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  • 1.
    Alavaisha, Edmond
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Smallholder perceptions on ecosystem services generation in irrigated and rainfed farming- Kilombero, TanzaniaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Alavaisha, Edmond
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI). University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Supply and demand of ecosystem services among smallholder farmers in irrigated and rainfed farming, Kilombero, Tanzania2022In: Ecosystems and People, ISSN 2639-5908, E-ISSN 2639-5916, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 661-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sufficient supply of ecosystem services (ESs) in agriculture provides the basis for human sustainable development. Intensified large-scale farming has changed wetland ecosystems extensively by reducing both the resilience and capacity to support production of many ESs. Small-scale farming may also affect the generation of ESs where the impact often reflects the differences in farming practices. This paper explores the supply and demand of the ESs between management practices, irrigated and rainfed, of smallholder farmers in Kilombero wetland, Tanzania. We conducted interviews involving 30 households and two focus groups with five discussants for each practice, rainfed and irrigation. Generally, we found that the need for ES, especially food, water and flood control, in both farming practices, were exceeding the capacity to supply. In general, irrigation farming compared to rainfed farming was associated with higher levels of food production, increasing flood regulation and erosion control. However, the ES delivery and need were not uniform depending on the river discharge. The differences in supply and demand of ESs between farming practices suggest that society would benefit from investing in irrigation and regulatory infrastructures to minimize flooding risk and to build up the ecosystem’s natural capacity to produce services. Such practical policy-relevant measures could balance the gap between supply and demand of ESs in smallholder farming systems in Tanzanian wetland. 

  • 3.
    Alavaisha, Edmond
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. The Nature Conservancy, USA.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Assessment of Water Quality Across Irrigation Schemes: A Case Study of Wetland Agriculture Impacts in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coupled change in land and water use due to increased farming intensity is a main factor affecting water quality and quantity, ecological functions and biodiversity globally. Prolonging growing seasons and increasing productivity in wetlands through irrigation have been targeted for increasing food security, particularly in developing countries. Nevertheless, irrigation and drainage have often been associated with degradation of water quality through increased agrochemical and fertiliser runoff and leaching at local scales. In this study, we investigated water quality in streams used for irrigation in a wetland area in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. We measured physical-chemical water parameters and collected macroinvertebrates with different sensitivity to water quality across several small irrigation schemes covering various conditions. Turbidity, temperature, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N were significantly higher at sampling sites downstream of irrigation compared to upstream. Macroinvertebrate diversity, richness and average score per taxa (ASPT) were higher in general in sampling sites upstream of irrigation, with more sensitive macroinvertebrates decreasing in abundance downstream. There was a positive correlation between physical-chemical parameters and macroinvertebrate indices across the sites. We demonstrate that macroinvertebrate indices can be used as a quick assessment of water quality in response to irrigation schemes in small-scale farming systems of Tanzania. This in turn can allow us to track changes affecting wetland ecosystem function and biodiversity at higher trophic levels and across larger scales, thereby providing useful early warnings to help avoid widespread degradation under widespread agricultural intensification.

  • 4.
    Alavaisha, Edmond
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Different agricultural practices affect soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous in Kilombero -Tanzania2019In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 234, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Converting natural and semi-natural vegetation to agriculture is currently the most significant land use change at global scale. This conversion leads to changes in soil nutrients and increased CO2 emissions. However, knowledge of how soil organic carbon and nutrients change under various farming management is still limited, especially for small scale farming systems. This study evaluated the effects of different farming systems on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) in subsistence farming at Kilombero, Tanzania. We applied an in-situ experimental setup, comparing maize and rice farming with and without irrigation and difference in fertilizers, with replicated soil sampling at five soil depths to a depth of 60 cm. The results show that irrigation had a positive effect on profile-averaged concentrations of SOC and TN, while fertilization had a positive effect on TN. Higher concentrations and stocks of TN were found in maize field soils compered to rice fields. In the vertical profile, irrigation and fertilization had positive effects on concentrations of SOC and TN of top soil layers, and the interaction between irrigation and fertilization extended the effect to deeper soil layers. Our results indicate that moderate irrigation and fertilization can help to improve carbon storage and nutrient availability (TN) in small-scale farming soils in Africa.

  • 5.
    Alavaisha, Edmond
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mbande, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Börjeson, Lowe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Effects of land use change related to small-scale irrigation schemes in Kilombero wetland, TanzaniaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Alavaisha, Edmond
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mbande, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography. Mwalimu Nyerere Memorial Academy, Tanzania.
    Börjeson, Lowe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Effects of Land Use Change Related to Small-Scale Irrigation Schemes in Kilombero Wetland, Tanzania2021In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 9, article id 611686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing agricultural land use intensity is one of the major land use/land cover (LULC) changes in wetland ecosystems. LULC changes have major impacts on the environment, livelihoods and nature conservation. In this study, we evaluate the impacts of investments in small-scale irrigation schemes on LULC in relation to regional development in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. We used Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques together with interviews with Key Informants (KI) and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with different stakeholders to assess the historical development of irrigation schemes and LULC change at local and regional scales over 3 decades. Overall, LULC differed over time and with spatial scale. The main transformation along irrigation schemes was from grassland and bushland into cultivated land. A similar pattern was also found at the regional valley scale, but here transformations from forest were more common. The rate of expansion of cultivated land was also higher where investments in irrigation infrastructure were made than in the wider valley landscape. While discussing the effects of irrigation and intensification on LULC in the valley, the KI and FGD participants expressed that local investments in intensification and smallholder irrigation may reduce pressure on natural land cover such as forest being transformed into cultivation. Such a pattern of spatially concentrated intensification of land use may provide an opportunity for nature conservation in the valley and likewise contribute positively to increased production and improve livelihoods of smallholder farmers.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Species Richness and Assemblages in Landscapes of Different Farming Intensity - Time to Revise Conservation Strategies?2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, p. e109816-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide conservation goals to protect biodiversity emphasize the need to rethink which objectives are most suitable for different landscapes. Comparing two different Swedish farming landscapes, we used survey data on birds and vascular plants to test whether landscapes with large, intensively managed farms had lower richness and diversity of the two taxa than landscapes with less intensively managed small farms, and if they differed in species composition. Landscapes with large intensively managed farms did not have lower richness than smaller low intensively managed farms. The landscape types were also similar in that they had few red listed species, normally targeted in conservation. Differences in species composition demonstrate that by having both types of agricultural landscapes regional diversity is increased, which is seldom captured in the objectives for agro-environmental policies. Thus we argue that focus on species richness or red listed species would miss the actual diversity found in the two landscape types. Biodiversity conservation, especially in production landscapes, would therefore benefit from a hierarchy of local to regional objectives with explicit targets in terms of which aspects of biodiversity to focus on.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    A social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services in two different farming systems2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. 102-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this exploratory study we use existing in situ qualitative and quantitative data on biophysical and social indicators to compare two contrasting Swedish farming systems (low intensity and high intensity) with regard to ecosystem service supply and demand of a broad suite of services. We show that the value (demand) placed on a service is not necessarily connected to the quantity (supply) of the service, most clearly shown for the services recreation, biodiversity, esthetic experience, identity, and cultural heritage. To better capture this complexity we argue for the need to develop portfolios of indicators for different ecosystem services and to further investigate the different aspects of supply and demand. The study indicates that available data are often ill-suited to answer questions about local delivery of services. If ecosystem services are to be included in policy, planning, and management, census data need to be formatted and scaled appropriately.

  • 9. Beilin, R
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Biodiversity and Land Abandonment:  Connecting Agriculture, Place and Nature in the Landscape2010In: Landscape, identities and development / [ed] Roca, Zoran, Springer , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers how cultural and social-centric norms influence the management and the meaning of land abandonment and biodiversity in rural landscapes. We describe historically, geologically, ecologically and socially diverse landscapes in three international case studies.  In Australia, rural land abandonment after only 150 years of European agriculture is associated biophysically with salinity, erosion and acidification.  It triggers a potential loss of place and identity for a nation still imagining a frontier past. Trading water away from the land and deregulation of production regimes due to WTO imperatives may create the opportunity for regeneration of indigenous flora and a new identity associated with conservation values.  In Sweden land abandonment reflects entrenched agricultural landscapes of over 1000 years.  Their landscape biodiversity is considered unique and in need of preservation in the face of aging farmer populations and the realities of food imports making production regimes non-viable. Sustainability appears to be associated with maintaining production regimes strongly linked to local cultural identity and sense of place.  In Portugal agricultural land abandonment in the north seems to offer a chance for oak forest regeneration and improved biodiversity outcomes. Identity here is associated with remembered landscapes prior to EU entry and re-imagining landscape connections built on previous cultural ties. In all three cases we consider what this interplay between natural and cultural landscapes will mean to their local communities; and using the historical and cultural lens, examine the theoretical ecological and sociological platforms surrounding the discourse on land use change.  We consider the benefits from interdisciplinary and international comparative research providing local-global insights that emerge to suggest common larger narratives of place and culture despite divergent histories of settlement and cultivation.

  • 10. Beilin, R.
    et al.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Re-imagined and re-defined meanings: The complexity of land abandonment, identity and place in the quest for sustainable and biodivers rural and regional landscapes2011In: Landscapes, identities, and development / [ed] Zoran Roca, Paul Claval, John Agnew, Ashgate, 2011, p. 243-256Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bringing together theoretical and empirical research from 22 countries in Europe, North America, Australia, South America and Japan, this book offers a state-of-the-art survey of conceptual and methodological research and planning issues relating to landscape, heritage, and development. It has 30 chapters grouped in four main thematic sections: landscapes as a constitutive dimension of territorial identities; landscape history and landscape heritage; landscapes as development assets and resources; and landscape research and development planning. The contributors are scholars from a wide range of cultural and professional backgrounds, experienced in fundamental and applied research, planning and policy design. They were invited by the co-editors to write chapters for this book on the basis of the theoretical frameworks, case-study research findings and related policy concerns they presented at the 23rd Session of PECSRL - The Permanent European Conference for the Study of the Rural Landscape, organized by TERCUD - Territory, Culture and Development Research Centre, Universidade Lusofona, in Lisbon and Obidos, Portugal, 1 - 5 September 2008. With such broad inter-disciplinary relevance and international scope, this book provides a valuable overview, highlighting recent findings and interpretations on historical, current and prospective linkages between changing landscapes and natural, economic, cultural and other identity features of places and regions; landscape-related identities as local and regional development assets and resources in the era of globalized economy and culture; the role of landscape history and heritage as platforms of landscape research and management in European contexts, including the implementation of The European Landscape Convention; and, the strengthening of the landscape perspective as a constitutive element of sustainable development.

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  • 11. Beilin, Ruth
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stenseke, Marie
    Pereira, Henrique Miguel
    Llausas, Albert
    Slätmo, Elin
    Cerqueira, Yvonne
    Navarro, Laetitia
    Rodrigues, Patricia
    Reichelt, Nicole
    Munro, Nicola
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Analysing how drivers of agricultural land abandonment affect biodiversity and cultural landscapes using case studies from Scandinavia, Iberia and Oceania2014In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 36, p. 60-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural land abandonment (ALA) is widespread in many countries of the global north. It impacts rural communities, traditional landscapes, biodiversity and ecosystem services. It is an opportunity for ecosystem restoration or new landscape functions. We explored ALA in study areas in Australia, Portugal and Sweden. In each, we assessed plant species diversity, historical trajectories of land cover change; and the socioeconomic past, present and future in interviews with farmers. The ALA data was integrated and analysed by identifying the drivers of change. The relative importance of each driver and its scale of action was estimated, both in the past (1950-2010) and in the future (2010-2030). ALA has transformed rural landscapes in the study areas of Portugal and Sweden. It is at a much earlier stage with potential to increase in the Australian case. We identified a set of driving forces, classified into pressures, frictions and attractors that clarify why ALA, noting its temporal and spatial scale, occurs differently in each study area. The effect of the drivers is related to social and historical contexts. Pressures and attractors encouraging agricultural abandonment are strongest in Portugal and Sweden. Generally more (institutionalized) frictions are in place in these European sites, intended to prevent further change, based on the benefits assumed for biodiversity and aesthetics. In Australia, the stimulation of driving forces to promote a well-managed abandonment of some cleared areas could be highly beneficial for biodiversity, minimally disruptive for current dairy farming operations and would bring opportunities for alternative types of rural development.

