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  • 1.
    Boman, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Hradilova Selin, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Alkoholkonsumtionen i Sverige fram till 20062007Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Olsson, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Wahlström, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Problematic alcohol use in the family and adolescents’ stress-related complaints2021In: European Journal of Public Health: Supplement 3, October 2021. Supplement 14th European Public Health Conference Public health futures in a changing world, 2021, Vol. 31, article id ckab165.519Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. A non-negligible proportion of children grow up in families where problematic alcohol use is present. From a resilience perspective and for the implementation of effective interventions, it is relevant to examine to what extent favourable conditions in other contexts may buffer against such family adversities. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between problematic familial alcohol use and offspring stress-related complaints. Another aim was to explore whether teacher ratings of the school's degree of student focus can buffer against negative health consequences of problem drinking at home.

    Methods. Data were drawn from four cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2014 and in 2016 among 8,728 students (∼15-16 years) and 2,024 teachers in 147 Stockholm senior-level school units, with linked school-level register information. Stress-related complaints were measured from students' reports on the weekly co-occurrence of stomach-ache and headache. Teachers' ratings of the school's student focus were measured by an index based on four items which was aggregated to the school level. Student-level sociodemographic characteristics were included as control variables along with the schools' composition and student-teacher ratio. Two-level binary logistic regression analyses were performed.

    Results. Problematic familial alcohol use was associated with an increased likelihood of stress-related complaints among students (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.44-2.10). The cross-level interaction revealed that this association was weaker among students in schools with higher levels of student focus.

    Conclusions. The study showed that the association between problematic familial alcohol use and students' stress-related complaints was less pronounced in schools with higher teacher ratings of student focus. This finding indicates that favourable conditions in schools can buffer against problematic conditions in the family, thus serving a compensatory role.

    Key messages. Students reporting problematic familial alcohol use were more likely to suffer from stress-related complaints.High teacher ratings of the school’s student focus buffered against the association between problematic familial alcohol use and stress-related complaints.

  • 3.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Olsson, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    School ethos and adolescent gambling: a multilevel study of upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden2020In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gambling is not uncommon among adolescents, and a non-trivial minority has serious problems with gambling. Therefore, enhanced knowledge about factors that may prevent against problematic gambling among youth is needed. Prior research has shown that a strong school ethos, which can be defined as a set of attitudes and values pervading at a school, is associated with a lower inclination among students to engage in various risk behaviours. Knowledge about the link between school ethos and adolescent gambling is however scarce. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between teacher-rated school ethos and student-reported gambling and risk gambling, when controlling also for sociodemographic characteristics at the student- and the school-level.

    Methods: Data from two separate cross-sectional surveys were combined. The Stockholm School Survey (SSS) was performed among 5123 students (aged 17–18years) in 46 upper secondary schools, and the Stockholm Teacher Survey (STS) was carried out among 1061 teachers in the same schools. School ethos was measured by an index based on teachers’ ratings of 12 items in the STS. Adolescent gambling and risk gambling were based on a set of single items in the SSS. Sociodemographic characteristics at the student-level were measured by student-reported information from the SSS. Information on sociodemographic characteristics at the school-level was retrieved from administrative registers. The statistical method was multilevel regression analysis. Two-level binary logistic regression models were performed.

    Results: The analyses showed that higher teacher ratings of the school’s ethos were associated with a lower likelihood of gambling and risk gambling among students, when adjusting also for student- and school-level sociodemographic characteristics.

    Conclusions: This study showed that school ethos was inversely associated with students’ inclination to engage in gambling and in risk gambling. In more general terms, the study provides evidence that schools’ values and norms as reflected by the teachers’ ratings of their school’s ethos have the potential to counteract unwanted behaviours among the students.

  • 4. Hellman, Matilda
    et al.
    Männistö-Inkinen, Vilja
    Nilsson, Robin
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Being good while being bad: How does CSR-communication on the social media serve the gambling industry?2023In: European Journal of Communication, ISSN 0267-3231, E-ISSN 1460-3705, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 552-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global businesses are known to use their social media accounts for legitimisation aspirations and national market assimilation. Still, we lack empirical tools for identifying the kind of public corporate social responsibility communication (CSRC) that helps along positive branding and social relevance. This is particularly important information in view of whitewashing aspirations by the vice industries. This study develops a content analytical tool for assessing gambling companies’ social media strategies by comparing CSRC by state-owned and licenced gambling operators in Finland and Sweden. The diachronic comparative design allows us to point out how the companies advance along ambitions to communicate responsible gambling (RG), affiliate with public interests, shape the companies’ public role as societal benefactors and normalise gambling as an activity. The concepts of tactical and strategic CSRC help us to expose these communication strategies in view of national policy changes, state control and public opinion.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Larm, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Raninen, Jonas
    The factor structure of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire in a national sample of Swedish adolescents: Comparing 3 and 5-factor models2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 3, article id e0265481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is one of the most common screening instruments for emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents. Although exploratory factor analyses support the originally proposed 5-factor structure of SDQ as well as a 3-factor model, the evidence from confirmatory factor analyses is more mixed. Some of the difficulties items in SDQ are positively worded and it has been proposed that this leads to method effects, i.e. these items share variance that is due to the method used rather than to a substantive construct. Also, there seems to be minor factors in some subscales. This study tests a series of 3- and 5- factor models pertaining to the factor structure of SDQ, also considering method effects and minor factors. The sample consists of a nationally representative cohort of Swedish adolescents born in 2001 (n = 5549). Results show a relatively better fit of the 5-factor model compared with the 3-factor model although neither of these had a satisfactory fit. Model fit was improved when specifying cross-loadings of the positively worded difficulties items on the prosocial scale as well as minor factors on the hyperactivity scale. Although no model provided a completely satisfactory fit to the data, the results show that the 5-factor model performs better than the 3-factor model and has an acceptable fit. We conclude that for the purposes of epidemiological research, SDQ has acceptable factorial validity, provided that researchers consider method effects and minor factors.

  • 6. Katainen, Anu
    et al.
    Kauppila, Emmi
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Drugs (CAN), Sweden.
    Lindeman, Mikaela
    Hellman, Matilda
    Regulating Alcohol Marketing on Social Media: Outcomes and Limitations of Marketing Restrictions of Finland's 2015 Alcohol Act2020In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the 2015 law restricting alcohol marketing on social media in Finland.

    Method: The study compared posts that market alcohol on Finnish and Swedish social media in terms of number, content, and user engagement during the month of January in three separate years: 1 year before, 1 year after, and 2 years after the 2015 Alcohol Act came into effect in Finland. The data consisted of all posts (Finland, N = 1,536; Sweden, N = 1,204) published during the selected months by alcohol brands that had active national social media accounts at the time of data collection. The coding protocol included numbers of posts and measures of consumer engagement, as well as content restricted by the law.

    Results: Social media posting increased between the 2014 and 2016 samples in both countries. In Finland, the number of posts decreased in 2017. The proportion of posts with content restricted by the 2015 law increased in both countries between the 2014 and 2016 samples. However, in Finland, the amount of restricted content decreased in the 2017 sample, whereas in Sweden it increased, Pearson chi(2)(1) = 29.273, p <.001. The level of user engagement increased in both countries between the 2014 and 2017 samples.

    Conclusions: The social media regulation in the Finnish 2015 amendment has had an impact on alcohol brands' social media content, but it has not affected marketers' ability to increase consumer engagement.

  • 7. Kauppila, Emmi
    et al.
    Lindeman, Mikaela
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Hellman, Matilda
    Katainen, Anu
    Alcohol marketing on social media sites in Finland and Sweden: A comparative audit study of brands’ presence and content, and the impact of a legislative change2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has become a key marketing platform for alcohol brands. Social media makes it possible for advertisers to spread messages via consumers and to involve them in the production of marketing content. It offers new possibilities for interactive communication between alcoholic beverage companies and their potential consumers. This report presents the first audit of alcoholic beverage brands’ activities on social media targeting consumers in Finland and Sweden. Its purpose is to produce new information on how this issue can be viewed as a marketing effort, what kind of content is used, and how well alcohol producers have succeeded in reaching consumers on their social media channels. The report also assesses how the 2015 amendment to the Finnish Alcohol Act has affected alcohol marketing on social media. The study focuses on the Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube accounts of 38 alcoholic beverage producers in Finland, and 52 in Sweden. The material consists of content published by these producers on their social media accounts in January 2014, January 2016 and January 2017. It includes a total of 2 740 social media posts: 1 536 from Finland and 1 204 from Sweden. We analysed the material using quantitative content analysis method. We examined the prevalence of user reactions, the marketing content restricted by the 2015 Alcohol Act and the content restricted by the alcohol industry’s own self-regulatory codes. We also analysed the ways in which producers aim to interact with consumers and appeal especially to young consumers. These contents were compared in terms of countries and time points. In both Finland and Sweden, Facebook was the most important platform for alcohol marketing during the studied period. The number of alcohol marketing messages doubled in both countries from January 2014 to January 2016 but declined in January 2017. The study shows that Swedish and Finnish alcohol producers have been relatively unsuccessful in reaching consumers in terms of generating user reactions such as likes, comments and shares. The posts were rarely shared, and only a few producers had managed to create their own brand-based social media communities. The 2015 law amendment seems to have had some effect on the content of alcohol marketing in Finland. The law restricts the use of consumer-generated content in marketing and prohibits the use of games and lotteries. The use of consumer-generated content increased from January 2014 to January 2016 but declined in January 2017. In Sweden, the use of consumer-generated content increased over the studied period. Posts only made a few violations of the industry’s self-regulatory codes or contained content that would be specifically appealing to minors. However, minors could obtain access to alcohol marketing messages, as only about 60% of the producers studied in Finland and Sweden had introduced age limit controls on Facebook. None of the Swedish producers had introduced age limit controls on Instagram, whereas in Finland 13% had. Alcohol producers used a variety of techniques to engage consumers. They posted content intended to be shared by consumers, such as videos and hashtags, and 2 encouraged consumers to comment on their posts. They also collaborated with known bloggers, restaurants and events. By comparing the samples from 2014 and 2017, this study shows that alcohol producers in Finland and Sweden have invested in alcohol marketing on social media and have become more successful in engaging consumers. Restrictions on social media in Finland have not affected manufacturers' ability to engage consumers in this arena. The regulation of social media marketing through national legislation is difficult, as social media service providers operate globally, and the platforms they provide are constantly developed to optimize user experience and are difficult to monitor. Alcohol producers are also becoming more skillful in utilizing these platforms for marketing purposes. Future research needs to address the long-term impact of the legislation as well as new forms of social media marketing.

  • 8.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany; ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary.
    Loy, Johanna K.
    Olderbak, Sally
    Trolldal, Björn
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Sweden.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Sweden.
    Törrönen, Jukka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Does the decline in Swedish adolescent drinking persist into early adulthood?2024In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 259-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Sweden has experienced a substantial decrease in adolescent drinking over the past decades. Whether the reduction persists into early adulthood remains unclear. Using survey data, the present study aimed to determine whether reductions in indicators of alcohol use observed among adolescents remain in early adulthood and whether changes in alcohol intake are consistent among light/moderate and heavy drinkers.

    Design: Data from the Swedish monthly Alcohol Monitoring Survey (2001–20) were used to construct five 5-year birth cohorts (1978–82, 1983–87, 1988–92, 1993–97 and 1998–2002).

    Setting: Sweden.

    Participants: A total of n = 52 847 respondents (48% females) aged 16 and 30 years were included in this study.

    Measurements: For both males and females, temporal changes in the prevalence of any drinking, the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and total alcohol intake in the past 30 days in centilitres were analysed.

    Findings: The prevalence of any drinking in more recent cohorts remained low until young people came into their early (females) and mid- (males) 20s. Male cohorts differed in the prevalence of HED across age, with the later cohorts showing lower odds than earlier cohorts (odds ratios between 0.54 and 0.66). Among females, no systematic differences between cohorts across age could be observed. Later male birth cohorts in light/moderate drinkers had lower alcohol intake than earlier cohorts (correlation coefficients between −0.09 and −0.54). No statistically significant cohort effects were found for male heavy drinkers. Although differences in alcohol intake among females diminished as age increased, the cohorts did not differ systematically in their level of alcohol intake.

    Conclusions: In Sweden, the reduced uptake of drinking in adolescents appears to fade as people move into adulthood. Observed reductions in alcohol intake among light and moderate drinkers appear to persist into adulthood. More recent male cohorts show a lower prevalence rate of heavy episodic drinking.

  • 9. Lindeman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Katainen, Anu
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. University of Helsinki, Finland; The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Sweden.
    Kauppila, Emmi
    Hellman, Matilda
    Compliance with regulations and codes of conduct at social media accounts of Swedish alcohol brands2019In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 386-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and aims

    This study has, for the first time, mapped the extent to which alcoholic beverage brands operating on the Swedish market follow national advertising regulations and industry self-regulating codes in their postings on social media.

    Design and methods

    All social media content posted on YouTube, Twitter, Facebook and Instagram by 52 brands operating in the Swedish market was gathered from three sample months in 2014, 2016 and 2017. A content analysis was performed.

    Results

    An audit of the 1204 posts shows that the brands' social media content conforms rather well with the industry's own self-regulation codes. However, the studied beverage brands had alarmingly inadequate age-gates to social media accounts. Advertisements for alcoholic beverages must be clearly distinguishable from advertisements for non-alcoholic beverages, according to the Swedish Alcohol Act criteria. These criteria are fulfilled to a varying degree among the posts in the analysed data. Advertisements for non-alcoholic beverages give companies a greater leeway in terms of shape and content of the post through logotypes, settings and connotations. However, advertisements of non-alcoholic beverages continue to convey the brand connotations and image to consumers.

    Discussion and conclusions

    Regulating alcohol advertising in online milieus can be very difficult because of the complex mixture between quickly evolving techniques and the diverse nature of communication messages targeting consumers. Many countries, including Sweden, are now focusing on how to enforce effective policies. This short report strives to shed some light on the scope and content of commercial messages on Swedish social media platforms.

  • 10. Lindeman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Männistö-Inkinen, Vilja
    Hellman, Matilda
    Kankainen, Veera
    Kauppila, Emmi
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Drugs (CAN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Robin
    Gambling operators’ social media image creation in Finland and Sweden 2017–20202023In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 40-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This is a first audit of how gambling operators in Finland and Sweden address citizens on social media. The study is able to pinpoint some differences between how gambling operators utilise social media in a state monopoly system (Finland) and in a license-based regulatory framework (Sweden). Methods: Curated social media posts from Finland- and Sweden-based accounts in national languages were collected from March 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. The data (N = 13,241) consist of posts published on YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram. The posts were audited in terms of frequency of posting, content and user engagement. Results/Conclusions: Operators in both countries were, in general, active on their social media accounts, but there was a decline in number of posts between 2017 and 2020. A substantial number of the analysed posts did not visually portray gambling or games. In the Swedish license system, operators seem to present themselves more straightforwardly as gambling companies, whereas in the Finnish monopoly system the image was more tied to a social role of public good doing. Beneficiaries of gambling revenues became less visible in the Finnish data over time. 

  • 11. Raitasalo, Kirsimarja
    et al.
    Rossow, Ingeborg
    Moan, Inger Synnøve
    Bye, Elin K.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Thor, Siri
    Stockholm University. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ekholm, Ola
    Pisinger, Veronica
    Arnarsson, Ársæll
    Bloomfield, Kim
    Changes in co-use of alcohol and cannabis among Nordic adolescents in the 21st century: Results from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs study2024In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 616-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In the 21st century, there has been a decline in alcohol use among adolescents in most Nordic countries, while trends of cannabis use have diverged. We explore how alcohol and cannabis use, respectively, and co-use of the two substances, have changed among Nordic adolescents. Three hypotheses are used to frame the study: (i) cannabis use has substituted alcohol use; (ii) there has been a parallel decline in both substances; and/or (iii) there has been a ‘hardening’ of users, implying that alcohol users increasingly use cannabis.

    Methods: Data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, conducted among 15- to 16-year-olds in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden (N = 74,700, 49% boys), were used to explore trends of past-year alcohol and cannabis use in the period 2003–2019.

    Results: The proportion of adolescents reporting alcohol use decreased significantly in all Nordic countries except Denmark. The proportion of those using cannabis only was low (0.0%–0.7%) and stable in all countries. The total number of substance use occasions declined among all adolescents in all countries but Denmark. Among alcohol users, cannabis use became increasingly prevalent in all countries but Denmark.

    Discussion and Conclusions: We found no support for the ‘parallel decline hypothesis' in alcohol and cannabis use among Nordic adolescents. Partially in line with the ‘substitution hypothesis’, cannabis use accounted for an increasing proportion of all substance use occasions. Our results suggests that the co-use of alcohol and cannabis has become more common, thus also providing support to the ‘hardening’ hypothesis.

  • 12.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Att skatta införsel av alkohol till Sverige - ingen akademisk fråga?2007In: Nordisk alkohol- & narkotikatidskrift, ISSN 1455-0725, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 534-537Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Ramstedt (red.), Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Boman, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Engdahl, Barbro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Sohlberg, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Tal om alkohol 2010: en statistisk årsrapport från Monitorprojektet2010Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14. Raninen, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Sweden; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Livingston, Michael
    Sjödin, Lars
    Larm, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Reasons Not to Drink Alcohol among 9th Graders in Sweden2022In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 1747-1750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM Alcohol is one of the leading contributors to the disease burden among young people. Drinking motives are one of the strongest factors influencing drinking behaviors among youth, yet we know little about reasons for why young people do not drink. The aim of the present study is to examine reasons for not drinking in a nationally representative sample of Swedish youth.

    DATA AND METHODS Data from a survey of a nationally representative sample of students in year 9 (15-16 years old) was used. Data was collected in 2017 and the total sample comprise 5549 respondents. Ten items measured reasons not to drink alcohol. Comparisons were made between drinkers and nondrinkers in endorsement of the reasons for not drinking. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to examine the relative importance of the different reasons.

    RESULTS That alcohol is bad for health and parents disapproval of drinking was the most commonly endorsed reasons both among drinkers and nondrinkers. The multivariable analysis showed that the strongest association with being a nondrinker was found for “Alcohol tastes horrible” (OR 2.995), “I have religious reasons for not drinking” (OR 2.775), “People who drink lose control in an unpleasant way” (OR 2.460) and “Drinking is too likely to lead to serious accidents” (OR 2.458).

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Harm avoidance and religious reasons are the most important reasons not to drink among Swedish youth. Future research should examine how different reasons predict abstinence.

  • 15. Raninen, Jonas
    et al.
    Larm, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Livingston, Michael
    Sjödin, Lars
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Normalization of Non-Drinking? Health, School Situation and Social Relations among Swedish Ninth Graders That Drink and Do Not Drink Alcohol2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 21, article id 11201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol consumption is a major contributor to the disease burden among adolescents. The adolescent alcohol abstainer is still often depicted as problematic in the research literature and in prominent theoretical frameworks. However, over the past two decades, there has been a marked trend of declining youth drinking in Sweden. The declining trend has led to a shift in the majority behaviour of youth, from drinking to non-drinking. It is plausible that this trend has also shifted the position of non-drinkers. This paper examines the position of non-drinkers in a nationally representative sample of Swedish adolescents. A survey was carried out in 2017 in 500 randomly selected schools. A total of 5549 respondents (15–16-year-olds) agreed to participate and answered the questionnaire. A minority (42.8%) had consumed alcohol during their lifetime. The results show that non-drinkers had better health and school performance when compared to drinkers. The results also showed that there were no differences in the social position between non-drinkers and drinkers. These findings are new and indicate a changed position of non-drinkers among Swedish adolescents. With non-drinking being the majority behaviour among Swedish adolescents this seems to have shifted the position of non-drinkers. There is a need for research on the long-term importance of not drinking during adolescence.

  • 16. Raninen, Jonas
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Holmes, John
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Larm, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Declining youth drinking: A matter of faith?2022In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 721-723Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Youth drinking has declined in many high-income countries for two decades. This development is still largely unexplained. Developing evidence and extending our understanding as to the mechanisms behind these changes is imperative for advising governments and policy makers on how to support and maintain the trends. Given the international scope of the trends, comparative studies have been suggested for improving our understanding of the development. In this commentary, we explore the patterns observed across several waves of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs between 1999 and 2019, and how these match-up with the World Values Survey. We found that the declines in youth drinking are limited to a smaller number of countries and that in Europe these are all found in two groups from the World Values Survey, protestant Europe and English-speaking countries. If the declines in youth drinking are systematic and limited to a smaller number of countries, this challenges some of the hypothesised drivers of this development, but can also help guide future research.

  • 17. Raninen, Jonas
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Zetterqvist, Martina
    Larm, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    17 Is the New 15: Changing Alcohol Consumption among Swedish Youth2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 3, article id 1645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine and compare trends in drinking prevalence in nationally representative samples of Swedish 9th and 11th grade students between 2000 and 2018. A further aim is to compare drinking behaviours in the two age groups during years with similar drinking prevalence. Data were drawn from annual surveys of a nationally representative sample of students in year 9 (15–16 years old) and year 11 (17–18 years old). The data covered 19 years for year 9 and 16 years for year 11. Two reference years where the prevalence of drinking was similar were extracted for further comparison, 2018 for year 11 (n = 4878) and 2005 for year 9 (n = 5423). The reference years were compared with regard to the volume of drinking, heavy episodic drinking, having had an accident and quarrelling while drunk. The prevalence of drinking declined in both age groups during the study period. The rate of decline was somewhat higher among year 9 students. In 2018, the prevalence of drinking was the same for year 11 students as it was for year 9 students in 2005. The volume of drinking was lower among year 11 students in 2018 than year 9 students in 2005. No differences were observed for heavy episodic drinking. The decline in drinking has caused a displacement of consumption so that today’s 17–18-year-olds have a similar drinking behaviour to what 15–16-year-olds had in 2005.

  • 18.
    Spångberg, Jessika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Sweden.
    Associations Between Youth Unemployment and Underage Gambling in Europe2020In: Journal of Gambling Issues, ISSN 1910-7595, no 45, p. 91-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to explore the associations between youth unemployment and youth engagement in gambling forms that have age limits, namely, slots, sports betting, and cards, both online and offline. Cross-country data were provided by the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, a school survey focused on 16-year-olds. Gambling analyses included 30 countries (n = 81,229 respondents). Descriptive analysis with statistical plot diagrams was used and the computed coefficient of determination adopted to identify correlations. The suggested correlation was further tested by multilevel logistic regression analysis, controlling for gender at Level 1 and for the Inequality Human Development Index, gross domestic product/capita, and public health expenditure at Level 2. Underage gambling was associated with a higher degree of adolescent unemployment. The results indicate that youth unemployment is associated with underage gambling, implying that a broad public health framework is needed in the prevention of problem gambling.

  • 19.
    Spångberg, Jessika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Sweden.
    Gambling among 16-year-olds and associated covariates: A Nordic comparison2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 257-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study aimed to compare the prevalence in different gambling types as well as problem gambling in the Nordic countries, examining gambling, leisure activities, school truancy, parental relations and consumption of alcohol and other substances as covariates for problem gambling.Methods: Cross-country data were provided by the European Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) 2015. Prevalence of gambling and potential covariates were analysed for Denmark, Finland, Iceland Norway and Sweden (N=13,172 respondents aged 16 years), while analyses regarding problem gambling only included countries that participated in the optional questions on gambling problems (Denmark, Finland and Sweden;N=8108). We tested variables for problem gambling by bivariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression.Results: Cross-country differences were found in gambling and problem gambling, as well as differences in covariates for problem gambling. Sweden had the lowest rate of problem gambling. No significant difference was found between Denmark and Finland. Reports of too much gaming, inhalants, slots, betting and online gambling were positively associated with problem gambling, while parental monitoring and parental caring had a negative association. The relevance of the covariates varied across countries.Conclusions: Results indicate that although gambling regulation and its implementation have an important impact on gambling behaviour, we need more research on social, economic and cultural factors and how youth understand and interact with them. Contexts and regulations in other related fields should inform gambling research, policies and interventions.

  • 20.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Convergence between women and men in alcohol-related inpatient treatment in Stockholm County 1997-20062007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Travelers’ import to Sweden during the beginning of the 21st century: Do those who privately import alcohol drink more or have different patterns of drinking than those who do not?2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Privately imported alcohol has increased during the last decade in Sweden. Estimates suggest an increase from 1.1 liter (pure alcohol) per inhabitant in 1996 to 2.7 liters in 2004, and a decrease to 1.8 liters in 2007. The Privately imported alcohol represented approximately 20 % of total consumption in Sweden during the period 2001-2007 and thus represents a large amount of all alcohol consumed. However, the drinking habits of importers have been little studied.

    The main aim of this paper is to examine drinking patterns and experiences of alcohol related problems among Swedes who bring in alcohol from abroad and to investigate whether these aspects differs according to levels of import. In addition those who bring in alcohol are compared with those who do not bring in alcohol from abroad.

    Data on private import of alcohol, alcohol consumption and patterns of consumption were obtained from monthly surveys, from January 2002 until December 2007 (i.e., approx. 90,000 individuals). Logistic regressions is conducted in order to estimate the association between drinking habits (and problems) and different amounts of alcohol imports.

    The findings of this study indicate that those who import alcohol drink more and binge drink to a larger extent than those who do not. However, adverse consequences of alcohol were not reported to the same degree as among the non importers. Furthermore, the results suggest that the larger amount of imported alcohol the more alcohol is consumed and higher frequency of binge drinking.

  • 22.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Travellers’ alcohol imports to Swedenat the beginning of the 21st Century.: Do those who privately import alcohol drinkmore than or have different patterns of drinkingto those who do not?2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 193-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privately imported alcohol has increased during the last decade in Sweden. Estimates suggest an increase from 1.1 liter (pure alcohol) per inhabitant in 1996 to 2.7 liters in 2004, and a decrease to 1.8 liters in 2007. The privately imported alcohol represented approximately 20 % of total consumption in Sweden during the period 2001-2007 and thus represents a large amount of all alcohol consumed. However, the drinking habits of importers have been little studied. The main aim of this paper is to examine drinking patterns and experiences of alcohol related problems among Swedes who bring in alcohol from abroad and to investigate whether these aspects differs according to levels of import. In addition those who bring in alcohol are compared with those who do not bring in alcohol from abroad. Data on private import of alcohol, alcohol consumption and patterns of consumption were obtained from monthly surveys, from January 2002 until December 2007 (i.e., approx. 108,000 individuals). Logistic regressions is conducted in order to estimate the association between drinking habits (and problems) and different amounts of alcohol imports. The findings of this study indicate that those who import alcohol drink more and binge drink to a larger extent than those who do not. However, adverse consequences of alcohol consumption were not reported to the same degree as among the non importers. Furthermore, the results suggest that the larger amount of imported alcohol the more alcohol is consumed and higher frequency of binge drinking.

  • 23.
    Svensson, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Gambling among Swedish youth: Predictors and prevalence among 15-and 17-year-old students2019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 177-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gambling among adolescents is a growing public health concern in Sweden as in many other countries. Excessive gambling has been found to be associated with a wide range of negative consequences such as financial problems, strained relationships, criminal behaviour, depression, and an elevated risk for suicide. Research suggests a link between alcohol consumption and gambling, particularly among male gamblers. There are nevertheless gaps in the available knowledge pertaining to school-aged students in Sweden. Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate predictors of gambling and frequent gambling among Swedish students in Grade 9 and Grade 11 (ages 15 and 17 years). Data and method: Data on gambling and alcohol consumption were obtained from the Swedish Council on Information and Other Drugs yearly school surveys (n = 4763) in Grade 9 and Grade 11 (n = 3720). Poisson regression models have been applied to estimate the association between less frequent and frequent gambling with the predictors of gender, family and school satisfaction, school situation, and alcohol and drug use. Results: Gambling among Swedish students is a highly gendered activity: boys gamble more and more frequently than girls. Having consumed alcohol was associated with both less frequent and more frequent gambling among Grade 9 students while controlling for other variables. In Grade 9, heavy episodic drinking was only associated with less frequent gambling, not with frequent gambling. Among Grade 11 students, both alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking was associated with less frequent gambling but heavy episodic drinking was only associated with frequent gambling. Moreover, drug use was associated with less frequent gambling in Grade 11. Skipping classes was the only school factor that was found to be associated with less frequent gambling (Grade 11). Such factors as family satisfaction and two measurements of economic situation were not associated with gambling at all.

  • 24.
    Syed, Numan Raza
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Wahlström, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Perceived parental alcohol problems and psychosomatic complaints among adolescents in Sweden2023In: Addictive Behaviors Reports, ISSN 2352-8532, article id 100491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    For adolescents, parental problem drinking can be regarded as a chronic stressor, negatively affecting their health. There is limited knowledge and a relative lack of empirical evidence on this topic, especially in Sweden. The aim of the current study was to examine perceived parental alcohol problems and the links with psychosomatic complaints among adolescents in Sweden.

    Methods

    Data were obtained from the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs’ national survey of 2021, collected amongst 9,032 students in grades 9 (∼15–16 years) and 11 (∼17–18 years). Perceived parental alcohol problems were measured by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-6) scale, using a cutoff at ≥ 3. Psychosomatic complaints were captured by a binary measure based on the frequency of headache, stomach ache, feeling depressed or down, difficulties to fall asleep, and sleeping poorly at night. Sociodemographic characteristics included gender, grade, parental education, and parental country of birth. Descriptive analyses with chi2 tests and binary logistic regression analyses were performed.

    Results

    Adolescents with perceived parental alcohol problems had higher odds of reporting psychosomatic complaints compared with adolescents without perceived parental drinking problems, even when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Girls, grade 11 students, adolescent with at least one parent born in Sweden, and those without university-educated parents were more likely to report parental alcohol problems.

    Conclusions

    The findings highlight adolescents with perceived parental alcohol problems need support. The school, being an arena where adolescents spend much of their time, may play a vital role in this regard.

  • 25. Thern, Emelie
    et al.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Sweden.
    Long-term effects of youth unemployment on alcoholrelated morbidity2020In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 115, no 3, p. 418-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To test if exposure to unemployment in young adulthood is associated with an increased risk of later alcohol‐related morbidity.

    Design

    A nation‐wide register‐linked longitudinal population‐based study.

    Setting

    Sweden.

    Participants

    A total of 16 490 individuals born between 1967 and 1978, who had participated in the Labour Force Survey between the ages of 16–24 years during 1990–95.

    Measurement

    Information on the outcome of alcohol‐related morbidity was obtained from the National Hospital Discharge Register. The Swedish index of alcohol‐related in‐patient care was used to define the outcome. Information on sex, age and country of birth, as well as parents’ level of education, socio‐economic status and alcohol‐related health problems, were also obtained. Average follow‐up time was 22 years. Cox regression analysis was used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    Findings

    Compared with full‐time students, individuals who experienced short‐ and long‐term unemployment spells at a young age were at an increased risk of later alcohol‐related morbidity; < 3 months (HR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.35–3.09), 3–6 months (HR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.29–3.75) and > 6 months (HR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.06–3.71) of unemployment, after adjusting for several important individual and family level covariates.

