy, a potential ban on trophy hunting locally or abroad holds unknown consequences for the future conservation of these lands. In this study, we investigate the consequences of a potential trophy hunting ban in PLCAs in two biodiversity hotspots in South Africa's Eastern and Western Cape provinces. We used semistructured interviews with PLCA managers and owners to elicit perceived impacts of an internationally imposed trophy hunting ban on conservation activities in PLCAs, and to probe alternative viable land uses. The majority of interviewees believed that both the economic viability of their PLCA and biodiversity would be lost following a hunting ban. Owners would primarily consider transitioning to ecotourism or livestock farming, but these options were constrained by the social-ecological context of their PLCA (e.g., competition with other PLCAs, ecological viability of farming). Our results suggest that a trophy hunting ban may have many unintended consequences for biodiversity conservation, national economies, and the livelihoods of PLCA owners and employees. Along with similar social-ecological studies in other areas and contexts, our work can inform policy decisions around global trophy hunting regulation.

  • 45. Pereira, Henrique M.
    et al.
    Leadley, Paul W.
    Proenca, Vania
    Alkemade, Rob
    Scharlemann, Joern P. W.
    Fernandez-Manjarres, Juan F.
    Araujo, Miguel B.
    Balvanera, Patricia
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cheung, William W. L.
    Chini, Louise
    Cooper, H. David
    Gilman, Eric L.
    Guenette, Sylvie
    Hurtt, George C.
    Huntington, Henry P.
    Mace, Georgina M.
    Oberdorff, Thierry
    Revenga, Carmen
    Rodrigues, Patricia
    Scholes, Robert J.
    Sumaila, Ussif Rashid
    Walpole, Matt
    Scenarios for Global Biodiversity in the 21st Century2010Inngår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 330, nr 6010, s. 1496-1501Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative scenarios are coming of age as a tool for evaluating the impact of future socioeconomic development pathways on biodiversity and ecosystem services. We analyze global terrestrial, freshwater, and marine biodiversity scenarios using a range of measures including extinctions, changes in species abundance, habitat loss, and distribution shifts, as well as comparing model projections to observations. Scenarios consistently indicate that biodiversity will continue to decline over the 21st century. However, the range of projected changes is much broader than most studies suggest, partly because there are major opportunities to intervene through better policies, but also because of large uncertainties in projections.

  • 46.
    Pereira, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Utrecht University, The Netherlands; Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Kuiper, Jan J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Selomane, Odirilwe
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Aguiar, Ana Paula D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brazil.
    Asrar, Ghassem R.
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Calvin, Katherine
    Hedden, Steve
    Hsu, Angel
    Jabbour, Jason
    King, Nicholas
    Köberle, Alexandre C.
    Lucas, Paul
    Nel, Jeanne
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sitas, Nadia
    Trisos, Christopher
    van Vuuren, Detlef P.
    Vervoort, Joost
    Ward, James
    Advancing a toolkit of diverse futures approaches for global environmental assessments2021Inngår i: Ecosystems and People, ISSN 2639-5908, E-ISSN 2639-5916, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 191-204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Global Environmental Assessments (GEAs) are in a unique position to influence environmental decision-making in the context of sustainability challenges. To do this effectively, however, new methods are needed to respond to the needs of decision-makers for a more integrated, contextualized and goal-seeking evaluation of different policies, geared for action from global to local. While scenarios are an important tool for GEAs to link short-term decisions and medium and long-term consequences, these current information needs cannot be met only through deductive approaches focused on the global level. In this paper, we argue that a more diverse set of futures tools operating at multiple scales are needed to improve GEA scenario development and analysis to meet the information needs of policymakers and other stakeholders better. Based on the literature, we highlight four challenges that GEAs need to be able to address in order to contribute to global environmental decision-making about the future: 1. anticipate unpredictable future conditions; 2. be relevant at multiple scales, 3. include diverse actors, perspectives and contexts; and 4. leverage the imagination to inspire action. We present a toolbox of future-oriented approaches and methods that can be used to effectively address the four challenges currently faced by GEAs.