  • 12. Bengtsson, J.
    et al.
    Bullock, J. M.
    Egoh, B.
    Everson, C.
    Everson, T.
    O'Connor, T.
    O'Farrell, P. J.
    Smith, H. G.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Grasslands-more important for ecosystem services than you might think2019In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 2, article id e02582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensively managed grasslands are recognized globally for their high biodiversity and their social and cultural values. However, their capacity to deliver multiple ecosystem services (ES) as parts of agricultural systems is surprisingly understudied compared to other production systems. We undertook a comprehensive overview of ES provided by natural and semi-natural grasslands, using southern Africa (SA) and northwest Europe as case studies, respectively. We show that these grasslands can supply additional non-agricultural services, such as water supply and flow regulation, carbon storage, erosion control, climate mitigation, pollination, and cultural ES. While demand for ecosystems services seems to balance supply in natural grasslands of SA, the smaller areas of semi-natural grasslands in Europe appear to not meet the demand for many services. We identified three bundles of related ES from grasslands: water ES including fodder production, cultural ES connected to livestock production, and population-based regulating services (e.g., pollination and biological control), which also linked to biodiversity. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation seemed unrelated to the three bundles. The similarities among the bundles in SA and northwestern Europe suggest that there are generalities in ES relations among natural and semi-natural grassland areas. We assessed trade-offs and synergies among services in relation to management practices and found that although some trade-offs are inevitable, appropriate management may create synergies and avoid trade-offs among many services. We argue that ecosystem service and food security research and policy should give higher priority to how grasslands can be managed for fodder and meat production alongside other ES. By integrating grass-lands into agricultural production systems and land-use decisions locally and regionally, their potential to contribute to functional landscapes and to food security and sustainable livelihoods can be greatly enhanced.

  • 13.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mwandya, Augustine W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Yahya, Saleh A. S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring 'knowns' and 'unknowns' in tropical seascape connectivity with insights from East African coral reefs2012In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 107, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying a broader landscape perspective to understand spatio-temporal changes in local populations and communities has been increasingly used in terrestrial systems to study effects of human impact and land use change. With today’s major declines in fishery stocks and rapid degradation of natural coastal habitats, the understanding of habitat configuration and connectivity over relevant temporal and spatial scales is critical for conservation and fisheries management of the seascape. Coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves are key-components of the tropical seascape. The spatial distribution of these habitat-types may have strong influences on cross-habitat migration and connectivity patterns among organisms. However, the consequences of seascape fragmentation and ecological connectivity are largely unknown. Here, we review the literature to provide an overview of current knowledge with regards to connectivity and food-web interactions within the tropical seascape. We show that information on fish acting as mobile links and being part of nutrient transfer and trophic interactions is scarce. We continue by making an in-depth analysis of the seascape around Zanzibar (Eastern Africa) to fill some of the knowledge gaps identified by the literature survey. Our analysis shows that (i) fifty percent of all fish species found within the Zanzibar seascape use two or multiple habitat-types, (ii) eighteen percent of all coral reef-associated fish species use mangrove and seagrass beds as juvenile habitat, and (iii) macrocarnivores and herbivores are highly represented among those coral reef fish species that use mangrove and seagrass beds as juvenile habitat. We argue that understanding the inter-linkages within and between habitat-types is essential for successful management of the tropical seascape.

  • 14.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Assessing connectivity in a tropical embayment: Fish migrations and seascape ecology2013In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 166, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seascape connectivity and configuration of multiple habitats are important features to include in marine spatial planning, and protecting seascapes with high connectivity is recommended. The present study examines the potential connectivity of reef fish assemblages in a shallow-water conservation area in Zanzibar (Tanzania) by analysing relationships between a set of habitat variables and fish diversity and density for different functional groups (based on diet) and life stages of fish using PLS-analysis. We combined spatial pattern metrics (habitat type, patch size, distance to patch) and dispersal abilities of a number of fish species using buffer radius to answer the questions; (i) do coral reefs with high connectivity to seagrass habitats have higher abundances and higher species richness of fish that undertake routine migrations during their life-history? and (ii) do coral reefs closer to mangrove forest support higher abundances of nursery species (i.e., fish species that use mangrove and seagrass beds as juvenile habitat)? Habitat mosaics surrounding fish survey sites and within-patch measurements inside fish survey sites were quantified at multiple scales (meters to kilometers) using aerial photography and scuba. Fish data was collected using a standardized point census method. We found that both fine- and broad-scale variables were important in structuring fish communities and connectivity with surrounding habitats, where predominantly seagrass beds within a 750 m radius had a positive influence on fish abundances of invertebrate feeders/piscivores (especially for lutjanids and lethrinids). Additionally, fine-scale seagrass cover had a positive influence on nursery species. Depth also had a positive influence on total species richness and the abundance of invertebrate feeders/piscivores. This study highlights the importance of combining connectivity and habitat configuration at different scales to fully understand and manage the tropical seascape.

  • 15.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Seascape configuration influences connectivity of reef fish assemblagesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shallow-water habitats within tropical seascapes are intimately connected through ontogenetic and/or feeding migrations of fish. Knowledge on connectivity in the Indo-Pacific region is however sparse. Landscape ecology has been suggested as a useful approach when studying seascape connectivity. In this study, we examine the influence of habitat connectivity on reef fish assemblages in shallow-water habitats surrounding Zanzibar (Tanzania), using a seascape approach. We tested the relationships between a set of landscape and habitat variables and fish diversity and density for different functional groups and life stages. Habitat data was collected at scales ranging from 1m to >2km using aerial photography and ground-truthing. Fish data was collected using a standardised point census method. Furthermore, semi-structured interviews with 127 fishers in the bay were conducted to account for different fishing activity. We show that coral reefs in a complex seascape of Zanzibar are connected to seagrass beds through migration of fish. Habitat connectivity of seagrass and seagrass/coral mix within a 750m radius of coral reefs had a positive influence on fish abundances in the functional group of invertebrate feeders/piscivores, especially within the family Lutjanidae and Lethrinidae. Within-patch seagrass cover had a positive influence on nursery species. Depth also had a positive influence on fish assemblages, highlighting the importance of considering a third dimension, not accounted for in terrestrial studies. Generally, fishing activity between sites did neither influence species richness nor abundance, except for the abundance of juvenile parrotfish. We demonstrate that a landscape ecology approach, combining connectivity and habitat variables, is important for understanding and managing the tropical seascape, although it must be applied at relevant scales, habitat metrics and seascape configurations to fully capture ecological connectivity.

  • 16. Bernes, Claes
    et al.
    Bullock, James M.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Rundlof, Maj
    Verheyen, Kris
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    How are biodiversity and dispersal of species affected by the management of roadsides? A systematic map2017In: Environmental Evidence, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In many parts of the world, roadsides are regularly managed for traffic-safety reasons. Hence, there are similarities between roadsides and certain other managed habitats, such as wooded pastures and mown or grazed grasslands. These habitats have declined rapidly in Europe during the last century. For many species historically associated with them, roadsides may function as new primary habitats or as dispersal corridors in fragmented landscapes. Current recommendations for roadside management to promote conservation values are largely based on studies of plants in semi-natural grasslands, although such areas often differ from roadsides in terms of environmental conditions and disturbance regimes. Moreover, roadsides provide habitat not only for plants but also for many insects. For these reasons, stakeholders in Sweden have emphasised the need for more targeted management recommendations, based on actual studies of roadside biodiversity. Methods: This systematic map provides an overview of the available evidence on how biodiversity is affected by various forms of roadside management, and how such management influences the dispersal of species along roads or roadsides. We searched for literature using 13 online publication databases, 4 search engines, 36 specialist websites and 5 literature reviews. Search terms were developed in English, Danish, Dutch, French, German, Norwegian, Spanish and Swedish. Identified articles were screened for relevance using criteria set out in a protocol. No geographical restrictions were applied, and all species and groups of organisms were considered. Descriptions of included studies are available in an Excel file, and also in an interactive GIS application that can be accessed at an external website. Results: Our searches identified more than 7000 articles. The 207 articles included after screening described 301 individual studies considered to be relevant. More than two-thirds of these studies were conducted in North America, with most of the rest performed in Europe. More than half of the studies were published in grey literature such as reports from agencies or consultants. The interventions most commonly studied were herbicide use, sowing and mowing, followed by soil amendments such as mulching and fertiliser additions. The outcomes most frequently reported were effects of interventions on the abundance or species richness of herbs/forbs, graminoids and woody plants. Effects on insects and birds were reported in 6 and 3% of the studies, respectively. Conclusions: This systematic map is based on a comprehensive and systematic screening of all available literature on the effects of roadside management on biodiversity and dispersal of species. As such it should be of value to a range of actors, including managers and policymakers. The map provides a key to finding concrete guidance for conservation- and restoration-oriented roadside management from published research. However, the map also highlights important knowledge gaps: little data was found for some geographical regions, research is heavily biased taxonomically towards plants, and no study was found on how species dispersal was affected by roadside management. The map could therefore be a source of inspiration for new research.

  • 17. Bernes, Claes
    et al.
    Bullock, James M.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    How does roadside vegetation management affect the diversity of vascular plants and invertebrates? A systematic review protocol2017In: Environmental Evidence, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 16Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Roadsides have been acknowledged as potential substitutes for semi-natural grasslands and other open habitats with high biodiversity, many of which are now declining. Current recommendations for roadside management to promote conservation of biodiversity are largely based on studies of plants in meadows or pastures, although such areas often differ from roadsides in terms of environmental conditions and disturbance regimes. Stakeholders in Sweden have emphasised the need for more targeted guidelines for roadside management, based on actual roadside studies. We recently performed a systematic mapping of the evidence on how roadside management affects biodiversity and the dispersal of species. Through this process, we found 98 studies on how the richness or abundance of species on roadsides is affected by management such as regular mowing, burning, grazing or selective mechanical removal of plants. Since all of these interventions entail removal of plant biomass, they are comparable. Most of the studies recorded management effects on vascular plants, but there were 14 investigations of insects and other invertebrates. We now intend to proceed with a full systematic review of how maintenance or restoration of roadsides based on non-chemical vegetation removal affects the diversity of vascular plants and invertebrates. Methods: Most of the evidence on which the proposed systematic review is to be based will be selected from the systematic map. To identify more recently published literature on the topic of the review, we will perform a search update using a subset of the search terms applied for the systematic map. The criteria for inclusion of studies will be the same as for the map, except that interventions and outcomes will be restricted to those relevant to the review. Relevant studies will be subject to critical appraisal and categorised as having high or low validity for the review. Studies with low validity will be excluded from the review. Utilisable data on outcomes, interventions and other potential effect modifiers will be extracted from included articles. A narrative synthesis will describe the validity and findings of all studies in the review. Where a sufficient number of studies report similar outcome types, meta-analysis will be conducted.

