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  • 1. Armstrong, Pat
    et al.
    Armstrong, Hugh
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Conclusion: a labour of love is still labour2023In: Unpaid Work in Nursing Homes: Flexible Boundaries / [ed] Pat Armstrong, Bristol: Policy Press, 2023, p. 127-130Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beginning with an overview of the various forms of unpaid labour done by and for those who live in, visit and work in nursing homes, this chapter identifies the conditions in Norway, Sweden and Canada that shape this work in particular, and different ways to bring both rewards and tensions to the various players. It demonstrates that the boundaries between paid and unpaid work are flexible, based more on conditions than on choice. It argues that naming unpaid labour as work does not eliminate care – or love for that matter. Rather, it calls attention to the conditions that are required to keep the care and the love in this labour.

  • 2. Armstrong, Pat
    et al.
    Banerjee, Albert
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Armstrong, Hugh
    Daly, Tamara
    Lafrance, Stirling
    They deserve better: The long-term care experience in Canada and Scandinavia2009Book (Other academic)
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  • 3. Armstrong, Pat
    et al.
    Choiniere, Jacqueline
    Harrington, Charlene
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    What's critical to care?2023In: Care Homes in a Turbulent Era: Do They Have A Future? / [ed] Pat Armstrong; Susan Braedley, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, p. 34-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4. Armstrong, Pat
    et al.
    Jacobsen, Frode F
    Lanoix, Monique
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The crisis in the nursing home labour force: where is the political will?2023In: Care Homes in a Turbulent Era / [ed] Pat Armstrong and Susan Braedley, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, p. 50-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5. Armstrong, Pat
    et al.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Introduction: framing and comparing unpaid care work2023In: Unpaid Work in Nursing Homes: Flexible Boundaries / [ed] Pat Armstrong, Bristol: Policy Press, 2023, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6. Banerjee, Albert
    et al.
    Daly, Tamara
    Armstrong, Hugh
    Armstrong, Pat
    Lafrance, Stirling
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    ‘Out of Control’: Violence against Personal Support Workers in Long-Term Care2008Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Banerjee, Albert
    et al.
    York University.
    Daly, Tamara
    York University .
    Armstrong, Pat
    York University.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Armstrong, Hugh
    Carleton University.
    LaFrance, Stirling
    Structural violence in long-term residential care for older people: Comparing Canada and Scandinavia2012In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 390-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Canadian frontline careworkers are six times more likely to experience daily physical violence than their Scandinavian counterparts. This paper draws on a comparative survey of residential careworkers serving older people across three Canadian provinces (Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Ontario) and four countries that follow a Scandinavian model of social care (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden) conducted between 2005 and 2006. Ninety percent of Canadian frontline careworkers experienced physical violence from residents or their relatives and 43 percent reported physical violence on a daily basis. Canadian focus groups conducted in 2007 reveal violence was often normalized as an inevitable part of elder-care. We use the concept of “structural violence”(Galtung, 1969) to raise questions about the role that systemic and organizational factors play in setting the context for violence. Structural violence refers to indirect forms of violence that are built into social structures and that prevent people from meeting their basic needs or fulfilling their potential. We applied the concept to long-term residential care and found that the poor quality of the working conditions and inadequate levels of support experienced by Canadian careworkers constitute a form of structural violence.Working conditions are detrimental to careworker's physical and mental health, and prevent careworkers from providing the quality of care they are capable of providing and understand to be part of their job. These conditions may also contribute to the violence workers experience, and further investigation is warranted.

  • 8. Brennan, Deborah
    et al.
    Cass, Bettina
    Himmelweit, Susan
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The marketisation of care: Rationales and consequences in Nordic and liberal care regimes2012In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 377-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of markets and market mechanisms to deliver care services is growing in both liberal and social democratic welfare states. This article examines debates and policies concerning the marketisation of eldercare and childcare in Sweden, England and Australia. It shows how market discourses and practices intersect with, reinforce or challenge traditions and existing policies and examines whether care markets deliver user empowerment and greater efficiency. Markets for eldercare and childcare have developed in uneven and context specific ways with varying consequences. Both politics and policy history help to shape market outcomes.