    Conclusion

    In Sweden, a nation‐wide register‐based study with a 22‐year follow‐up suggests that being unemployed in young adulthood is associated with an increased risk of alcohol‐related morbidity later in life.

  • 26. Thern, Emelie
    et al.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Sweden.
    The associations between unemployment at a young age and binge drinking and alcohol-related problems2020In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 368-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Youth unemployment remains at a high stable level in many countries making it a public health problem of importance. The aim was to examine the short-term effect of unemployment at a young age (aged 17-29 years) on self-reported binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Methods: We used data from a cross-sectional national study that took place in 2013, with a follow-up in 2014. A sample of young adults aged 17-29 years (n = 1188, response rate of 46.3%) that completed both surveys served as the study sample in the current study. The same self-reported questionnaire, consisting of questions regarding their alcohol habits and sociodemographic information, was used on both occasions. Information on the outcomes of binge drinking and alcohol-related harm were obtained from the 2014 survey. From the 2013 survey, information on individual and family level covariates were collected. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with employed individuals as the reference group were estimated by logistic regression analysis. Results: At baseline, results indicate that employed individuals reported the greatest prevalence of weekly binge drinking. In the fully adjusted models, unemployment appeared to be associated with an increased risk of alcohol-related problems (OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.77-2.45); however, this was not the case for weekly binge drinking (OR 0. 94, 95% CI 0.45-1.96). Conclusion: Unemployment at a young age may be a risk factor for later alcohol-related problems. Thus, targeting youth unemployment could be one element in an effective health policy aimed at reducing rates of alcohol use disorders.

  • 27.
    Törrönen, Jukka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Månsson, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Roumeliotis, Filip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    How Covid-19 restrictions affected young people's well-being and drinking practices: Analyzing interviews with a socio-material approach2022In: International journal of drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 110, article id 103895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Covid-19 restrictions – as they made young people's practices in their everyday life visible for reflection and reformation – provide a productive opportunity to study how changing conditions affected young people's well-being and drinking practices.

    Methods: The data is based on qualitative interviews with 18- to 24-year-old Swedes (n=33) collected in the Autumn 2021. By drawing on the socio-material approach, the paper traces actants, assemblages and trajectories that moved the participants towards increased or decreased well-being during the lockdown.

    Results: The Covid-19 restrictions made the participants reorganize their everyday life practices emphatically around the home and communication technologies. The restrictions gave rise to both worsened and improved well-being trajectories. In the worsened well-being trajectories, the pandemic restrictions moved the participants towards loneliness, loss of routines, passivity, physical barriers, self-centered thoughts, negative effects of digital technology, sleep deficit, identity crisis, anxiety, depression, and stress. In the improved well-being trajectories, the Covid-19 restrictions brought about freedom to study from a distance, more time for significant others, oneself and for one's own hobbies, new productive practices at home and a better understanding of what kind of person one is. Both worsened and improved well-being trajectories were related to the aim to perform well, and in them drinking practices either diminished or increased the participants’ capacities and competencies for well-being.

    Conclusions: The results suggest that material domestic spaces, communication technologies and performance are important actants both for alcohol consumption and well-being among young people. These actants may increase or decrease young people's drinking and well-being depending on what kinds of relations become assembled.

  • 28.
    Wahlström, Joakim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Parental alcohol use and self-reported health among Swedish adolescents aged 10-18 years2021In: European Journal of Public Health, Volume 31, Issue Supplement_3, 2021, Vol. 31, article id ckab165.533Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Wahlström, Joakim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Parents’ drinking, childhood hangover? Parental alcohol use, subjective health complaints and perceived stress among Swedish adolescents aged 10–18 years2023In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, article id 162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Alcohol abuse is not only harmful to the consumer but may also negatively impact individuals in the drinker’s social environment. Alcohol’s harm to others is vital to consider when calculating the true societal cost of alcohol use. Children of parents who have alcohol use disorder tend to have an elevated risk of negative outcomes regarding, e.g., health, education, and social relationships. Research on the general youth population has established a link between parental drinking and offspring alcohol use. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding other outcomes, such as health. The current study aimed to investigate the associations between parental drinking and children’s psychological and somatic complaints, and perceived stress.

    Methods Data were derived from a nationally representative sample, obtained from the 2010 Swedish Level-of-Living survey (LNU). Parents and adolescents (ages 10–18) living in the same households were interviewed independently. The final study sample included 909 adolescents from 629 households. The three outcomes, psychological and somatic complaints and perceived stress, were derived from adolescents’ self-reports. Parents’ selfreports of alcohol use, both frequency and quantity, were used to categorise adolescents as having abstaining, lowconsuming, moderate-drinking, or heavy-drinking parents. Control variables included adolescents’ gender, age, family structure, and household socioeconomic status. Linear and binary logistic regression analyses were performed.

    Results Parental heavy drinking was more common among adolescents living in more socioeconomically advantaged households and among adolescents living with two custodial parents or in reconstituted families. Adolescents with heavy-drinking parents reported higher levels of psychological and somatic complaints and had an increased likelihood of reporting stress, compared with those having moderate-drinking parents. These associations remained statistically significant when adjusting for all control variables.

    Conclusion The current study’s results show that parental alcohol consumption is associated with poorer offspring adolescent health. Public health policies that aim to reduce parental drinking or provide support to these adolescents may be beneficial. Further studies investigating the health-related outcomes among young people living with heavy-drinking parents in the general population are needed to gain more knowledge about these individuals and to implement adequate public health measures.

  • 30.
    Wahlström, Joakim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Löfstedt, Petra
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Sense of Unity and Self-Reported Health Among 15-year-Olds: Findings From the Swedish 2017/18 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study2021In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 66, article id 621964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Sense of unity refers to the positive feeling of being part of a larger socialstructure. This study aimed to investigate to what extent adolescents report sense of unityand if this differs across groups, and to assess the associations between sense of unityand self-reported health while taking into account sociodemographic characteristics andtangible social relationships.

    Methods: Data were obtained from the 2017/18 Swedish Health Behavior in School-agedChildren study, using information collected among 15-year-old students (n1,392). Linearand binary logistic regression analyses were performed.

    Results: The participants reported overall high levels of sense of unity. Sense of unity didnot differ by gender, but adolescents without an immigrant background and those withhigher family affluence reported higher levels. Sense of unity was inversely associated withpsychological complaints, somatic complaints, and less than good self-rated health, evenwhen adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and family, classmate, and teacherrelationships.

    Conclusion :This study suggests that sense of unity may be an important socialdeterminant for adolescent health. More research is needed on the origins andimplications of sense of unity.

  • 31.
    Wahlström, Joakim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Sweden.
    Löfstedt, Petra
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    There’s a tear in my beer: Bullying victimisation and young teenage drinking in Sweden2023In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 154, article id 107123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Victims of bullying are at an increased risk not only of developing adverse mental health, but also of engaging in health risk behaviours. One way in which adolescents may cope with the health-related consequences of bullying victimisation is through substance use such as alcohol and narcotics, as posited by the self-medication hypothesis. Indeed, previous research has found a link between traditional (face-to-face) bullying victimisation and alcohol use among adolescents, albeit with some inconsistencies. However, studies examining both traditional bullying and cyberbullying among youth often report an association only between cyberbullying victimisation and drinking. The current study seeks to add to this field of research by analysing the predictive capacity of traditional and cyberbullying victimisation for youth drinking whilst also adjusting for bullying perpetration and sociodemographic characteristics. In the analyses, we distinguished between occasional and frequent victimisation, and performed separate investigations of how specific types of traditional bullying and cyberbullying victimisation are related to youth drinking. Data were obtained from the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, with pooled cross-sectional information from 2013/14 and 2017/18 collected among 13- and 15-year-old students (n =7126). Any alcohol use and drunkenness during the past 30 days were used as dependent variables. The respondents were categorised as non-victims, occasional victims, and frequent victims of traditional and cyberbullying, respectively. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between bullying victimisation and youth drinking. The results showed that 21.2% of students reported that they had been bullied at least once or twice in the past months, either as victims of traditional bullying only (8.3%), cyberbullying only (7.8%), or both (5.1%). When both types of bullying victimisation were mutually adjusted for, only cyberbullying remained significantly associated with an increased risk of drinking. However, when specific types of face-to-face bullying victimisation were analysed, several statistically significant associations with youth drinking were found, even when controlling for cyberbullying victimisation. Associations with any alcohol use and drunkenness were overall very similar. To conclude, this study corroborates previous research which has shown youth drinking to be more consistently related with cyberbullying victimisation than with traditional bullying victimisation. The study also extends previous knowledge by showing that the association between traditional bullying victimisation and youth drinking differs depending on the operationalisation of victimisation. Future research might benefit from examining this more thoroughly. The findings highlight that interventions targeting bullying and its effects should consider both face-to-face and online victimisation. 

  • 32.
    Workie, Hiwot Mezgebe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wahlström, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Perceived parental alcohol problems and drinking patterns among adolescents in Sweden2024In: Addictive Behaviors Reports, ISSN 2352-8532, Vol. 19, article id 100535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: For adolescents, parental problem drinking can be regarded as a chronic stressor, negatively affecting their health. There is limited knowledge and a relative lack of empirical evidence on this topic, especially in Sweden. The aim of the current study was to examine perceived parental alcohol problems and the links with psychosomatic complaints among adolescents in Sweden. Methods: Data were obtained from the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs’ national survey of 2021, collected amongst 9,032 students in grades 9 (~15–16 years) and 11 (~17–18 years). Perceived parental alcohol problems were measured by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-6) scale, using a cutoff at ≥ 3. Psychosomatic complaints were captured by a binary measure based on the frequency of headache, stomach ache, feeling depressed or down, difficulties to fall asleep, and sleeping poorly at night. Sociodemographic characteristics included gender, grade, parental education, and parental country of birth. Descriptive analyses with chi2 tests and binary logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: Adolescents with perceived parental alcohol problems had higher odds of reporting psychosomatic complaints compared with adolescents without perceived parental drinking problems, even when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Girls, grade 11 students, adolescent with at least one parent born in Sweden, and those without university-educated parents were more likely to report parental alcohol problems. Conclusions: The findings highlight adolescents with perceived parental alcohol problems need support. The school, being an arena where adolescents spend much of their time, may play a vital role in this regard. 

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