  • 18.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Clements, Hayley S.
    Cumming, Graeme S.
    Cundill, Georgina
    de Vos, Alta
    Hamann, Maike
    Luvuno, Linda
    Roux, Dirk J.
    Selomane, Odirilwe
    Blanchard, Ryan
    Cockburn, Jessica
    Dziba, Luthando
    Esler, Karen J.
    Fabricius, Christo
    Henriksson, Rebecka
    Kotschy, Karen
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Masterson, Vanessa Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Rhodes University, South Africa.
    Nel, Jeanne L.
    O'Farrell, Patrick
    Palmer, Carolyn G.
    Pereira, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa; Utrecht University, The Netherlands; University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Pollard, Sharon
    Preiser, Rika
    Scholes, Robert J.
    Shackleton, Charlie
    Shackleton, Sheona
    Sitas, Nadia
    Slingsby, Jasper A.
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Social-ecological change: insights from the Southern African Program on Ecosystem Change and Society2022In: Ecosystems and People, ISSN 2639-5908, E-ISSN 2639-5916, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 447-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social-ecological systems (SES) research has emerged as an important area of sustainability science, informing and supporting pressing issues of transformation towards more sustainable, just and equitable futures. To date, much SES research has been done in or from the Global North, where the challenges and contexts for supporting sustainability transformations are substantially different from the Global South. This paper synthesises emerging insights on SES dynamics that can inform actions and advance research to support sustainability transformations specifically in the southern African context. The paper draws on work linked to members of the Southern African Program on Ecosystem Change and Society (SAPECS), a leading SES research network in the region, synthesizing key insights with respect to the five core themes of SAPECS: (i) transdisciplinary and engaged research, (ii) ecosystem services and human well-being, (iii) governance institutions and management practices, (iv) spatial relationships and cross-scale connections, and (v) regime shifts, traps and transformations. For each theme, we focus on insights that are particularly novel, interesting or important in the southern African context, and reflect on key research gaps and emerging frontiers for SES research in the region going forward. Such place-based insights are important for understanding the variation in SES dynamics around the world, and are crucial for informing a context-sensitive global agenda to foster sustainability transformations at local to global scales.

  • 19.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Blanchard, Ryan
    Clements, Hayley
    Cockburn, Jessica
    Cumming, Graeme S.
    Cundill, Georgina
    de Vos, Alta
    Dziba, Luthando
    Esler, Karen J.
    Fabricius, Christo
    Hamann, Maike
    Henriksson, Rebecka
    Kotschy, Karen
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Luvuno, Linda
    Masterson, Vanessa Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nel, Jeanne L.
    O'Farrell, Patrick
    Palmer, Carolyn G.
    Pereira, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Pollard, Sharon
    Preiser, Rika
    Roux, Dirk J.
    Scholes, Robert J.
    Selomane, Odirilwe
    Shackleton, Charlie
    Shackleton, Sheona
    Sitas, Nadia
    Slingsby, Jasper A.
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Tengo, Maria
    The Southern African Program on Ecosystem Change and Society: an emergent community of practice2023In: Ecosystems and People, ISSN 2639-5908, E-ISSN 2639-5916, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 2150317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability-focused research networks and communities of practice have emerged as a key response and strategy to build capacity and knowledge to support transformation towards more sustainable, just and equitable futures. This paper synthesises insights from the development of a community of practice on social-ecological systems (SES) research in southern Africa over the past decade, linked to the international Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS). This community consists of a network of researchers who carry out place-based SES research in the southern African region. They interact through various cross-cutting working groups and also host a variety of public colloquia and student and practitioner training events. Known as the Southern African Program on Ecosystem Change and Society (SAPECS), its core objectives are to: (1) derive new approaches and empirical insights on SES dynamics in the southern African context; (2) have a tangible impact by mainstreaming knowledge into policy and practice; and (3) grow the community of practice engaged in SES research and governance, including researchers, students and practitioners. This paper reflects on experiences in building the SAPECS community, with the aim of supporting the development of similar networks elsewhere in the world, particularly in the Global South.

  • 20. Birkhofer, Klaus
    et al.
    Addison, Matthew F.
    Arvidsson, Fredrik
    Bazelet, Corinna
    Bengtsson, Janne
    Booysen, Ruan
    Conlong, Des
    Haddad, Charles
    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene
    Kapp, Caro
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Louw, Schalk
    Malan, Antoinette P.
    Storey, Sheila G.
    Swart, Wijnand J.
    Addison, Pia
    Effects of Ground Cover Management on Biotic Communities, Ecosystem Services and Disservices in Organic Deciduous Fruit Orchards in South Africa2019In: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, E-ISSN 2571-581X, Vol. 3, article id 107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic orchards may have higher biodiversity and levels of ecosystem services compared to conventionally managed orchards. However, it is not well-understood how management decisions within organic orchards alter biotic communities and ecosystem services. The simultaneous provision of individual ecosystem services and mitigation of disservices is crucial for organic growers who cannot replace natural regulatory processes by artificial inputs. This study addresses one of the major constraints for organic fruit production in South Africa, namely the availability of strategies for pest control and nutrient management in soils. Partly due to these constraints, organic certification of deciduous fruits is very uncommon in South Africa and limited our selection of study plots. A field experiment on a single farm was established to study the impact of a treatment with dead organic mulch compared to controls on the composition of biotic communities, the simultaneous provision of ecosystem services, and the mitigation of disservices in five organic deciduous fruit orchards in the Western Cape province. Mulching did not significantly reduce weed cover or alter the taxonomic composition of weed communities, but affected soil organisms. Mulched subplots had significantly higher densities of Collembola and phytophagous nematodes and lower microbial activity and woodlice numbers. Independent of mulch treatment, both orchard type (conventional: apricot and organic: apricot, peach, plum, and quince) and weed cover had pronounced effects on the composition of biotic communities and ecosystem service and disservice potentials. The community composition of plants, microbes and web-building spiders differed significantly between organically and conventionally managed plots. The composition of communities and levels of ecosystem service and disservice potentials also differed significantly between organic orchards of different fruit type. Two potential pest groups (phytophagous nematodes and arthropods) were most abundant in peach subplots with high weed cover and tree age and least abundant in conventionally managed apricot plots. These results emphasize the crucial importance to consider weed-microbe-animal interactions when developing management practices in organic orchards. Management decisions in organic orchards hold the potential to affect biotic communities to the benefit of pest control and soil nutrient services, but can also result in unexpected detrimental effects on ecosystem services.

  • 21. Birkhofer, Klaus
    et al.
    Andersson, Georg K. S.
    Bengtsson, Janne
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Dänhardt, Juliana
    Ekbom, Barbara
    Ekroos, Johan
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hedlund, Katarina
    Jönsson, Annelie M.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Olsson, Ola
    Rader, Romina
    Rusch, Adrien
    Stjernman, Martin
    Williams, Alwyn
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Relationships between multiple biodiversity components and ecosystem services along a landscape complexity gradient2018In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 218, p. 247-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of effects of anthropogenic disturbance on biodiversity (BD) and ecosystem services (ES) and their relationships are key priorities of the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Agricultural landscapes and their associated BD provide multiple ES and it is crucial to understand how relationships between ES and BD components change along gradients of landscape complexity. In this study, we related eight ES potentials to the species richness of five invertebrate, vertebrate and plant taxonomic groups in cereal farming systems. The landscape complexity gradient ranged from areas dominated by annually tilled arable land to areas with high proportions of unfertilized, non-rotational pastures and uncultivated field borders. We show that after accounting for landscape complexity relationships between yield and bird richness or biological control became more positive, but relationships between bird richness and biological control became less positive. The relationship between bird and plant richness turned from positive to negative. Multidiversity (overall biodiversity), was positively related to landscape complexity, whereas multifunctionality (overall ES provision), was not significantly related to either one of these. Our results suggest that multidiversity can be promoted by increasing landscape complexity; however; we found no support for a simultaneous increase of several individual ES, BD components or multifunctionality. These results challenge the assumption that bio-diversity-friendly landscape management will always simultaneously promote multiple ES in agricultural landscapes. Future studies need to verify this pattern by using multi-year data, larger sets of ES and BD components and a study design that is appropriate to address larger spatial scales and relationships in several regions.

  • 22. Birkhofer, Klaus
    et al.
    Busch, Adrien
    Andersson, Georg K. S.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Danhardt, Juliana
    Ekbom, Barbara
    Jonsson, Annelie
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Olsson, Ola
    Rader, Romina
    Stjernman, Martin
    Williams, Alwyn
    Hedlund, Katarina
    Smith, Henrik G.
    A framework to identify indicator species for ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes2018In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 91, p. 278-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving our understanding of the relationships between biodiversity and the delivery of ecosystem services is crucial for the development of sustainable agriculture. We introduce a novel framework that is based on the identification of indicator species for single or multiple ecosystem services across taxonomic groups based on indicator species analyses. We utilize multi-species community data (unlike previous single species approaches) without giving up information about the identity of species in our framework (unlike previous species richness approaches). We compiled a comprehensive community dataset including abundances of 683 invertebrate, vertebrate and plant species to identify indicator species that were either positively or negatively related to biological control, diversity of red-listed species or crop yield in agricultural landscapes in southern Sweden. Our results demonstrate that some taxonomic groups include significantly higher percentages of indicator species for these ecosystem services. Spider communities for example included a higher percentage of significant positive indicator species for biological control than ground or rove beetle communities. Bundles of indicator species for the analysed ecosystem service potentials usually included species that could be linked to the respective ecosystem service based on their functional role in local communities. Several of these species are conspicuous enough to be monitored by trained amateurs and could be used in bundles that are either crucial for the provision of individual ecosystem services or indicate agricultural landscapes with high value for red-listed species or crop yields. The use of bundles of characteristic indicator species for the simultaneous assessment of ecosystem services may reduce the amount of labour, time and cost in future assessments. In addition, future analysis using our framework in other ecosystems or with other subsets of ecosystem services and taxonomic groups will improve our understanding of service-providing species in local communities. In any case, expert knowledge is needed to select species from the identified subsets of significant indicator species and these species should be validated by existing data or additional sampling prior to being used for ecosystem service monitoring.

  • 23. Biurrun, Idoia
    et al.
    Pielech, Remigiusz
    Dembicz, Iwona
    Gillet, Francois
    Kozub, Lukasz
    Marceno, Corrado
    Reitalu, Triin
    Van Meerbeek, Koenraad
    Guarino, Riccardo
    Chytry, Milan
    Pakeman, Robin J.
    Preislerova, Zdenka
    Axmanova, Irena
    Burrascano, Sabina
    Bartha, Sandor
    Boch, Steffen
    Bruun, Hans Henrik
    Conradi, Timo
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Essl, Franz
    Filibeck, Goffredo
    Hajek, Michal
    Jimenez-Alfaro, Borja
    Kuzemko, Anna
    Molnar, Zsolt
    Partel, Meelis
    Patsch, Ricarda
    Prentice, Honor C.
    Rolecek, Jan
    Sutcliffe, Laura M. E.
    Terzi, Massimo
    Winkler, Manuela
    Wu, Jianshuang
    Acic, Svetlana
    Acosta, Alicia T. R.
    Afif, Elias
    Akasaka, Munemitsu
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Aleffi, Michele
    Aleksanyan, Alla
    Ali, Arshad
    Apostolova, Iva
    Ashouri, Parvaneh
    Batori, Zoltan
    Baumann, Esther
    Becker, Thomas
    Belonovskaya, Elena
    Benito Alonso, Jose Luis
    Berastegi, Asun
    Bergamini, Ariel
    Bhatta, Kuber Prasad
    Bonini, Ilaria
    Buchler, Marc-Olivier
    Budzhak, Vasyl
    Bueno, Alvaro
    Buldrini, Fabrizio
    Campos, Juan Antonio
    Cancellieri, Laura
    Carboni, Marta
    Ceulemans, Tobias
    Chiarucci, Alessandro
    Chocarro, Cristina
    Conti, Luisa
    Csergo, Anna Maria
    Cykowska-Marzencka, Beata
    Czarniecka-Wiera, Marta
    Czarnocka-Cieciura, Marta
    Czortek, Patryk
    Danihelka, Jiri
    Bello, Francesco
    Deak, Balazs
    Demeter, Laszlo
    Deng, Lei
    Diekmann, Martin
    Dolezal, Jiri
    Dolnik, Christian
    Drevojan, Pavel
    Dupre, Cecilia
    Ecker, Klaus
    Ejtehadi, Hamid
    Erschbamer, Brigitta
    Etayo, Javier
    Etzold, Jonathan
    Farkas, Tunde
    Farzam, Mohammad
    Fayvush, George
    Fernandez Calzado, Maria Rosa
    Finckh, Manfred
    Fjellstad, Wendy
    Fotiadis, Georgios
    Garcia-Magro, Daniel
    Garcia-Mijangos, Itziar
    Gavilan, Rosario G.
    Germany, Markus
    Ghafari, Sahar
    del Galdo, Gian Pietro Giusso
    Grytnes, John-Arvid
    Guler, Behlul
    Gutierrez-Giron, Alba
    Helm, Aveliina
    Herrera, Mercedes
    Hullbusch, Elisabeth M.
    Ingerpuu, Nele
    Jaegerbrand, Annika K.
    Jandt, Ute
    Janisova, Monika
    Jeanneret, Philippe
    Jeltsch, Florian
    Jensen, Kai
    Jentsch, Anke
    Kacki, Zygmunt
    Kakinuma, Kaoru
    Kapfer, Jutta
    Kargar, Mansoureh
    Kelemen, Andras
    Kiehl, Kathrin
    Kirschner, Philipp
    Koyama, Asuka
    Langer, Nancy
    Lazzaro, Lorenzo
    Leps, Jan
    Li, Ching-Feng
    Li, Frank Yonghong
    Liendo, Diego
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Loebel, Swantje
    Lomba, Angela
    Lososova, Zdenka
    Lustyk, Pavel
    Luzuriaga, Arantzazu L.
    Ma, Wenhong
    Maccherini, Simona
    Magnes, Martin
    Malicki, Marek
    Manthey, Michael
    Mardari, Constantin
    May, Felix
    Mayrhofer, Helmut
    Meier, Eliane Seraina
    Memariani, Farshid
    Merunkova, Kristina
    Michelsen, Ottar
    Molero Mesa, Joaquin
    Moradi, Halime
    Moysiyenko, Ivan
    Mugnai, Michele
    Naqinezhad, Alireza
    Natcheva, Rayna
    Ninot, Josep M.
    Nobis, Marcin
    Noroozi, Jalil
    Nowak, Arkadiusz
    Onipchenko, Vladimir
    Palpurina, Salza
    Pauli, Harald
    Pedashenko, Hristo
    Pedersen, Christian
    Peet, Robert K.
    Perez-Haase, Aaron
    Peters, Jan
    Pipenbaher, Natasa
    Pirini, Chrisoula
    Pladevall-Izard, Eulalia
    Pleskova, Zuzana
    Potenza, Giovanna
    Rahmanian, Soroor
    Rodriguez-Rojo, Maria Pilar
    Ronkin, Vladimir
    Rosati, Leonardo
    Ruprecht, Eszter
    Rusina, Solvita
    Sabovljevic, Marko
    Sanaei, Anvar
    Sanchez, Ana M.
    Santi, Francesco
    Savchenko, Galina
    Teresa Sebastia, Maria
    Shyriaieva, Dariia
    Silva, Vasco
    Skornik, Sonja
    Smerdova, Eva
    Sonkoly, Judit
    Sperandii, Marta Gaia
    Staniaszek-Kik, Monika
    Stevens, Carly
    Stifter, Simon
    Suchrow, Sigrid
    Swacha, Grzegorz
    Swierszcz, Sebastian
    Talebi, Amir
    Teleki, Balazs
    Tichy, Lubomir
    Tolgyesi, Csaba
    Torca, Marta
    Torok, Peter
    Tsarevskaya, Nadezda
    Tsiripidis, Ioannis
    Turisova, Ingrid
    Ushimaru, Atushi
    Valko, Orsolya
    Van Mechelen, Carmen
    Vanneste, Thomas
    Vasheniak, Iuliia
    Vassilev, Kiril
    Viciani, Daniele
    Villar, Luis
    Virtanen, Risto
    Vitasovic-Kosic, Ivana
    Vojtko, Andras
    Vynokurov, Denys
    Waldén, Emelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Wang, Yun
    Weiser, Frank
    Wen, Lu
    Wesche, Karsten
    White, Hannah
    Widmer, Stefan
    Wolfrum, Sebastian
    Wrobel, Anna
    Yuan, Zuoqiang
    Zeleny, David
    Zhao, Liqing
    Dengler, Jurgen
    Benchmarking plant diversity of Palaearctic grasslands and other open habitats2021In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 32, no 4, article id e13050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Understanding fine-grain diversity patterns across large spatial extents is fundamental for macroecological research and biodiversity conservation. Using the GrassPlot database, we provide benchmarks of fine-grain richness values of Palaearctic open habitats for vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and complete vegetation (i.e., the sum of the former three groups).

    Location: Palaearctic biogeographic realm.

    Methods: We used 126,524 plots of eight standard grain sizes from the GrassPlot database: 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 m(2) and calculated the mean richness and standard deviations, as well as maximum, minimum, median, and first and third quartiles for each combination of grain size, taxonomic group, biome, region, vegetation type and phytosociological class.

    Results: Patterns of plant diversity in vegetation types and biomes differ across grain sizes and taxonomic groups. Overall, secondary (mostly semi-natural) grasslands and natural grasslands are the richest vegetation type. The open-access file GrassPlot Diversity Benchmarks and the web tool GrassPlot Diversity Explorer are now available online () and provide more insights into species richness patterns in the Palaearctic open habitats.

    Conclusions: The GrassPlot Diversity Benchmarks provide high-quality data on species richness in open habitat types across the Palaearctic. These benchmark data can be used in vegetation ecology, macroecology, biodiversity conservation and data quality checking. While the amount of data in the underlying GrassPlot database and their spatial coverage are smaller than in other extensive vegetation-plot databases, species recordings in GrassPlot are on average more complete, making it a valuable complementary data source in macroecology.