  • 9. Choiniere, Jacqueline A.
    et al.
    Doupe, Malcolm
    Goldmann, Monika
    Harrington, Charlene
    Jacobsen, Frode F.
    Lloyd, Liz
    Rootham, Magali
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Mapping Nursing Home Inspections and Audits in Six Countries2016In: Ageing International, ISSN 0163-5158, E-ISSN 1936-606X, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 40-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International quality concerns regarding long-term residential care, home to many of the most vulnerable among us, prompted our examination of the audit and inspection processes in six different countries. Drawing on Donabedian’s (Evaluation & Health Professions, 6(3), 363–375, 1983) categorization of quality criteria into structural, process and outcome indicators, this paper compares how quality is understood and regulated in six countries occupying different categories according to Esping Andersen’s (1990) typology: Canada, England, and the United States (liberal welfare regimes); Germany (conservative welfare regime); Norway, and Sweden (social democratic welfare regimes). In general, our review finds that countries with higher rates of privatization (mostly the liberal welfare regimes) have more standardized, complex and deterrence-based regulatory approaches. We identify that even countries with the lowest rates of for profit ownership and more compliance-based regulatory approaches (Norway and Sweden) are witnessing an increased involvement of for-profit agencies in managing care in this sector. Our analysis suggests there is widespread concern about the incursion of market forces and logic into this sector, and about the persistent failure to regulate structural quality indicators, which in turn have important implications for process and outcome quality indicators.

  • 10. Daly, Tamara
    et al.
    Banerjee, Albert
    Armstrong, Pat
    Armstrong, Hugh
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lifting the Violence Veil: Examining Working Conditions in Long-Term Care Facilities using Iterative Mixed Methods2011In: Canadian Journal on Aging, ISSN 0714-9808, E-ISSN 1710-1107, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 271-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a mixed-methods study – the focus of this article – to understand how workers in long-term care facilities experienced working conditions. We surveyed unionized care workers in Ontario (n = 917); we also surveyed workers in three Canadian provinces (n = 948) and four Scandinavian countries (n = 1,625). In post-survey focus groups, we presented respondents with survey questions and descriptive statistical fi ndings, and asked them: “Does this reflect your experience?” Workers reported time pressures and the frequency of experiences of physical violence and unwanted sexual attention, as we explain. We discuss how iteratively mixing qualitative and quantitative methods to triangulate survey and focus group results led to expected data convergence and to unexpected data divergence that revealed a normalized culture of structural violence in long-term care facilities. We discuss how the finding of structural violence emerged and also the deeper meaning, context, and insights resulting from our combined methods.

  • 11.
    Daly, Tamara
    et al.
    York University, Canada.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Unheard voices, unmapped terrain: care work in long-term residential care for older people in Canada and Sweden2012In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 139-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to contribute to comparative welfare state research by analysing the everyday work life of long-term care facility workers in Canadaand Sweden. The study’s empirical base was a survey of fixed and open-ended questions. The article presents results from a subset of respondents (care aides and assistant nurses) working in facilities in three Canadian provinces (n = 557) and across Sweden (n = 292). The workers’ experiences were linked to the broader economic and organisational contexts of residential care in the two jurisdictions.We found a high degree of country-specific differentiation of work organisation:Canada follows a model of highly differentiated task-oriented work, whereasSweden represents an integrated relational care work model. Reflecting differences in the vertical division of labour, the Canadian care aides had more demanding working conditions than their Swedish colleagues. The consequences of these models for care workers, for older people and for their families are discussed.

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    Unheard voices
  • 12. Eliasson-Lappalainen, Rosmari
    et al.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hemtjänsten, omsorgsforskningen och tidens trend2013In: Äldre i centrum, ISSN 1653-3585, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13. Eliasson-Lappalainen, Rosmari
    et al.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Vardagslivsforskning2008In: Forskningsmetodik för socialvetare, Natur & Kultur, Stockholm , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Erlandsson, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Storm, Palle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Stranz, Anneli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Trydegård, Gun-Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Marketising trends in Swedish eldercare: competition, choice and calls for stricter regulation2013In: Marketisation in Nordic eldercare: a research report on legislation, oversight, extent and consequences / [ed] Meagher, Gabrielle and Szebehely, Marta, Stockholm: Department of Social Work, Stockholm University , 2013, p. 23-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Erlandsson, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Care work in different arenas: Working conditions in Swedish eldercare and disability services2023In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Care work is shaped by the context in which it is carried out. This study explored the context, content, conditions and consequences of work in two fields of social care in Sweden: eldercare and disability services. Policy documents and statistical sources were used to analyse the context. Job content, working conditions and consequences of work were analysed using survey data collected in 2015 and 2017 in eldercare and disability services (N = 1307). The analysis of the political and economic context showed that the disability sector is characterised by a higher ambition level in legislation and funding. The survey of care workers reflected this difference: the work content differs; and the working conditions and their consequences are significantly worse for the eldercare staff than for the disability service staff. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed in terms of policy-framing, ageist notions and unintended consequences of policy changes. 

  • 16.
    Gunnarsson, Evy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Szebehely, MartaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Genus i omsorgens vardag2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Gunnarsson, Evy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Szebehely, MartaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Genus i omsorgens vardag2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Gunnarsson, Evy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Komplexiteter och utmaningar i omsorgens vardag.2009In: Genus i omsorgens vardag, 2009, p. 11-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Gunnarsson, Evy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Komplexiteter och utmaningar i omsorgens vardag2017In: Genus i omsorgens vardag / [ed] Evy Gunnarsson, Marta Szebehely, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2017, 3, p. 13-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20. Gustafsson, Rolf Å
    et al.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Out-sourcing of public elder care services in Sweden: Effects on work environment and internal political legitimacy2008In: Paid Care in Australia: Politics, Profits, Practices, Sydney University Press, Sydney , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21. Harrington, Charlene
    et al.
    Choiniere, Jacqueline
    Goldmann, Monika
    Jacobsen, Frode Fadnes
    Lloyd, Liz
    McGregor, Margaret
    Stamatopoulos, Vivian
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nursing Home Staffing Standards and Staffing Levels in Six Countries2012In: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, ISSN 1527-6546, E-ISSN 1547-5069, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 88-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study was designed to collect and compare nurse staffing standards and staffing levels in six counties: the United States, Canada, England, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Design: The study used descriptive information on staffing regulations and policies as well as actual staffing levels for registered nurses, licensed nurses, and nursing assistants across states, provinces, regions, and countries. Methods: Data were collected from Internet searches of staffing regulations and policies along with statistical data on actual staffing from reports and documents. Staffing data were converted to hours per resident day to facilitate comparisons across countries. Findings: We found wide variations in both nurse staffing standards and actual staffing levels within and across countries, although comparisons were difficult to make due to differences in measuring staffing, the vagueness of standards, and limited availability of actual staffing data. Both the standards and levels in most countries ( except Norway and Sweden) were lower than the recommended levels by experts. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate the need for further attention to nurse staffing standards and levels in order to assure the quality of nursing home care.

  • 22. Harrington, Charlene
    et al.
    Jacobsen, Frode F.
    Panos, Justin
    Pollock, Allyson
    Sutaria, Shailen
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Marketization in Long-Term Care: A Cross-Country Comparison of Large For-Profit Nursing Home Chains2017In: Health Services Insights, ISSN 1178-6329, Vol. 10, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents cross-country comparisons of trends in for-profit nursing home chains in Canada, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States. Using public and private industry reports, the study describes ownership, corporate strategies, costs, and quality of the 5 largest for-profit chains in each country. The findings show that large for-profit nursing home chains are increasingly owned by private equity investors, have had many ownership changes over time, and have complex organizational structures. Large for-profit nursing home chains increasingly dominate the market and their strategies include the separation of property from operations, diversification, the expansion to many locations, and the use of tax havens. Generally, the chains have large revenues with high profit margins with some documented quality problems. The lack of adequate public information about the ownership, costs, and quality of services provided by nursing home chains is problematic in all the countries. The marketization of nursing home care poses new challenges to governments in collecting and reporting information to control costs as well as to ensure quality and public accountability.

  • 23. Jacobsen, Frode F.
    et al.
    Day, Suzanne
    Laxter, Katherine
    Lloyd, Liz
    Goldmann, Monika
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Choiniere, Jacqueline A.
    Vaillancourt Rosenau, Pauline
    Job Autonomy of Long-Term Residential Care Assistive Personnel: A Six Country Comparison2018In: Ageing International, ISSN 0163-5158, E-ISSN 1936-606X, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 4-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assistive personnel are the primary caregivers in long term residential care (LTRC) and their job autonomy is a major social determinant of health. Our goal is to explore experiences of assistive personnel in six industrialized countries (Canada, Germany, Norway, Sweden, England, and the U.S.), and consider innovations in the LTRC setting that might influence their job autonomy. The methodology is based on on-site observations at nursing homes and interviews with assistive personnel and other relevant LTRC staff in selected nursing homes in all six countries. Previously published statistical material from the study on staff characteristics like pay, formal education, unionization, employment-related benefits and extent of part-time work is employed as relevant context for discussing job autonomy. Our results show that assistive personnel are highly supportive of job autonomy though they interpret autonomy differently and report widely varying levels of job autonomy. Those LTRC organizations that have a reputation for encouraging autonomy of assistive personal, report recruiting is far easier even where there is a shortage. In some countries we were told that “resident-centered” (“person-centered”) care and a leveling of the division of labor, understood as more equal and horizontal division of labor, was on the rise and this could affect autonomy. Job autonomy is welcomed by assistive personnel. The wide variation in job autonomy across nursing homes and across countries is surprising. Within nursing homes variation may reflect imperfect or incomplete implementation of autonomy policies, or differential application of policies. The resident-centered philosophy and the leveling of the division of labor could make for greater autonomy for assistive personnel. These workplace innovations are not universal in all countries and they could be more difficult to apply where resources and commitment are lacking. The increasingly frail population of LTRC facilities and the general trend toward growth of specialized medical treatment within LTRC in some of the countries may support an argument for some limitations to job autonomy in assistive personnel. Autonomy is favored by assistive personnel though not all have it. The workplace innovations of resident-centered care and a leveling of the division of labor in LTRC, could make for a greater degree of autonomy for assistive personnel in the future, while increased demand for highly skilled care could work in the other direction.

  • 24. Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Informal eldercare and care for disabled children in the Nordic countries: prevalence and relation to employment2013In: Nordic Journal of Social Research, E-ISSN 1892-2783, Vol. 4, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an international comparison, the Nordic countries are generous care spenders and a relatively large proportion of the populations receive formal care services. However, in respect of service provision, the Nordic countries are less similar today than they were some decades ago. Using survey data from three Nordic countries, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, we first document the differences in informal care between the countries, and then we assess its impact on the relationship between informal caregiving and formal employment. We find that informal care is most common in Denmark and least common in Sweden. However, those who provide care in Sweden provide care more often than people in both Norway and Denmark. There is a negative correlation between being a caregiver and the probability of being employed in Norway and Denmark, but not in Sweden. With specific regard to parental care, there is no general relation between the provision of parental care and employment, but those providing substantial care are clearly less likely to work than others. Caring for a disabled child is less common than caring for a parent, but the negative effects on employment are even stronger.

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    fulltext
  • 25. Jolanki, Outi
    et al.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kauppinen, Kaisa
    Family rediscovered? Working carers of older people in Finland and Sweden2013In: Combining paid work and family care: Policies and experiences ininternational perspective / [ed] Teppo Kroger and Sue Yeandle, Bristol: Policy Press, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter addresses the characteristics and situations of working carers of older people in Finland and Sweden.  It draws together knowledge on employment legislation, public policy and payments to working carers with studies on family care of older people. The central questions addressed are: Who are the carers? What kind of support is available for them? Are their working lives affected by caring responsibilities? And how do they perceive their everyday lives?  The chapter shows that in both countries, family carers, the majority of whom are working women, have a major role in older people’s care. It argues that restructuring older people’s public care services has implicitly increased the expectation that family members will provide care, and notes that, while in the 2000s family care and working carers of older people have risen up the political agenda, legislation and practical actions to support them are still largely absent.

  • 26. Jönson, Håkan
    et al.
    Szebehely, MartaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Äldreomsorger i Sverige: lokala variationer och generella trender2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 27. Jönson, Håkan
    et al.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Är olikheter och variation inom äldreomsorgen ett problem?2018In: Äldreomsorger i Sverige: lokala variationer och generella trender / [ed] Håkan Jönson, Marta Szebehely, Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2018, p. 9-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28. Lloyd, Liz
    et al.
    Banerjee, Albert
    Harrington, Charlene
    Jacobsen, Frode
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    It’s a scandal! Comparing the causes and consequences of nursing home media scandals in five countries2014In: International journal of sociology and social policy, ISSN 0144-333X, E-ISSN 1758-6720, Vol. 34, no 1/2, p. 2-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to explore the causes and consequences of media scandals involving nursing homes for older persons in Canada, Norway, Sweden, the UK and the USA.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study uses a descriptive case-study methodology which provides an in-depth, focused, qualitative analysis of one selected nursing home scandal in each jurisdiction. Scandals were selected on the basis of being substantive enough to potentially affect policy. An international comparative perspective was adopted to consider whether and how different social, political and economic contexts might shape scandals and their consequences.

    Findings – This study found that for-profit residential care provision as well as international trends in the ownership and financing of nursing homes were factors in the emergence of all media scandals, as was investigative reporting and a lack of consensus around the role of the state in the delivery of residential care. All scandals resulted in government action but such action generally avoided addressing underlying structural conditions.

    Research limitations/implications – This study examines only the short-term effects of five media scandals.

    Originality/value – While there has been longstanding recognition of the importance of scandals to the development of residential care policy, there have been few studies that have systematically examined the causes and consequences of such scandals. This paper contributes to a research agenda that more fully considers the media's role in the development of residential care policy, attending to both its promises and shortcomings.

  • 29. Lowndes, Ruth
    et al.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ågotnes, Gudmund
    Sortland, Oddrunn
    Staff perspectives on families’ unpaid work in care homes2023In: Unpaid Work in Nursing Homes: Flexible Boundaries / [ed] Pat Armstrong, Bristol: Policy Press, 2023, p. 86-99Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30. Lownes, Ruth
    et al.
    Storm, Palle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Fieldnotes: Individual Versus Team-based Rapid Ethnography2018In: Creative Teamwork: Developing Rapid, Site-Switching Ethnography / [ed] Pat Armstrong, Ruth Lowndes, New York: Oxford University Press, 2018, p. 81-95Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses the taking, writing up, and analyzing of fieldnotes as part of the rapid ethnographic methodology. It describes the preparatory process the team members went through to learn how to conduct observations, and the guiding documents/principles used by the research team throughout the site visits. We explain how observations were carried out and how fieldnotes were captured in our project, comparing this process to that of traditional ethnographic research. It compares the process of writing up and analyzing fieldnotes in traditional ethnography with the process used in the team-based rapid ethnography, drawing on our individual experiences in conducting both types. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the strengths and limitations of the team-based approach.

  • 31.
    Meagher, Gabrielle
    et al.
    Sydney University.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Equality in the social service state:  Nordic childcare models in comparative perspective.2012In: Changing Social Inequality: The Nordic Welfare Model in the 21st Century / [ed] Kvist J, Fritzell J, Hvinden B & Kangas O, Bristol: Policy Press, 2012, p. 89-118Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Meagher, Gabrielle
    et al.
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Long-term care in Sweden: Trends, actors and consequences2013In: Reforms in long-term care policies in Europe: Investigating institutional change and social impacts / [ed] Costanzi Ranci, Emmanuele Pavolini, Springer-Verlag New York, 2013, p. 55-78Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden constitutes a traditionally well-developed system of long-term care, based on tax-funded, mainly publicly provided services. This system has changed significantly in recent decades. There has been some retrenchment in eldercare evident in falling coverage and stronger targeting of people with higher levels of need. This development has led to the informalization of care for some groups of older people. In disability care, there has been a considerable expansion of services, perhaps most notably in the introduction of a personal assistance scheme for people with severe disabilities. These divergent trends in services for older people and people with disabilities have coincided with a convergent development across both care fields: the marketization of services and the emergence of large, corporate, for-profit providers. This chapter explains how and why these changes have happened, and their consequences for service users and for the possible future of social care in Sweden. In addition to the dynamic interaction of state-steering and municipal response that are typically important in explaining change in patterns of social service in countries with multilevel government, “invasive displacement” and “layering” are identified as processes transforming the institutions that directly and indirectly organize care service provision.

  • 33.
    Meagher, Gabrielle
    et al.
    Sydney University.
    Szebehely, MartaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Marketisation in Nordic eldercare:: a research report on legislation, oversight, extent and consequen2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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    http://www.normacare.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Marketisation-in-nordic-eldercare-webbversion-med-omslag1.pdf
  • 34.
    Meagher, Gabrielle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Macquarie University, Australia.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The politics of profit in Swedish welfare services: Four decades of Social Democratic ambivalence2019In: Critical Social Policy, ISSN 0261-0183, E-ISSN 1461-703X, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 455-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Social Democratic architects of the Swedish welfare state considered public provision as well as public funding of welfare services essential to realising their egalitarian ambitions. However, since the early 1990s, a highly concentrated, for-profit sector has emerged in welfare service provision. We analyse how the Swedish Social Democrats have discussed privatisation and the profit motive in welfare services from the 1980s to the present. We find that Social Democratic governments have defended public provision weakly across the period. The driving factors include the eclipse of the egalitarian ideal in favour of ideals of choice and diversity, internal disunity within the party on the profit question, and change in the political power order in Sweden, such that private welfare companies and their interest organisations have gained and now wield significant influence over welfare service policy.

  • 35.
    Meagher, Gabrielle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Macquarie University, Australia.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Mears, Jane
    How institutions matter for job characteristics, quality and experiences: A comparison of home care work for older people in Australia and Sweden2016In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 731-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article seeks to understand a puzzling finding: that workers in publicly-funded home care for older people in Australia, compared to those in Sweden, feel that they are better able to meet their clients’ needs, that their workplaces are less pressed, and that their work is less burdensome and more compatible with their family and social commitments. This finding seems to challenge expectations fostered by comparative sociological research that job quality and care services are inferior in Australia compared to Sweden. Informed by comparative institutionalist theory and care research, the structures and dynamics of the care systems in the two countries are analyzed, along with findings from the NORDCARE survey of home care workers conducted in Sweden in 2005 (n=166) and Australia in 2010 (n=318). Differences in the work and working conditions in the two countries are explained by the dynamic interaction of national institutional and highly gendered sector-level effects.

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  • 36.
    Pettersson, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bergmark, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lundström, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sallnäs, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Introduktion2014In: Tre decennier med Socialtjänstlagen: utopi, vision, verklighet / [ed] Ulla Pettersson, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2014, p. 11-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37. Rostgaard, Tine
    et al.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Changing policies, changing patterns of care: Danish and Swedish home care at the crossroads2012In: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite pursuing the policy of ageing in place, the two Nordic countries of Denmark and Sweden have taken diverse roads in regard to the provision of formal, public tax-financed home care for older people. Whilst Sweden has cut down home care and targeted services for the most needy, Denmark has continued the generous provision of home care. This article focuses on the implication of such diverse policies for the provision and combination of formal and informal care resources for older people. Using data from Level of Living surveys (based on interviews with a total of 1,158 individuals aged 67-87 in need of practical help), the article investigates the consequences of the two policy approaches for older people of different needs and socio-economic backgrounds and evaluates how the development corresponds with ideals of universalism in the Nordic welfare model. Our findings show that in both countries tax-funded home care is used across social groups but targeting of resources at the most needy in Sweden creates other inequalities: Older people with shorter education are left with no one to resort to but the family, whilst those with higher education purchase help from market providers. Not only does this leave some older people more at risk, it also questions the degree of de-familialisation which is otherwise often proclaimed to be a main characteristic of the Nordic welfare model.

  • 38. Simmons, Cassandra
    et al.
    Rodrigues, Ricardo
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Working conditions in the long-term care sector: A comparative study of migrant and native workers in Austria and Sweden2022In: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 30, no 5, p. e2191-e2202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased demand for long-term care (LTC) services alongside precarious working conditions has resulted in labour shortages in the LTC sector, which has led to an increasing share of workers of migrant origin filling these jobs. Previous research on migrant care workers has also highlighted the seeming gap in working conditions relative to native workers. However, lack of disaggregated data on migrant and native care workers, alongside single-case studies, may have concealed potential disadvantages faced by certain groups and insufficiently accounted for differences in migration regimes and organisation of LTC sectors. To address these gaps, we carried out a comparative study on various working conditions of migrant and native LTC workers in Austria and Sweden. Using the international Nordcare survey on care sector working conditions, carried out in Austria in 2017 (n = 792) and in Sweden in 2015 (n = 708), we employed t-tests and multivariate logistic regressions to compare the working conditions of migrant and native carers in home and residential care in each country. We found that worse working conditions in Sweden compared to Austria may be explained by differences in training requirements of the LTC workforce and the relatively large for-profit private sector. Country of origin also plays a paramount role in the differences in working conditions experienced by migrants compared to native care workers, with non-European migrants being more likely to face a number of precarious working conditions. Our findings highlight the need to continue addressing precarious working conditions across the sector, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic where poor working conditions have been linked to increased COVID-related deaths in nursing homes. Our findings also emphasise the importance of policies that consider the various challenges experienced by different migrant groups in the LTC sector, who may particularly be at risk of presenteeism during the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • 39. Starr, Madeleine
    et al.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Working longer, caring harder – the impact of ‘ageing-in-place’ policies on working carers in the UK and Sweden2017In: International Journal of Care and Caring, ISSN 2397-8821, E-ISSN 2397-883X , Vol. 1, no 1, p. 115-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most developed countries have introduced significant changes in housing and longterm care policies for older people. Simultaneously, there is increasing policy and economic emphasis on extending working lives and on changes to pension schemes. These changes have combined to have negative consequences for working-age family carers. In this contribution, Madeleine Starr MBE, Director of Business Development and Innovation at Carers UK, and Marta Szebehely, Professor of Social Work at Stockholm University, Sweden, discuss the situations in the UK and Sweden – two countries with different policy traditions but facing similar challenges.

  • 40.
    Stranz, Anneli
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Organizational trends impacting on everyday realities: The case of swedish eldercare2018In: The Routledge Handbook of Social Care Around the World / [ed] Karen Christensen; Doria Pilling, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 45-57Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes the organizational and social policy changes of the eldercare sector in Sweden. It also describes data sources and methods used; gives the context for eldercare services in the Swedish welfare state; and summarizes three decades of organizational trends in Swedish eldercare. The chapter analyzes how these changes have affected the everyday lives of care workers and to some extent the users and their families. Both home-based and residential care has gone through major organizational changes, and in both forms of care the organizational reforms have been implemented with hardly any consideration of the consequences for staff. Both national statistics on work-related injuries and the NORDCARE survey present a picture of worsening working conditions for the staff in eldercare, a trend that can be related to declining resources and organizational changes. The chapter concludes by discussing the women-friendly potential of the Swedish welfare state for care workers in light of the recent changes in eldercare services.

  • 41.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Anhörigomsorg, förvärvsarbete och försörjning2014In: Lönsamt arbete: – familjeansvarets fördelning och konsekvenser / [ed] Katarina Boye; Magnus Nermo, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2014, p. 131-158Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 42.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Anhörigomsorg till vilket pris?2012In: Framtider - tidskrift från institutet för Framtidsstudier, ISSN 0281-0492, no 1, p. 17-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Carework in Scandinavia: organisational trends and everyday realities2007In: Annual Espanet Conference, Social Policy in Europe: Changing Paradigms in an Enlarging Europe? Vienna 20-22 Sept 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ett körverk om omsorg2014In: Alltid någon annan som väntar: röster från äldreomsorgen / [ed] Siv Hågård, Stockholm: En bok för alla i samarbete med Liv i Sverige , 2014, p. 165-178Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Flere maend i aeldreplejen: hvorfor?2010In: Gerontologi, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 20-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Insatser för äldre och funktionshindrade i privat regi2011In: Konkurrensens konsekvenser: Vad händer med svensk välfärd? / [ed] Hartman, Laura, Stockholm: SNS , 2011, andra, p. 215-257Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Konkurrens som drivkraft i välfärden – debatten som väckte Sverige2012In: Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning, ISSN 0809-2052, E-ISSN 2464-3076, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 134-139Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 48.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Long term care policies in Sweden: are there lessons to learn? Keynote presentation2010In: International symposium on working family carers. Conference proceedings. National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan: National Yang-Ming University , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Omsorgsmönster bland kvinnor och män: inte bara en fråga om kön2017In: Genus i omsorgens vardag / [ed] Evy Gunnarsson, Marta Szebehely, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2017, 3, p. 29-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sustaining universalism?: Changing roles for the state, family and market in Nordic eldercare2014Conference paper (Other academic)
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