  • 47.
    Pereira, Laura M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa; University of London, UK; Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Drimie, Scott
    Maciejewski, Kristi
    Tonissen, Patrick Bon
    Biggs, Reinette (Oonsie)
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Food System Transformation: Integrating a Political-Economy and Social-Ecological Approach to Regime Shifts2020Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, nr 4, artikkel-id 1313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainably achieving the goal of global food security is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. The current food system is failing to meet the needs of people, and at the same time, is having far-reaching impacts on the environment and undermining human well-being in other important ways. It is increasingly apparent that a deep transformation in the way we produce and consume food is needed in order to ensure a more just and sustainable future. This paper uses the concept of regime shifts to understand key drivers and innovations underlying past disruptions in the food system and to explore how they may help us think about desirable future changes and how we might leverage them. We combine two perspectives on regime shifts-one derived from natural sciences and the other from social sciences-to propose an interpretation of food regimes that draws on innovation theory. We use this conceptualization to discuss three examples of innovations that we argue helped enable critical regime shifts in the global food system in the past: the Haber-Bosch process of nitrogen fixation, the rise of the supermarket, and the call for more transparency in the food system to reconnect consumers with their food. This paper concludes with an exploration of why this combination of conceptual understandings is important across the Global North/ Global South divide, and proposes a new sustainability regime where transformative change is spearheaded by a variety of social-ecological innovations.

  • 48. Pereira, Laura M.
    et al.
    Hichert, Tanja
    Hamann, Maike
    Preiser, Rika
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Using futures methods to create transformative spaces: visions of a good Anthropocene in southern Africa2018Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, nr 1, artikkel-id 19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The unique challenges posed by the Anthropocene require creative ways of engaging with the future and bringing about transformative change. Envisioning positive futures is a first step in creating a shared understanding and commitment that enables radical transformations toward sustainability in a world defined by complexity, diversity, and uncertainty. However, to create a transformative space in which truly unknowable futures can be explored, new experimental approaches are needed that go beyond merely extrapolating from the present into archetypal scenarios of the future. Here, we present a process of creative visioning where participatory methods and tools from the field of futures studies were combined in a novel way to create and facilitate a transformative space, with the aim of generating positive narrative visions for southern Africa. We convened a diverse group of participants in a workshop designed to develop radically different scenarios of good Anthropocenes, based on existing seeds of the future in the present. These seeds are innovative initiatives, practices, and ideas that are present in the world today, but are not currently widespread or dominant. As a result of a carefully facilitated process that encouraged a multiplicity of perspectives, creative immersion, and grappling with deeply held assumptions, four radical visions for southern Africa were produced. Although these futures are highly innovative and exploratory, they still link back to current real-world initiatives and contexts. The key learning that arose from this experience was the importance of the imagination for transformative thinking, the need to capitalize on diversity to push boundaries, and finally, the importance of creating a space that enables participants to engage with emotions, beliefs, and complexity. This method of engagement with the future has the potential to create transformative spaces that inspire and empower people to act toward positive Anthropocene visions despite the complexity of the sustainability challenge.

  • 49. Preiser, Rika
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    De Vos, Alta
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Social-ecological systems as complex adaptive systems: organizing principles for advancing research methods and approaches2018Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, nr 4, artikkel-id 46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of social-ecological systems (SES) has been significantly shaped by insights from research on complex adaptive systems (CAS). We offer a brief overview of the conceptual integration of CAS research and its implications for the advancement of SES studies and methods. We propose a conceptual typology of six organizing principles of CAS based on a comparison of leading scholars' classifications of CAS features and properties. This typology clusters together similar underlying organizing principles of the features and attributes of CAS, and serves as a heuristic framework for identifying methods and approaches that account for the key features of SES. These principles can help identify appropriate methods and approaches for studying SES. We discuss three main implications of studying and engaging with SES as CAS. First, there needs to be a shift in focus when studying the dynamics and interactions in SES, to better capture the nature of the organizing principles that characterize SES behavior. Second, realizing that the nature of the intertwined social-ecological relations is complex has real consequences for how we choose methods and practical approaches for observing and studying SES interactions. Third, engagement with SES as CAS poses normative challenges for problem-oriented researchers and practitioners taking on real-world challenges.

  • 50. Preiser, Rika
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Hamann, Maike
    Sitas, Nadia
    Selomane, Odirilwe
    Waddell, Joy
    Clements, Hayley
    Hichert, Tanja
    Co-exploring relational heuristics for sustainability transitions towards more resilient and just Anthropocene futures2021Inngår i: Systems research and behavioral science, ISSN 1092-7026, E-ISSN 1099-1743, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 625-634Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, four relational heuristic responses for exploring new modes of engagement, or patterns of activity, that could enliven humanity's efforts in fostering systemic thinking and action to inform sustainability transitions are offered. Their purpose is to realise more resilient and just Anthropocene futures. These relational heuristics are (1) re-patterning our theories of change-making, (2) cultivating a shared future consciousness, (3) creating transformative spaces and (4) engaging in processes of co-exploration. We argue that these heuristics are better aligned for studying and responding to the systemic and interdependent nature of the real-world challenges we are currently facing.

12 1 - 50 of 71
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf