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  • 1. Anderson, Peter
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Addictions and European policy: Has the 'European project' stifled science-led policy?2011In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 117-118Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Atkinson, Jo-An
    et al.
    Knowles, Dylan
    Wiggers, John
    Livingston, Michael
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Prodan, Ante
    McDonnell, Geoff
    O'Donnell, Eloise
    Jones, Sandra
    Haber, Paul S.
    Muscatello, David
    Ezard, Nadine
    Phung, Nghi
    Freebairn, Louise
    Indig, Devon
    Rychetnik, Lucie
    Ananthapavan, Jaithri
    Wutzke, Sonia
    Harnessing advances in computer simulation to inform policy and planning to reduce alcohol-related harms2018In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 537-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol misuse is a complex systemic problem. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using a transparent and participatory agent-based modelling approach to develop a robust decision support tool to test alcohol policy scenarios before they are implemented in the real world. A consortium of Australia's leading alcohol experts was engaged to collaboratively develop an agent-based model of alcohol consumption behaviour and related harms. As a case study, four policy scenarios were examined. A 19.5 +/- 2.5% reduction in acute alcohol-related harms was estimated with the implementation of a 3 a.m. licensed venue closing time plus 1 a.m. lockout; and a 9 +/- 2.6% reduction in incidence was estimated with expansion of treatment services to reach 20% of heavy drinkers. Combining the two scenarios produced a 33.3 +/- 2.7% reduction in the incidence of acute alcohol-related harms, suggesting a synergistic effect. This study demonstrates the feasibility of participatory development of a contextually relevant computer simulation model of alcohol-related harms and highlights the value of the approach in identifying potential policy responses that best leverage limited resources.

  • 3. Babor, T.
    et al.
    Caetano, R.
    Casswell, S.
    Edwards, G.
    Giesbrecht, N.
    Graham, K.
    Grube, J.
    Hill, L.
    Holder, H.
    Homel, R.
    Livingston, M.
    Rehm, J.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Rossow, I.
    Österberg, E.
    Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity – a summary of the second edition2010In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 105, no 5, p. 769-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article summarizes the contents of Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity (2nd edn). The first part of the book describes why alcohol is not an ordinary commodity, and reviews epidemiological data that establish alcohol as a major contributor to the global burden of disease, disability and death in high-, middle- and low-income countries. This section also documents how international beer and spirits production has been consolidated recently by a small number of global corporations that are expanding their operations in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. In the second part of the book, the scientific evidence for strategies and interventions that can prevent or minimize alcohol-related harm is reviewed critically in seven key areas: pricing and taxation, regulating the physical availability of alcohol, modifying the drinking context, drink-driving countermeasures, restrictions on marketing, education and persuasion strategies, and treatment and early intervention services. Finally, the book addresses the policy-making process at the local, national and international levels and provides ratings of the effectiveness of strategies and interventions from a public health perspective. Overall, the strongest, most cost-effective strategies include taxation that increases prices, restrictions on the physical availability of alcohol, drink-driving countermeasures, brief interventions with at risk drinkers and treatment of drinkers with alcohol dependence.

  • 4. Babor, T.
    et al.
    Caetano, R.
    Casswell, S.
    Edwards, G.
    Giesbrecht, N.
    Graham, K.
    Grube, J.
    Hill, L.
    Holder, H.
    Homel, R.
    Livingston, M.
    Rehm, J.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Rossow, I.
    Österberg, E.
    Alcohol, no ordinary commodity: Research and public policy2010 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 5. Babor, T.
    et al.
    Caulkins, J.
    Edwards, G.
    Fischer, B.
    Foxcroft, D.
    Humphreys, K.
    Obot, I.
    Rehm, J.
    Reuter, P.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Rossow, I.
    Strang, J.
    Drug Policy and the Public Good2010Book (Other academic)
  • 6. Babor, Thomas
    et al.
    Caulkins, Jonathan
    Fischer, Benedikt
    Foxcroft, David
    Humphreys, Keith
    Medina-Mora, María Elena
    Obot, Isidore
    Rehm, Jürgen
    Reuter, Peter
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). University of Melbourne, Australia; AER Centre for Alcohol Policy Research, Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Australia.
    Rossow, Ingeborg
    Strang, John
    Drug Policy and the Public Good2018 (ed. 2)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drug Policy and the Public Good presents the accumulated scientific knowledge of direct relevance to the development of drug policy on local, national, and international levels. The book explores both illicit drug use and non-medical use of prescription medications within a public health perspective. A conceptual basis for a rational drug policy is presented, along with new epidemiological data on the global dimensions of drug misuse, significant trends in drug epidemics, and the global burden of disease attributable to drug misuse. The markets for both illicit and legally prescribed psychoactive substances are described, showing that these two sources of drug supply are becoming increasingly connected in many countries. The core of the book is a critical review of the cumulative scientific evidence in five general areas of drug policy: primary prevention programmes in schools and other settings; treatment interventions and harm reduction approaches; attempts to control the supply of illicit drugs, including drug interdiction and law enforcement; decriminalization and penal approaches; and control of the legal market through prescription drug regimes. The final chapters discuss the trend toward legalization of some psychoactive substances in different parts of the world and describe the need for a new approach to drug policy that is evidence-based, realistic, and coordinated. The evidence reviewed in this book suggests that an integrated and balanced approach to evidence-informed drug policy is more likely to benefit the public good than are uncoordinated efforts to reduce drug supply and demand.

  • 7. Babor, Thomas F.
    et al.
    Casswell, Sally
    Graham, Kathryn
    Huckle, Taisia
    Livingston, Michael
    Rehm, Jürgen
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Rossow, Ingeborg
    Sornpaisarn, Bundit
    Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity - a summary of the third edition2022In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 117, no 12, p. 3024-3036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: This article summarizes the findings and conclusions of the third edition of Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity. The latest revision of this book is part of a series of monographs designed to provide a critical review of the scientific evidence related to alcohol control policy from a public health perspective.

    Design: A narrative summary of the contents of the book according to five major issues.

    Findings: An extensive amount of epidemiological evidence shows that alcohol is a major contributor to the global burden of disease, disability and death in high-, middle- and low-income countries. Trends in alcohol products and marketing are described, indicating that a large part of the global industry has been consolidated into a small number of transnational corporations that are expanding their operations in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The main part of the book is devoted to a review of strategies and interventions designed to prevent or minimize alcohol-related harm. Overall, the most effective strategies to protect public health are taxation that decreases affordability and restrictions on the physical availability of alcohol. A total ban on alcohol marketing is also an effective strategy to reduce consumption. In addition, drink-driving counter-measures, brief interventions with at-risk drinkers and treatment of drinkers with alcohol dependence are effective in preventing harm in high-risk contexts and groups of hazardous drinkers.

    Conclusion: Alcohol policy is often the product of competing interests, values and ideologies, with the evidence suggesting that the conflicting interests between profit and health mean that working in partnership with the alcohol industry is likely to lead to ineffective policy. Opportunities for implementation of evidence-based alcohol policies that better serve the public good are clearer than ever before as a result of accumulating knowledge on which strategies work best.

  • 8. Babor, Thomas F.
    et al.
    Casswell, Sally
    Graham, Kathryn
    Huckle, Taisia
    Livingston, Michael
    Rehm, Jürgen
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Rossow, Ingeborg
    Sornpaisarn, Bundit
    Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity - A Summary of the Third Edition2023In: SUCHT, ISSN 0939-5911, E-ISSN 1664-2856, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 147-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: This article summarizes the findings and conclusions of the third edition of Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity. The latest revision of this book is part of a series of monographs designed to provide a critical review of the scientific evidence related to alcohol control policy from a public health perspective. Design: A narrative summary of the contents of the book according to five major issues. Findings: An extensive amount of epidemiological evidence shows that alcohol is a major contributor to the global burden of disease, disability and death in high-, middle- and low-income countries. Trends in alcohol products and marketing are described, indicating that a large part of the global industry has been consolidated into a small number of transnational corporations that are expanding their operations in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The main part of the book is devoted to a review of strategies and interventions designed to prevent or minimize alcohol-related harm. Overall, the most effective strategies to protect public health are taxation that decreases affordability and restrictions on the physical availability of alcohol. A total ban on alcohol marketing is also an effective strategy to reduce consumption. In addition, drink-driving counter-measures, brief interventions with at-risk drinkers and treatment of drinkers with alcohol dependence are effective in preventing harm in high-risk contexts and groups of hazardous drinkers. Conclusion: Alcohol policy is often the product of competing interests, values and ideologies, with the evidence suggesting that the conflicting interests between profit and health mean that working in partnership with the alcohol industry is likely to lead to ineffective policy. Opportunities for implementation of evidence-based alcohol policies that better serve the public good are clearer than ever before as a result of accumulating knowledge on which strategies work best.

  • 9. Babor, Thomas F.
    et al.
    Caulkins, Jonathan
    Fischer, Benedikt
    Foxcroft, David
    Medina-Mora, María Elena
    Obot, Isidore
    Rehm, Jürgen
    Reuter, Peter
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Rossow, Ingeborg
    Strang, John
    Drug Policy and the Public Good: a summary of the second edition2019In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 114, no 11, p. 1941-1950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The second edition of Drug Policy and the Public Good presents up-to-date evidence relating to the development of drug policy at local, national and international levels. The book explores both illicit drug use and non-medical use of prescription medications from a public health perspective. The core of the book is a critical review of the scientific evidence in five areas of drug policy: (1) primary prevention programs in schools and other settings; (2) treatment interventions and harm reduction approaches; (3) attempts to control the supply of illicit drugs, including drug interdiction and law enforcement; (4) penal approaches, decriminalization and other alternatives; and (5) control of the legal market through prescription drug regimens. It also discusses the trend towards legalization of some psychoactive substances in some countries and the need for a new approach to drug policy that is evidence-based, realistic and coordinated. The accumulated evidence provides important information about effective and ineffective policies. Shifting the emphasis towards a public health approach should reduce the extent of illicit drug use, prevent the escalation of new epidemics and avoid the unintended consequences arising from the marginalization of drug users through severe criminal penalties.

  • 10. Babor, Thomas F.
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Strang, John
    Drug Policy and the Public Good: a summary of the book2010In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 105, no 7, p. 1137-1145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drug Policy and the Public Good was written by an international group of scientists from the fields of addiction, public health, criminology and policy studies to improve the linkages between drug research and drug policy. The book provides a conceptual basis for evidence-informed drug policy and describes epidemiological data on the global dimensions of drug misuse. The core of the book is a critical review of the cumulative scientific evidence in five general areas of drug policy: primary prevention programmes in schools and other settings; health and social services for drug users; attempts to control the supply of drugs, including the international treaty system; law enforcement and ventures into decriminalization; and control of the psychotropic substance market through prescription drug regimes. The final chapters discuss the current state of drug policies in different parts of the world and describe the need for future approaches to drug policy that are coordinated and informed by evidence.

  • 11. Babor, Thomas F.
    et al.
    Sobell, Mark B.
    Sobell, Linda C.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. La Trobe University, Australia.
    Storbjörk, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Laslett, Anne-Marie
    Commentaries on R. Mellor & A. Ritter (2020). Redressing Responses to the Treatment Gap for People with Alcohol Problems2020In: SUCHT, ISSN 0939-5911, E-ISSN 1664-2856, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 113-117Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bloomfield, Kim
    et al.
    Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, Copenhagen Division, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Wicki, Matthias
    the Swiss Institute for the prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Problems (SIPA), Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Mäkelä, Pia
    National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Changes in Alcohol-Related Problems After Alcohol Policy Changes in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden2010In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 32-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: European Union travelers' allowances for alcohol import to Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were abolished in 2004. In addition, excise taxes on alcohol were lowered in 2003 and 2005 in Denmark, and in 2004 in Finland. Using northern Sweden as a control site, this study examines whether levels of reported alcohol problems have changed in Denmark, Finland, and southern Sweden as a consequence of these policy changes. Method: Annual cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden from 2003 to 2006. Five dependency items and seven extrinsic alcohol-related problems were examined. Changes were analyzed within each country/region with logistic regressions and tested for short- and long-term changes. Differential change was also tested between each country and the control site, northern Sweden. Results: Prevalence of alcohol problems decreased over the study period. Only in selected subgroups did problems increase. This mainly occurred in the samples for northern Sweden and Finland, and mostly among older age groups and men. In relation to the control site, however, no increases in problem prevalence were found. Conclusions: Our findings on a decline in reported alcohol problems largely agree with published reports on alcohol consumption over the same period in the study countries. They do not agree, however, with findings on changes in health and social statistics in Finland and Denmark, where some significant increases in alcohol-related harm have been found.

  • 13. Bobak, M.
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Pikhart, H
    Kubinova, R.
    Malyutine, S.
    Pajak, A.
    Kurilovitch, S.
    Topor, R.
    Nikitin, Y.
    Marmot, M.
    Contributions of drinking patterns to differences in rates of alcohol related problems between three urban populations2004In: Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0917-5040, E-ISSN 1349-9092, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 238-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine, on empirical data, whether drinking patterns, in addition to overall alcohol consumption, contribute to differences in rates of alcohol related problems between populations. Design: Cross sectional survey. Settings: One Russian, one Polish, and one Czech city. Participants: 1118 men and 1125 women randomly selected from population registers. Main outcome measures: Problem drinking; negative social consequences of drinking; alcohol consumption and drinking pattern. Results: Rates of problem drinking and of negative consequences of drinking were much higher in Russian men (35% and 18%, respectively) than in Czechs (19% and 10%) or Poles (14% and 8%). This contrasts with substantially lower mean annual intake of alcohol reported by Russian men (4.6 litres) than by Czech men (8.5 litres), and with low mean drinking frequency in Russia (67 drinking sessions per year, compared with 179 sessions among Czech men). However, Russians consumed the highest dose of alcohol per drinking session (means 71 g in Russians, 46 g in Czechs, and 45 g in Poles), and had the highest prevalence of binge drinking. In women, the levels of alcohol related problems and of drinking were low in all countries. In ecological and individual level analyses, indicators of binge drinking explained a substantial part of differences in rates of problem drinking and negative consequences of drinking between the three countries. Conclusions: These empirical data confirm high levels of alcohol related problems in Russia despite low volume of drinking. The binge drinking pattern partly explains this paradoxical finding. Overall alcohol consumption does not suffice as an estimate of alcohol related problems at the population level.

  • 14. Bodin, M.
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Predictors of abstinence and nonproblem drinking after 12-step treatment in Sweden2006In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol, ISSN 0096-882X, E-ISSN 1934-2683, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 139-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    The aims of this study were to identify individual predictors of 12 months continuous abstinence and nonproblem drinking after Swedish inpatient Minnesota Model treatment and to evaluate the outcome variance explained by pretreatment, within-treatment, and posttreatment factors for each outcome, separately and in conjunction.

    METHOD:

    One-hundred and twenty-nine men and 47 women were interviewed on admission to Swedish Minnesota Model treatment and after 12 months. Two interviewers who were not involved in treatment delivery performed structured interviews. Statistical analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models applied to pair-wise contrasts of three types of treatment outcome.

    RESULTS:

    The final multivariate models for the three pair-wise contrasts explained 71% (abstinence vs problem drinking), 44% (nonproblem drinking vs problem drinking), and 25% (abstinence vs. nonproblem drinking) of outcome variance. Abstention and nonproblem drinking were both differentiated from problem drinking by the completion of aftercare, satisfaction with treatment, and number of public addiction care contacts. When contrasted with nonproblem drinking, abstention was predicted by the endorsement of a baseline goal to stop drinking and a higher degree of posttreatment affiliation with mutual-help groups.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Results from this study support the fact that treatment is only one of many factors that contributes to an outcome and suggests issues that may need consideration in similar treatment settings.

  • 15. Bond, Jason
    et al.
    Witbrodt, Jane
    Ye, Yu
    Cherpitel, Cheryl J.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). University of Melbourne, Australia; Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Australia.
    Monteiro, Maristela G.
    Exploring Structural Relationships Between Blood Alcohol Concentration and Signs and Clinical Assessment of Intoxication in Alcohol-Involved Injury Cases2014In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 417-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Although the relationship between the Y90 (blood alcohol concentration, BAC) and Y91 (clinician intoxication assessment) ICD-10 codes has received attention recently, the role of 10 signs of intoxication in the Y91-Y90 relationship has not been studied yet. This work examines these signs in the estimation of alcohol intoxication levels of patients in medical settings. Methods: Collected and analyzed were data on 1997 injured emergency room patients from 17 countries worldwide reporting drinking prior to injury or presenting with a non-zero BAC from 17 countries worldwide. A model is estimated describing how the 10 signs inform the Y91, Y90 prediction with the goal of the use of observations on patients in place of a biological measure. Results: Signs were consistent with a single underlying construct that strongly predicted Y91. Smell of alcohol on breath predicted Y91 above its contribution through the construct and was stronger for those with tolerance to alcohol than for those without. Controlling for Y91, no sign further contributed to prediction of Y90 indicating that Y91 incorporated all intoxication sign information in predicting Y90. Variance explained was high for Y91 (R-2 = 0.84) and intoxication signs (above 0.72 for all but smell on the breath, 0.57) and lower for Y90 (0.38). Conclusion: Intoxication assessments are well predicted by overall intoxication severity, which itself is well represented by intoxication signs along with differential emphasis on smell of alcohol on breath, especially for those with alcohol tolerance. However, BAC levels remain largely unexplained by intoxication signs with a clinician's assessment serving as the primary predictive measure.

  • 16. Bowden, Jacqueline A.
    et al.
    Delfabbro, Paul
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Miller, Caroline L.
    Wilson, Carlene
    Levels of Parental Drinking in the Presence of Children: An Exploration of Attitudinal Correlates2021In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 460-469, article id agab071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    This study aimed to examine perceived social norms, the effect of parental drinking on these norms, alcohol use in front of children, and how norms and consumption vary based on child age and gender of the parent.

    Methods

    A cross-sectional online panel survey was undertaken with n = 1000 Australian adults (including 670 parents) aged 18-59 years. The survey assessed: alcohol consumption in front of children; normative attitudes towards drinking in the presence of children; and perceived social norms.

    Results

    Overall, 33.9% of parents reported drinking a glass of alcohol each day or a couple of times a week, 18.2% reported getting slightly drunk and 7.8% indicated getting visibly drunk each day or a couple of times a week with their children present. In total, 37.5% reported drinking in front of their children at least weekly. Fathers were more likely to drink in front of children than mothers. Most parents deemed drinking small amounts of alcohol in front of children as acceptable but did not accept drunkenness. Respondents were less concerned about a father drinking one or two drinks in front of their children than a mother. Social expectations were not related to child age, but norms related to others' perceived behaviour were.

    Conclusions

    Many parents, particularly fathers consume alcohol in front of their children. There is a need to target health promotion strategies to adults and parents consuming in excess of health guidelines, and to the many parents who are consuming alcohol at higher levels in front of their children.

  • 17. Bowden, Jacqueline A.
    et al.
    Delfabbro, Paul
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Miller, Caroline L.
    Wilson, Carlene
    Prevalence, perceptions and predictors of alcohol consumption and abstinence among South Australian school students: a cross-sectional analysis2017In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol consumption by young people (particularly early initiation) is a predictor for poorer health in later life. In addition, evidence now clearly shows a causal link between alcohol and cancer. This study investigated prevalence, predictors of alcohol consumption among adolescents including perceptions of the link between alcohol and cancer, and the role of parents and peers. Methods: A sample of Australian school students aged 12-17 years participated in a survey (n = 2885). Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine predictors. Results: Alcohol use increased with age and by 16, most had tried alcohol with 33.1% of students aged 12-17 reporting that they drank at least occasionally (95% CI = 31.0-35.2). Awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer was low (28.5%). Smoking status and friends' approval were predictive of drinking, whereas parental disapproval was protective. Those aged 14-17 who did not think the link between alcohol and cancer was important were more likely to drink, as were those living in areas of least disadvantage. The only factors that predicted recent drinking were smoking and the perception that alcohol was easy to purchase. Conclusions: An education campaign highlighting the link between alcohol and cancer may have positive flow-on effects for young people, and schools should incorporate this messaging into any alcohol education programs. Consideration should be given to factors that serve to regulate under-aged accessibility of alcohol.

  • 18. Bowden, Jacqueline A.
    et al.
    Delfabbro, Paul
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Miller, Caroline
    Wilson, Carlene
    Parental drinking in Australia: Does the age of children in the home matter?2019In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 306-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims Parental role modelling of alcohol use is known to influence alcohol consumption in adolescence and in later life. This study aimed to assess relationships between parental status, child age and alcohol consumption, which have not been well documented. Design and Methods Data were sourced from the 2013 Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey. Analyses were conducted for 25-55 year olds (n = 11 591) by parental status, gender and age of youngest child in the household, controlling for socio-demographic factors. Results Parents were less likely than non-parents to exceed the alcohol guideline for increased lifetime risk (18.2% vs. 24.2%) and short-term risk: at least weekly (14.2% vs. 21.2%); and at least monthly (27.5% vs. 35.9%). Fathers were just as likely to exceed the guidelines for lifetime risk as other men, but those with children aged 0-2, were less likely to exceed the guideline for short-term risk. Women were least likely to exceed the guideline for lifetime risk if they had children aged 0-2, 6-11 or 15 years and over, or the guideline for short-term risk, if they had children aged 0-2, or 15 years and over in the household. Parents were more likely to report drinking in the home. Discussion and Conclusions Parents were less likely to exceed alcohol guidelines than non-parents, especially mothers whose youngest child was an infant or in high school or older. Consistent with population rates in men, fathers were more likely to exceed alcohol guidelines than mothers, and this excess consumption warrants public health attention.

  • 19. Bowden, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Harrison, Nathan J.
    Caruso, Joanna
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Pettigrew, Simone
    Olver, Ian
    Miller, Caroline
    Which drinkers have changed their alcohol consumption due to energy content concerns? An Australian survey2022In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 1775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol is a discretionary, energy dense, dietary component. Compared to non-drinkers, people who consume alcohol report higher total energy intake and may be at increased risk of weight gain, overweight, and obesity, which are key preventable risk factors for illness. However, accurate consumer knowledge of the energy content in alcohol is low. To inform future behaviour change interventions among drinkers, this study investigated individual characteristics associated with changing alcohol consumption due to energy-related concerns.

    Methods: An online survey was undertaken with 801 Australian adult drinkers (18–59 years, 50.2% female), i.e. who consumed alcohol at least monthly. In addition to demographic and health-related characteristics, participants reported past-year alcohol consumption, past-year reductions in alcohol consumption, frequency of harm minimisation strategy use (when consuming alcohol), and frequency of changing alcohol consumption behaviours because of energy-related concerns.

    Results: When prompted, 62.5% of participants reported changing alcohol consumption for energy-related reasons at least ‘sometimes’. Women, those aged 30–44 years, metropolitan residents, those with household income $80,001–120,000, and risky/more frequent drinkers had increased odds of changing consumption because of energy-related concerns, and unemployed respondents had reduced odds.

    Conclusions: Results indicate that some sociodemographic groups are changing alcohol consumption for energy-related reasons, but others are not, representing an underutilised opportunity for health promotion communication. Further research should investigate whether messaging to increase awareness of alcohol energy content, including through systems-based policy actions such as nutritional/energy product labelling, would motivate reduced consumption across a broader range of drinkers.

  • 20. Bullock, S.
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Drinking behaviour, coming of age and risk2006In: Sex, drugs and young people: international perspectives / [ed] P. Aggleton, A. Ball & P. Mane, London & New York: Routledge , 2006, p. 120-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21. Callina, Sarah
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Centre for Alcohol Policy Research, Australia; Monash University, Australia.
    Harm, tangible or feared: Young Victorians' adverse experiences from others' drinking or drug use2014In: International journal on drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 401-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Harms from alcohol experienced by someone other than the drinker have received increasing attention of late, but have not been compared to harms from others' drug use. The aim of the current study is to compare the reported harms that are attributable to the alcohol use of others to those attributable to drugs, distinguishing between different types of harm in order to highlight how reported harms may be influenced by perception and social standing of use of the substance. Method: Respondents aged 16-24 from Victoria, Australia, completed the Victorian Youth Alcohol and Drug Survey (n = 5001), including questions on demographics, drug and alcohol consumption, on the types of harms they experienced attributable to drugs and alcohol, as well as harms they perpetrated after using drugs or alcohol. Results: For both drug and alcohol related harms, reports of harms loaded into two groups using multiple correspondence analysis: tangible harms such as assault, and amenity impacts such as being annoyed by people under the influence. Amenity impacts attributed to alcohol were more likely to be experienced by those who reported drug use and vice versa, while the tangible impacts were more likely to be reported by those who used both drugs and alcohol. Conclusions: Reports of amenity impacts from others appear to be influenced by the perception of the drug in question more than tangible impacts such as assault. Particularly for amenity impacts, the greater stigma attached to drug use may make respondents more likely to consider themselves harmed by drugs than they would when compared to alcohol, something that needs to be taken into account when assessing harms by either alcohol or drugs.

  • 22. Callinan, S.
    et al.
    Rankin, G.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Stanesby, O.
    Rao, G.
    Waleewong, O.
    Greenfield, T. K.
    Hope, A.
    Laslett, A-M.
    Harms from a partner's drinking: an international study on adverse effects and reduced quality of life for women2019In: American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, ISSN 0095-2990, E-ISSN 1097-9891, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 170-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Partners of heavy drinking individuals can be detrimentally affected as a result of their partner's drinking.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the proportion of heterosexual intimate partner relationships with a heavy drinking male that resulted in reported alcohol-related harm and to investigate the impact of this on well-being in 9 countries.

    Methods: This study used survey data from the Gender and Alcohol's Harm to Others (GENAHTO) Project on Alcohol's Harm to Others in 9 countries (10,613 female respondents, 7,091 with intimate live-in partners). Respondents were asked if their partners drinking had negatively affected them as well as questions on depression, anxiety, and satisfaction with life.

    Results: The proportion of partnered respondents that reported having a harmful heavy drinking partner varied across countries, from 4% in Nigeria and the US to 33% in Vietnam. The most consistent correlate of experiencing harm was being oneself a heavy episodic drinker, most likely as a proxy measure for the acceptability of alcohol consumption in social circles. Women with a harmful heavy drinking partner reported significantly lower mean satisfaction with life than those with a partner that did not drink heavily.

    Conclusions: Harms to women from heavy drinking intimate partners appear across a range of subgroups and impact on a wide range of women, at least demographically speaking. Women living with a heavy drinking spouse experience higher levels of anxiety and depression symptoms and lower satisfaction with life.

  • 23. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.
    Roberts, Sarah C. M.
    Cook, Won
    Kuntsche, Sandra
    Grittner, Ulrike
    Graham, Kathryn
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Bloomfield, Kim
    Greenfield, TomK
    Wilsnack, Sharon
    A gender-focused multilevel analysis of how country, regional and individual level factors relate to harm from others' drinking2022In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 13-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine how gender, age and education, regional prevalence of male and female risky drinking and country-level economic gender equality are associated with harms from other people's drinking.

    Methods: 24,823 adults in 10 countries were surveyed about harms from drinking by people they know and strangers. Country-level economic gender equality and regional prevalence of risky drinking along with age and gender were entered as independent variables into three-level random intercept models predicting alcohol-related harm.

    Findings: At the individual level, younger respondents were consistently more likely to report harms from others' drinking, while, for women, higher education was associated with lower risk of harms from known drinkers but higher risk of harms from strangers. Regional rate of men's risky drinking was associated with known and stranger harm, while regional-level women's risky drinking was associated with harm from strangers. Gender equality was only associated with harms in models that did not include risky drinking.

    Conclusions: Youth and regional levels of men's drinking were consistently associated with harm from others attributable to alcohol. Policies that decrease the risky drinking of men would be likely to reduce harms attributable to the drinking of others.

  • 24. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Laslett, Anne-Marie
    Rekve, Dag
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Waleewong, Orratai
    Benegal, Vivek
    Casswell, Sally
    Florenzano, Ramon
    Hoang, Thi
    Vu, Thi
    Hettige, Siri
    Huckle, Taisia
    Ibanga, Akanidomo
    Obot, Isidore
    Rao, Girish
    Siengsounthone, Latsamy
    Rankin, Georgia
    Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon
    Alcohol's harm to others: An international collaborative project2016In: The international journal of alcohol and drug research, ISSN 1925-7066, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This paper outlines the methods of a collaborative population survey project measuring the range and magnitude of alcohol's harm to others internationally. Setting: Seven countries participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) and ThaiHealth Promotion Foundation (ThaiHealth) research project titled The Harm to Others from Drinking, along with two other countries with similar studies, will form the core of a database which will incorporate data from other countries in the future. Measures: The WHO-ThaiHealth research project developed two comparable versions of a survey instrument, both measuring harm from others' drinking to the respondent and the respondent's children. Design: Surveys were administered via face-to-face methods in seven countries, while similar surveys were administered via computer-assisted telephone interviews in two additional countries. Responses from all surveys will be compiled in an international database for the purpose of international comparisons. Discussion: Harms from the alcohol consumption of others are intertwined with the cultural norms where consumption occurs. The development of this database will make it possible to look beyond reports and analyses at national levels, and illuminate the relationships between consumption, harms, and culture. Conclusions: This database will facilitate work describing the prevalence, patterning, and predictors of personal reports of harm from others' drinking cross-nationally.

  • 25. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Dietze, Paul
    Gmel, Gerhard
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Age-based differences in quantity and frequency of consumption when screening for harmful alcohol use2022In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 117, no 9, p. 2431-2437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Survey questions on usual quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption are regularly used in screening tools to identify drinkers requiring intervention. The aim of this study was to measure age-based differences in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and how this relates to the prediction of harmful or dependent drinking.

    Design: Cross-sectional survey.

    Setting: Australia.

    Participants: Data were taken from 17 399 respondents who reported any alcohol consumption in the last year and were aged 18 and over from the 2016 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, a broadly representative cross-sectional survey on substance use.

    Measurement: Respondents were asked about their frequency of consumption, usual quantity per occasion and the other items of the AUDIT.

    Findings: In older drinkers, quantity per occasion [β = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.43, 0.64 in 43–47-year-olds as an example] was a stronger predictor of dependence than frequency per occasion (β = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.17, 0.31). In younger drinkers the reverse was true, with frequency a stronger predictor (β = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.39, 0.69 in 23–27-year-olds) than quantity (β = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.18, 0.34 in 23–27-year-olds). Frequency of consumption was not a significant predictor of dependence in respondents aged 73 years and over (β = −0.03, 95% CI = −0.08, 0.02). Similar patterns were found when predicting harmful drinking. Despite this, as frequency of consumption increased steadily with age, the question on frequency was responsible for at least 65% of AUDIT scores in drinkers aged 53 years and over.

    Conclusions: In younger drinkers, frequent drinking is more strongly linked to dependence and harmful drinking subscale scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) than quantity per occasion, yet quantity per occasion has a stronger influence on the overall AUDIT score in this group. In older drinkers, frequency of consumption is not always a significant predictor of the AUDIT dependence subscale and is a weak predictor of the harmful drinking subscale.

  • 26. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Dietze, Paul
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Centre, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Heavy drinking occasions in Australia: Do context and beverage choice differ from low-risk drinking occasions?2014In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 354-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. The aim of the current study is to look for differences in drink choice and drinking location between a recent heavy drinking occasion (RHDO) and usual low-risk occasions among those that recently had both types of drinking occasion. Design and Methods. Seven hundred and seventy-four respondents to a population-based survey reported having a RHDO [8 + Australian standard drinks (ASD) for females, 11 + ASD for males] in the past six months also reported that their usual drinking occasion in at least one location involved less than five ASD. Drink choice and drinking locations for the RHDO and usual low-risk occasions were compared using confidence intervals. Results. The RHDO was more likely than usual low-risk occasions to occur away from licensed premises (59%), despite a higher percentage of respondents reporting drinking at a pub, bar or nightclub on a RHDO (28%) than on a usual low-risk night (12%). A higher percentage of respondents nominated bottled spirits (33%) as their main drink for their RHDO, with 11% primarily drinking bottled spirits on a usual low-risk occasion; the converse was true for bottled wine (20% and 33%, respectively). Discussion and Conclusions. While the high proportion of RHDOs that occurred at least in part at pubs or nightclubs was not surprising, a high proportion also occur in private homes. Previously found links between heavy drinking and beer may be a reflection of the usual drink choice of heavier drinkers, rather a choice specific to a particularly heavy occasion.

  • 27. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Dietze, Paul
    Drinking Contexts and Alcohol Consumption: How Much Alcohol Is Consumed in Different Australian Locations?2016In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 612-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine where Australians in different demographic groups and drinker categories consume their alcohol. Method: Results were taken from the Australian arm of the International Alcohol Control study, a telephone survey of 2,020 Australian adults with an oversample of risky drinkers. The 1,789 respondents who reported consuming alcohol in the past 6 months were asked detailed questions about the location of their alcohol consumption and how much alcohol they consumed at each place. Results: Sixty-three percent of all alcohol consumption reported by respondents was consumed in the drinker's own home, with much less consumed at pubs, bars, and nightclubs (12%). This is driven primarily by the number of people who drink in the home and the frequency of these events, with the amount consumed per occasion at home no more than in other people's homes or pubs, and significantly less than at special events. The average consumption on a usual occasion at each of these locations was more than five Australian standard drinks (above the Australian low-risk guideline for episodic drinking). Short-term risky drinkers had the highest proportion of consumption in pubs (19%), but they still consumed 41% of their units in their own home. Conclusions: The majority of alcohol consumed in Australia is consumed in the drinker's own home. Efforts to reduce long-term harms from drinking need to address off-premise drinking and, in particular, drinking in the home.

  • 28. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Dietze, Paul M.
    How much alcohol is consumed outside of the lifetime risk guidelines in Australia?2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 42-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of long-term risky drinking within the Australian population and the proportion of standard drinks that is consumed outside of the long-term risk (LTR) guidelines of two Australian standard drinks (ASD) per day.

    Design and Methods. Recruited by phone, 2020 Australian adults with an oversampling of risky drinkers were asked detailed questions about how much alcohol they consumed at a range of locations in 2013. Descriptive statistical analyses of data weighted to be representative of the Australian adult population were undertaken, with a focus on the ASD consumed above the LTR guidelines.

    Results. Although 28% of respondents drink at levels above the LTR drinking guidelines, 56% of all ASD consumed are above the two per day recommended to reduce LTR. Three-quarters of cask wine and liqueurs were consumed outside of the LTR guidelines, as were 58% of all ASD consumed in the home, similar to the proportion of ASD consumed above the guidelines in pubs (55%).

    Discussion and Conclusions. While the minority of Australians drink to LTR levels, the majority of alcohol is consumed by long-term risky drinkers. More research and policy focus on the patterns of alcohol consumption that lead to long-term risk, particularly outside of licensed premises, is required.

  • 29. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Mojica-Perez, Yvette
    Wright, Cassandra J. C.
    Livingston, Michael
    Kuntsche, Sandra
    Laslett, Anne-Marie
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Kuntsche, Emmanuel
    Purchasing, consumption, demographic and socioeconomic variables associated with shifts in alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic2021In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 183-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims: Restrictions introduced to reduce the spread of COVID-19 have had major impacts on the living circumstances of Australians. This paper aims to provide insight into shifts in alcohol consumption and associated factors during the epidemic. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional convenience sample of 2307 Australians aged 18 and over who drank at least monthly was recruited through social media. Respondents were asked about their alcohol consumption and purchasing in 2019 prior to the epidemic plus similar questions about their experiences in the month prior to being surveyed between 29 April and 16 May 2020. Results: Reports of average consumption before (3.53 drinks per day [3.36, 3.71 95% confidence interval]) and during (3.52 [3.34, 3.69]) the pandemic were stable. However, young men and those who drank more outside the home in 2019 reported decreased consumption during the pandemic, and people with high levels of stress and those who bulk-bought alcohol when restrictions were announced reported an increase in consumption relative to those who did not. Discussion and Conclusions: A reported increase in consumption among those experiencing more stress suggests that some people may have been drinking to cope during the epidemic. Conversely, the reported decrease in consumption among those who drank more outside of their home in 2019 suggests that closing all on-trade sales did not result in complete substitution of on-premise drinking with home drinking in this group. Monitoring of relevant subgroups to assess long-term changes in consumption in the aftermath of the epidemic is recommended.

  • 30. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). University of Melbourne, Australia; Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Centre, Australia.
    Livingston, Michael
    Changes in Australian attitudes to alcohol policy: 1995–20102014In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    In 2009 Wilkinson and colleagues reported a downward trend in support for alcohol policyrestrictions in Australia between 1995 and 2004. The aim of the current study is to examine more recent data on policy supportin Australia, specifically for policies covering alcohol availability up to 2010, and to examine specific demographic shifts insupport.

    Design and Methods

    Data was taken from the National Drug Strategy Household Surveys from 1995, 1998,2001, 2004, 2007 and 2010 (n = 80 846), primarily responses to attitude items on policy restriction and demographicquestions. The effects of age, sex, drinking patterns and income over time on three items addressing restriction of alcoholavailability were assessed using a factorial analysis of variance.

    Results

    Although availability items are among the lesspopular policy restrictions put forward in the National Drug Strategy Household Surveys, 2004 actually represented a turningpoint in the decrease in popularity, with an increase in support since then.Though some groups show consistently higher ratesof support than others for policy restrictions, the rate of change in support was fairly uniform across demographic and drinkinggroups.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    Despite the lack of an obvious catalyst, there has been an increase in support foralcohol policy restriction as it relates to general availability and accessibility since 2004. Furthermore, this increase does notappear to be a reflection of a change in a specific group of people, but appears to be occurring across the Australian population.

  • 31. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Centre for Alcohol Policy Research, Turning Point, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Livingston, Michael
    Jiang, Heng
    Who Purchases Low-Cost Alcohol in Australia?2015In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 647-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Debates surrounding potential price-based polices aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms tend to focus on the debate concerning who would be most affected-harmful or low-income drinkers. This study will investigate the characteristics of people who purchase low-cost alcohol using data from the Australian arm of the International Alcohol Control study. 1681 Australians aged 16 and over who had consumed alcohol and purchased it in off-licence premises were asked detailed questions about both practices. Low-cost alcohol was defined using cut-points of 80A cent, $1.00 or $1.25 per Australian standard drink. With a $1.00 cut-off low income (OR = 2.1) and heavy drinkers (OR = 1.7) were more likely to purchase any low-cost alcohol. Harmful drinkers purchased more, and low-income drinkers less, alcohol priced at less than $1.00 per drink than high income and moderate drinkers respectively. The relationship between the proportion of units purchased at low cost and both drinker category and income is less clear, with hazardous, but not harmful, drinkers purchasing a lower proportion of units at low cost than moderate drinkers. The impact of minimum pricing on low income and harmful drinkers will depend on whether the proportion or total quantity of all alcohol purchased at low cost is considered. Based on absolute units of alcohol, minimum unit pricing could be differentially effective for heavier drinkers compared to other drinkers, particularly for young males.

  • 32. Caluzzi, Gabriel
    et al.
    Pennay, Amy
    Laslett, Anne-Marie
    Callinan, Sarah
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Dwyer, Robyn
    Beyond ‘drinking occasions’: Examining complex changes in drinking practices during COVID-192022In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1267-1274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: ‘Drinking occasions’ are commonly used to capture quantities of alcohol consumed. Yet this standardised terminology brings with it numerous assumptions and epistemological limitations. We suggest that social changes brought on by COVID-19 restrictions have influenced routines, patterns of time use and drinking practices, highlighting the need to re-examine how we conceptualise drinking and ‘drinking occasions’ in alcohol research. Methods: This analysis draws on data gathered from 59 qualitative interviews conducted during the second half of 2020 with Australian drinkers aged 18 and over. The interviews explored how COVID-19 restrictions impacted daily practices and alcohol consumption patterns. Findings: Participants spoke about their work, study and social routines changing, which influenced the times, timing and contexts of their drinking practices. We separated these shifts into four overarching themes: shifting of structures shaping drinking; the permeability of drinking boundaries; the extension of drinking occasions; and new contexts for drinking. Discussion and Conclusion: COVID-19 restrictions have led to shifts in the temporal boundaries and contexts that would otherwise shape people's drinking, meaning drinking practices may be less bound by structures, norms, settings and rituals. The drinking occasions concept, although a simple tool for measuring how much people drink, has not been able to capture these complex developments. This is a timely consideration given that COVID-19 may have enduring effects on people's lifestyles, work and drinking practices. It may be useful to examine drinking as practice, rather than just an occasion, in order to better contextualise epidemiological studies going forward. 

  • 33. Cherpitel, C.
    et al.
    Bond, J.
    Ye, Y.
    Borges, G.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Poznyak, V.
    Hao, W.
    Multi-level analysis of causal attribution of injury to alcohol and modifiying effects: data from two international emerency room projects2006In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 258-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although alcohol consumption and injury has received a great deal of attention in the literature, less is known about patient's causal attribution of the injury event to their drinking or factors which modify attribution. Hierarchical linear modeling is used to analyze the relationships of the volume of alcohol consumed prior to injury and feeling drunk at the time of the event with causal attribution, as well as the association of aggregate individual-level and socio-cultural variables on these relationships. Data analyzed are from 1955 ER patients who reported drinking prior to injury included in 35 ERs from 24 studies covering 15 countries from the combined Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project (ERCAAP) and the WHO Collaborative Study on Alcohol and Injuries. Half of those patients drinking prior to injury attributed a causal association of their injury with alcohol consumption, but the rate of causal attribution varied significantly across studies. When controlling for gender and age, the volume of alcohol consumed and feeling drunk (controlling for volume) were both significantly predictive of attribution and this did not vary across studies. Those who drink at least weekly were less likely to attribute causality at a low volume level, but more likely at high volume levels than less frequent drinkers. Attribution of causality was also less likely at low volume levels in those societies with low detrimental drinking patterns, but more likely at high volume levels or when feeling drunk compared to societies with high detrimental drinking patterns. These findings have important implications for brief intervention in the ER if motivation to change drinking behavior is greater among those attributing a causal association of their drinking with injury.

  • 34. Cherpitel, C.
    et al.
    Bond, J.
    Ye, Y.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Poznyak, V.
    Rehm, J.
    Peden, M.
    Clinical assessment compared with breathalyser readings in the ER: concordance of ICD-10 Y90 and Y91 codes2005In: Emergency Medicine Journal, ISSN 1472-0205, E-ISSN 1472-0213, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 689-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the validity of clinical assessment of alcohol intoxication (ICD-10 Y91) compared with estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) using a breath analyser (ICD-10 Y90) among patients in the emergency room (ER).

    METHODS:

    Representative samples of ER patients reporting within six hours of injury (n = 4798) from 12 countries comprising the WHO Collaborative Study on Alcohol and Injuries were breath analysed and assessed blindly for alcohol intoxication at the time of ER admission. Data were analysed using Kendall's Tau-B to measure concordance of clinical assessment and BAC, and meta analysis to determine heterogeneity of effect size.

    RESULTS:

    Raw agreement between the two measures was 86% (Tau-B 0.68), but was lower among those reporting drinking in the six hours prior to injury (raw agreement 39%; Tau-B 0.32). No difference was found by gender or for timing of clinical assessment in relation to breath analysis. Patients positive for tolerance or dependence were more likely to be assessed as intoxicated at low levels of BAC. Estimates were homogeneous across countries only for females and for those negative for alcohol dependence.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Clinical assessment is moderately concordant with level of BAC, but in those patients who have actually been drinking within the last six hours the concordance was much less, possibly because, in part, of a tendency on the part of clinicians to assign some level of intoxication to anyone who appeared to have been drinking.

  • 35. Cherpitel, Cheryl J.
    et al.
    Ye, Yu
    Bond, Jason
    Borges, Guilherme
    Macdonald, Scott
    Stockwell, Tim
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Sovinova, Hana
    Marais, Sandra
    Giesbrecht, Norman
    Validity of self-reported drinking before injury compared with a physiological measure: Cross-national analysis of emergency-department data from 16 countries2007In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 296-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Self-reports of alcohol consumption among patients visiting an emergency department (ED) have been used extensively in the investigation of the relationship between drinking and injury. Little is known, however, about the associations between validity of self-reports with patient and injury characteristics and whether these relationships vary across regions or countries. Both of these issues are explored in this article. Method: In the construct of a multilevel logistical model, validity of self-reports was estimated as the probability of a positive self-report given a positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The setting included 44 EDs across 28 studies in 16 countries. Participants included 10,741 injury patients from the combined Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project (ERCAAP) and the World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Alcohol and Injuries. Data were analyzed on self-reported drinking within 6 hours before injury compared with BAC results obtained from breath-analyzer readings in all but two studies, which used urine screens. Covariates included demographic, drinking, and injury characteristics and aggregate-level contextual variables. Results: At the individual level, a higher BAC measurement was associated with a higher probability of reporting drinking, as was heavy drinking and sustaining injuries in traffic accidents or violence-related events. At the study level, neither aggregate BAC nor other sociocultural variables affected the validity of self-reported drinking. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of the validity of self-reported drinking measures in crossnational ED studies based on the objective criterion of BAC estimates.

  • 36.
    Cisneros Örnberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Impacts of Tourism on Drinking and Alcohol Policy in Low-And Middle-Income Countries: A Selective Thematic Review2014In: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, E-ISSN 2163-1808, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 145-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article considers impacts of the drinking patterns of tourists from high-consumption, high-income societies on low- and middle-income societies, thematically reviewing a rather sparse literature. Drinking — indeed, drinking more than at home — fits well into the context of tourism. Heavy drinking by tourists has a substantial impact on many elements in the host society, increasing consumption levels particularly among young people working within the tourism sector. Tourist industry interests have often successfully argued for policies that result in a wider general availability of alcohol in the society, and provision for tourists has often served as an entry point in the society for the global alcohol industry. National and international consideration of policies to reduce alcohol problems should take into consideration the potential adverse influences on national alcohol policies arising from tourism.

  • 37. Coomber, Kerri
    et al.
    Zahnow, Renee
    Ferris, Jason
    Droste, Nicolas
    Mayshak, Richelle
    Curtis, Ashlee
    Kypri, Kypros
    de Andrade, Dominique
    Grant, Kristy
    Chikritzhs, Tanya
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Jiang, Heng
    Taylor, Nicholas
    Najman, Jake
    Miller, Peter
    Short-term changes in nightlife attendance and patron intoxication following alcohol restrictions in Queensland, Australia2018In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, article id 1185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study aims to explore short-term changes following the introduction of alcohol restrictions (most notably 2am to 3am last drinks). We examined patterns of nightlife attendance, intoxication, and alcohol use among patrons shortly before and after restrictions were introduced in Fortitude Valley, Brisbane: the largest night-time entertainment precinct of Queensland.

    Methods: Street-intercept patron interviews were conducted in Fortitude Valley in June (n=497) and July (n=562) 2016. A pre-post design was used to assess changes in time spent out drinking/partying prior to the interview, time of arrival in the precinct, pre-drinking, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC).

    Results: Regression models indicated that after the policy introduction, the proportion of people arriving at Fortitude Valley before 10:00pm increased (OR=1.38; 95% CI=1.04, 1.82). Participants reported going out, on average, one hour earlier after the intervention (=-0.17; 95% CI=0.11, 0.22). There was a decrease (RRR=0.58; 95% CI=0.43, 0.79) in the proportion of participants who had a high level of intoxication (BAC 0.10g/dL) post-intervention. No other significant differences were found.

    Conclusions: Earlier cessation of alcohol sales and stopping the sale of rapid intoxication drinks after midnight was associated with people arriving in Fortitude Valley earlier. Though legislative loopholes allowed some venues to continue trading to 5am, the proportion of people in the precinct who were highly intoxicated decreased after the restriction. Further measurement will be required to determine whether the reduction has persisted.

  • 38. Crépault, Jean-François
    et al.
    Rehm, Jürgen
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Legalization as more effective control? Parallels between the end of alcohol prohibition (1927) and the legalization of cannabis (2018) in Ontario2021In: International journal of drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 97, article id 103367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the 1920s, eight of nine Canadian provinces legalized alcohol sales, ending prohibition in favor of government control. Much has been written about the rise and fall of Prohibition in North America, but there is little work examining these events in the light of current drug policy debates. This paper attempts to fill some of these gaps.

    Methods: The aims of this paper are primarily exploratory and descriptive. Following a literature review, it draws from secondary and some primary sources to explore the debate around ending alcohol prohibition (i.e. legalizing its distribution) in Ontario between 1920 and 1927. It then uses material drawn from a comprehensive search of the Canadian House of Commons debates on cannabis legalization between 2016 and 2018 to draw parallels with the debates around alcohol legalization in Ontario about 90 years earlier.

    Results: While alcohol and cannabis legalization occurred in very different social and political contexts, there are similarities in both the arguments in favor of ending prohibition (ineffectiveness at preventing consumption and collateral social harms) and post-legalization debates around regulation (most notably the optimal way to replace the illicit market).

    Conclusion: The Canadian cannabis legalization debates of the 2010s echo the alcohol legalization debates of the 1920s in remarkable and relevant ways. Ultimately the most striking parallel may be the extent to which the political leaders advocating for legalization emphasized that their policy was not liberalization, but more effective control.

  • 39. Dawson, D.A.
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Towards agreement on ways to measure and report drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems in adult general population surveys2000In: Journal of Substance Abuse, ISSN 0899-3289, E-ISSN 1873-6491, Vol. 12, no 1-2, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thematic conference of the Kettil Bruun Society (KBS) for Social and Epidemiological Research on Alcohol was held in Skarpö, near Stockholm, on April 3–7, 2000. The goals of the meeting were to develop consensus sets of questionnaire items for measuring alcohol consumption and social harm, to delineate statistical and practical concerns related to the aggregation of consumption and harm data and to identify summary measures to be used for descriptive purposes and in analyses of the association between alcohol intake and alcohol-related outcomes. The results of the conference discussions are summarized below, with emphasis on both areas where the conference yielded recommendations for measures and methods of aggregation for analysis, and on areas where consensus could not be obtained and/or where additional research is needed.

  • 40. Demers, A.
    et al.
    Gerretsen, H.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Rossow, I.
    Ugland, T.
    The Kettil Bruun Society for Social and Epidemiological Research on Alcohol2004In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 99, no 2, p. 161-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kettil Bruun Society for Social and Epidemiological Research on Alcohol (KBS) was established in 1987 and is an independent organization open to all scientists working on problems related to social and epidemiological research on alcohol. The aim of the Society is to promote social and epidemiological research which fosters a comparative understanding of the social aspects of alcohol use and alcohol problems. In line with this the Society also aims at promoting a spirit of international collaboration. The Kettil Bruun Society is based on individual membership and, by 2003, has 197 fully paid-up members, representing 34 different countries over five continents. The main activities include an annual meeting as well as thematic meetings. In these meetings, discussions are emphasized by having precirculated papers and assigned discussants. The KBS also serves as a basis for organizing international collaborative projects. Project meetings or work-shops are often organized around the annual meetings, and the projects tend to run over several years. The Society's primary influence is through the mutual influence of its members on each others' thinking, the work of the projects that KBS sponsors and the influence its members have collectively on the development of the field.

  • 41. Demers, Andree
    et al.
    Room, RobinStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).Bourgault, Chantal
    Surveys of Drinking Patterns and Problems in Seven Developing Countries2000Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 42. Dietze, P.
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Jolley, D.
    Matthews, S.
    Chikritzhs, T.
    The adverse consequences of drinking in a sample of Australian adults2011In: Journal of Substance Use, ISSN 1465-9891, E-ISSN 1475-9942, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 116-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the adverse consequences of drinking reported by a subsample of participants in the Australian arm of the GenACIS (Gender Alcohol and Culture: an International Study). Design and method: A random sample of adults (18+, N = 1,608) was interviewed by telephone for self-reported experience of adverse consequences of alcohol consumption. Results: Ten per cent reported experiencing either alcohol related life-area problems and/or physical/emotional/legal problems as a result of their drinking in the previous year. Around 4% reported getting into a fight after they had been drinking and 6% reported adverse effects of alcohol on their physical health. There were variations by age, and other correlates, such as drinking patterns, but not by gender. For example, while only 4% of the sample aged 35–44 reported being injured or injuring someone else, 17% of the sample aged under 25 reported being injured or injuring another. Conclusions: Young Victorians and those who reported riskier drinking were generally more likely to report experiencing adverse consequences than older Victorians and those who reported less risky drinking. This is important in the Australian context, with a focus on the harms associated with young people’s drinking the subject of much recent public debate.

  • 43. Dietze, Paul
    et al.
    Agius, Paul A.
    Livingston, Michael
    Callinan, Sarah
    Jenkinson, Rebecca
    Lim, Megan S. C.
    Wright, Cassandra J. C.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Correlates of alcohol consumption on heavy drinking occasions of young risky drinkers: event versus personal characteristics2017In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 112, no 8, p. 1369-1377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims Risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) by young people is a serious public health issue, yet little is known about the specific circumstances of risky drinking occasions. This study examined the independent effects of event- and individual-specific variables on RSOD. Design Longitudinal cohort study measuring self-reported RSOD and event- and individual-specific variables across two drinking occasions approximately 1 year apart. Setting Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Participants A sample of 710 young risky drinkers aged between 18 and 25years and defined as engaging in risky drinking practices (males: consumed alcohol in excess of 10 Australian Standard Drinks (ASD: 10g ethanol) in a single occasion in the previous year; females: consumed alcohol in excess of seven ASD for females in a single occasion in the previous year). Measurements Random digit-dial telephone landline survey of the most recent heavy drinking occasion and socio-demographic variables. The primary outcome was the log of the total drinks consumed in the most recent heavy drinking occasion. Event-specific (e.g. number of drinking locations) and time-varying (e.g. weekly income) and time-invariant (e.g. sex) individual-specific variables were examined as correlates of total drinks consumed. Findings Changes in event-specific characteristics including the length of the drinking occasion (Likelihood Ratio (2)(2)=24.4, P<0.001), the number of drinking locations (Wald (2)((1))=7.6, P=0.006) and the number of different drink types (Wald (2)((1))=13.6, P<0.001) were associated with increases in total drinks consumed, after adjustment for time-invariant and time-variant individual-specific variables such as gender, income level and weekly consumption. Few other effects were noted. Conclusions Event-specific characteristics are important predictors of the number of drinks consumed during risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) and illustrate the importance of event contexts when considering interventions targeting RSOD. The total number of drinks consumed in a RSOD session appears to rise independently with the duration of the drinking event, the number of drinking locations and the number of different types of beverage consumed.

  • 44. Dietze, Paul
    et al.
    Ferris, Jason
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Who Suggests Drinking Less?: Demographic and National Differences in Informal Social Controls on Drinking2013In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 859-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine variation in reports of pressuring others to drink less, as a form of informal social control of drinking, across countries and different types of relationship to the respondent. Method: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 19,945 respondents ages 18-69 years in 14 countries included in the data set of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS). Outcome variables were respondents' reports of pressuring others to drink less (yes/no) across a variety of relationships (their partners, other family members, workmates, or friends). Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out on each outcome variable. The fixed-effects components included the Level 1 (individual) covariates of respondent age, gender, drinking status, and education level as well as the Level 2 (country level) covariates of percentage female drinkers and purchasing power parity. The random-effects components included country and current drinking status. Results: Respondents most frequently reported pressuring male friends to drink less (18%), followed by male family members (other than partners, 15%), partners (15%), work colleagues (12%), female friends (9%), female family members (other than partners, 6%), and children (5%). There was marked variation across countries, with pressuring frequently reported in Uganda, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua across most relationship types. Multivariable logistic regression revealed consistent effects of gender, with women more likely than men to report pressuring others to drink less across most relationship types. The patterns in relation to education status and age were less consistent and varied across relationship type. Conclusions: Informal social control of drinking varies dramatically according to whom is most likely to pressure whom to drink less as well as the country in which people live.

  • 45. Dowling, N. A.
    et al.
    Youssef, G. J.
    Greenwood, C.
    Merkouris, S. S.
    Suomi, A.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. La Trobe University, Australia.
    The Identification of Low-risk Gambling Limits for Specific Gambling Activities2022In: Journal of Gambling Studies, ISSN 1050-5350, E-ISSN 1573-3602, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 559-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An emerging literature has identified optimal low-risk gambling limits in an effort to reduce gambling-related harm. Concerns have, however, been raised about the construction of aggregate low-risk limits that are applied to all gambling activities and there is support from gambling experts and the general public in Australia for the identification of low-risk limits for specific gambling activities. The study's aim was to identify and evaluate a set of empirically-based activity-specific limits (gambling frequency, gambling expenditure, gambling expenditure as a proportion of gross personal income, session expenditure, session duration) in a secondary analysis of Social and Economic Impact Studies of Gambling in Tasmania and the 2014 Survey on Gambling, Health and Wellbeing in the ACT. Balancing sensitivity and specificity, limits were identified for all gambling activities: EGMs (10 times per year, AUD$300/year, 0.63-1.04% of personal income, AUD$35 per session, 40 min/session), horse/dog racing (0.55% of personal income), instant scratch tickets (AUD$45/year), lotteries (0.45% of personal income), keno (4-13 times/year, AUD$45-$160/year), casino table games (AUD$345/year, 0.36-0.76% of personal income), bingo (AUD$150/year, 0.49% of personal income, AUD$17/session, 90 min/session), and sports/other event betting (14 times/year, AUD$400/year, 0.55-0.86% of personal income). These limits were exceeded by one-quarter to one-half of gamblers on these specific activities and were generally good predictors of gambling-related harm in subgroups of gamblers participating in these gambling activities and in the overall gambling sample. The limits provide gamblers, regulators, prevention workers, and researchers with simple rules of thumb in prevention efforts to reduce gambling-related harm in specific contexts.

  • 46. Dowling, Nicki A.
    et al.
    Youssef, George J.
    Greenwood, Christopher
    Merkouris, Stephanie S.
    Suomi, Aino
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    The Development of Empirically Derived Australian Low-Risk Gambling Limits2021In: Journal of Clinical Medicine, E-ISSN 2077-0383, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study derived a set of Australian low-risk gambling limits and explored the relative and absolute risk associated with exceeding these limits. Secondary analysis of population-representative Tasmanian and Australian Capital Territory (ACT) cross-sectional (11,597 respondents) and longitudinal studies (2027 respondents) was conducted. Balancing sensitivity and specificity, the limits were: gambling frequency of 20-30 times per year; gambling expenditure of AUD $380-$615 per year (USD $240-$388 per year); gambling expenditure comprising 0.83-1.68% of gross personal income; and two types of gambling activities per year. All limits, except number of activities, predicted subsequent harm, with limits related to gambling expenditure consistently the best-performing. Exceeding the limits generally conferred a higher degree of relative and absolute risk, with gamblers exceeding the limits being 3-20 times more likely to experience harm than those who do not, and having a 5-17% risk of experiencing harm. Only 7-12% of gamblers exceeding the limits actually experienced harm. Gambling consumption lower than the limits also conferred a considerable amount of harm. Using a relative risk method, this study derived similar limits from disparate Australian states and territories. These limits can serve as working guidelines for the consideration of researchers, clinicians, and policy makers, but need to be subject to further rigorous empirical investigation.

  • 47. Ferrence, R.
    et al.
    Slade, J.Room, RobinStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).Pope, M.
    Nicotine and Public Health2000Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is the result of discussions of alternative nicotine delivery systems and the associated medical risks. The 1st section on nicotine in context includes 3 chapters relating to the origins of nicotine use, history of American tobacco advertising and control systems for psychoactive substances. The next section includes 3 chapters on nicotine toxicity, effects during pregnancy and cognitive and behavioural effects. The 3rd section is concerned with nicotine dependence and delivery, with reference to nicotine as an addictive substance, reducing the health impact of nicotine, alternative nicotine delivery systems, traditional tobacco products, nicotine-replacement therapies, nicotine threshold for addiction, and public health and levels of nicotine. Current and potential patterns of use are discussed in the 4th section. Policy and health issues are considered in the next section, with reference to regulatory mechanisms, clinical implications of long-term nicotine use, market for long-term nicotine maintenance and the public health implications of adopting a harm-reduction approach to nicotine. Implications for research and policy are outlined in 2 chapters in the next section. In the final section, the role of managing nicotine in controlling the tobacco epidemic is discussed.

  • 48. Ferris, J.
    et al.
    Laslett, A.-M.
    Livingston, M.
    Mugavin, J.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Wilkinson, C.
    The drinker’s effect on the social environment: A conceptual framework for studying alcohol’s harm to others2010In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1855-1871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper considers conceptual and methodological issues in studying the scope of alcohol’s harm to others. Reasons are suggested for the relative neglect of the topic. The approaches in two relevant research traditions are considered: population surveys on alcohol problems, and economic cost of alcohol studies. Ways of conceptualizing and measuring aspects of the drinker’s effects on others are considered, in terms of main types of relationship with the other, and in terms of major societal response institutions. The main types of data tend to measure different levels of severity, with population survey data dominated by less severe problems, and response institution data by more severe problems; so both are needed for a three-dimensional view. Research questions for the field and its policy significance are noted.

  • 49. Ferris, J.A.
    et al.
    Laslett, A-M.
    Livingston, M.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Wilkinson, C.
    The impacts of others' drinking on mental health2011In: Medical Journal of Australia, ISSN 0025-729X, E-ISSN 1326-5377, Vol. 195, no 3, p. 22-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To analyse the links between other people's drinking and mental health and to explore the effects on mental health of heavy and problematic drinkers both within and outside spousal relationships.

    DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:

    A secondary analysis of data obtained as part of the Alcohol's Harm to Others survey from 2622 randomly sampled Australian adults interviewed by telephone between October and December 2008.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

    Self-reported anxiety or depression and satisfaction with mental wellbeing; the presence of heavy and problematic drinkers in respondents' lives.

    RESULTS:

    Identification of at least one heavy drinker in the respondents' social network of friends, family and co-workers was significantly negatively associated with self-reported mental wellbeing and anxiety or depression. If the heavy drinker was identified by the respondent as someone whose drinking had had a negative impact on their life in the past year, the adverse effect on mental wellbeing and anxiety was much greater.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Our findings support a causal pathway between alcohol use and mental health problems by way of someone else's drinking. The association with adverse mental health is substantial regardless of the type of relationship an individual has with the heavy drinker whose drinking has had an adverse effect on them.

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  • 50. Fischer, B.
    et al.
    Hall, W.
    Lenton, S.
    Reuter, P.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Cannabis Policy: Moving beyond Stalemate2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "Cannabis, marijuana, pot, ganja - it goes by many names -- is by far the most widely used illegal substance, and accounts for more arrests than any other drug. Barely a week goes by without this drug appearing in the newpapers, and politicians have famously tied themselve in knots, trying to decide just how to deal with this recreational drug. While there have been many drug policy books on other substances - both legal and illegal, few have focused on this drug. Cannabis Policy: Moving beyond Stalemate is unique in providing the materials needed for deciding on policy about cannabis in its various forms. It reviews the state of knowledge on the health and psychological effects of cannabis, and its dangerousness relative to other drugs. It considers patterns and trends in use, the size and character of illicit markets, and the administration of current policies, including arrests and diversion to treatment, under the global prohibition regime. It looks at the experience of a number of countries which have tried reforming their regimes and softening prohibition, exploring the kinds of changes or penalties for use for possession: including depenalization, decriminalization, medical control, and different types of legalization. It evaluates such changes and draws on them to assess the effects on levels and patterns of use, on the market, and on adverse consequences of prohibition. For policymakers willing to look outside the box of the global prohibition regime, the book examines the options and possibilities for a country or group of countries to bring about change in, or opt out of, the global control system. Throughout, the book examines cannabis within a global frame, and provides in accessible form information which anyone considering reform will need in order to make decisions on cannabis policy (much of which is new or has not been readily available). This book will be essential for those involved in policymaking and be of interest to a wide range of readers interested in drugs and drug policy, as well as being an excellent supplementary text for university courses in criminology, policy science, social science, or public health"

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