  • 24. Bommarco, Riccardo
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Marini, Lorenzo
    Öckinger, Erik
    Extinction debt for plants and flower-visiting insects in landscapes with contrasting land use history2014In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 591-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Species are lost world-wide because of habitat destruction and fragmentation. Impacted communities can exhibit transient dynamics in response to such environmental changes, where slow extinctions and immigration delay the arrival to a new equilibrium. Life history traits such as generation time, resource use and dispersal capacity, as well as landscape history can be expected to affect possible extinction debt, but few have examined this for multiple taxa in the same study and particularly so for arthropods. The aim was to assess under which current and historical land use circumstances an extinction debt occurs for vascular plants and three insect taxa. Location South-eastern Sweden. Method We sampled current species richness of habitat specialist and generalist butterflies, bees, hoverflies, and vascular plants in 45 dry to mesic semi-natural grassland fragments of various size and degree of connectivity, and situated in landscapes with contrasting land use conversion history. Habitat loss was estimated in each landscape by comparing modern maps to ~45year old digitized aerial photographs. An extinction debt can be assumed if historical habitat size and connectivity better explain current species distribution than current habitat variables do. Results Bees responded rapidly to habitat loss possibly as a result of their primary nesting resource being destroyed. Interestingly, species richness of specialist plants was best explained by historical habitat connectivity, richness of hoverflies by historical habitat area, and richness of butterflies by both historical habitat area and connectivity, indicating extinction debt for these taxa. Habitat generalist butterflies and hoverflies, but not plants and bees, exhibited extinction debt mainly in relation to habitat area. No effect of landscape type was found on the observed extinction debt. Main conclusions Slow extinctions of persistent and long-lived plants might explain extinction debt for both plants and herbivorous insects linked to these plants.

  • 25.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Cousins, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Outside the boundary - land use changes in the surroundings of urban nature reserves2012In: Applied Geography, ISSN 0143-6228, E-ISSN 1873-7730, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 350-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the landscape surrounding a protected area for sustaining its values is frequently discussed in conservation literature. Studies on the interactions of urbanisation and nature conservation at the global scale suggest that protected nature attracts urbanisation, and that this in turn might negatively impact the area. However, studies specifically addressing such land use dynamics at city scale are largely missing. In this study we examine the change in proportion of built up area in two zones (500 m and 1000 m) surrounding 15 urban nature reserves in southern Sweden. By using comprehensive maps from the last 50 years, we compared the zones to the overall urbanisation in the cities to reveal discrepancies in land use surrounding the nature reserves. We found that the amount of built up area in the buffer zones surrounding nature reserves followed the same trend as the corresponding cities and this relation was stable over time, although the positive relationship was not significant. The establishment of nature reserves had no detectable effect on surrounding land use, however two distinguished groups of reserves were identified with either more or less built up area in buffers zones compared to cities. These differences were related to specific local drivers such as land ownership, land use history and nature reserve location. In contrast to earlier studies at global scale, our study did not show that nature reserves attract urbanisation. Instead, we stress that the great variety of contextual factors at the city scale makes quantitative analysis of this kind extremely difficult. However, a general neglect from planning and nature conservation agencies to recognise nature reserves’ dependence on the surrounding landscape configuration could be detrimental to sustain their values in the long-term. Hence we suggest that zones surrounding nature-protected areas should be planned and managed according to local land use history and current landscape conditions to enable and enhance necessary cross-boundary interactions.

  • 26.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nature conservation for what?: Analyses of urban and rural nature reserves in southern Sweden 1909-20062013In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 117, p. 66-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To effectively integrate nature conservation in sustainable landscape management, it isessential to deepen the understanding of why, what, where and for whom nature isprotected. This is especially important for nature conservation in human dominatedlandscapes such as cities, where the distance between built up and protected areas is inconstant decline due to urbanisation worldwide. In this study we use historical andcurrent data from Sweden to examine how urban compared to rural nature conservationhave been using formal nature reserve objectives. The focal nature conservationobjectives in our study area were preservation of biodiversity, restoration ofenvironments and outdoor recreation, as well as subdivision of those. The use of theseobjectives were analysed for 1869 nature reserves in relation to degree of urbanisation.We found that nature reserves in more urbanised landscapes were based on a highernumber of objectives. The urban reserves also had a different composition of objectives,where the objectives outdoor recreation and biodiversity preservation were morecommon in urban than in rural reserves. During the last decades we detected a shift inuse of objectives in urban areas, going from biodiversity preservation to a strongerfocus on outdoor recreation. National and global trends in the nature conservationdebate could also be seen as reflected in the use of objectives. To ensure its adaptivecapacity, we stress that urban nature conservation needs a more proactive strategy,where potential future social as well as ecological values must be embraced and notonly existing ones.

  • 27. Clough, Yann
    et al.
    Ekroos, Johan
    Báldi, András
    Batáry, Péter
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Gross, Nicolas
    Holzschuh, Andrea
    Hopfenmüller, Sebastian
    Knop, Eva
    Kuussaari, Mikko
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Marini, Lorenzo
    Öckinger, Erik
    Potts, Simon G.
    Pöyry, Juha
    Roberts, Stuart P. M.
    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Density of insect-pollinated grassland plants decreases with increasing surrounding land-use intensity2014In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 17, no 9, p. 1168-1177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollinator declines have raised concerns about the persistence of plant species that depend on insect pollination, in particular by bees, for their reproduction. The impact of pollinator declines remains unknown for species-rich plant communities found in temperate seminatural grasslands. We investigated effects of land-use intensity in the surrounding landscape on the distribution of plant traits related to insect pollination in 239 European seminatural grasslands. Increasing arable land use in the surrounding landscape consistently reduced the density of plants depending on bee and insect pollination. Similarly, the relative abundance of bee-pollination-dependent plants increased with higher proportions of non-arable agricultural land (e.g. permanent grassland). This was paralleled by an overall increase in bee abundance and diversity. By isolating the impact of the surrounding landscape from effects of local habitat quality, we show for the first time that grassland plants dependent on insect pollination are particularly susceptible to increasing land-use intensity in the landscape.

  • 28.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kaligaric, Mitja
    Bakan, Branko
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Political Systems Affect Mobile and Sessile Species Diversity - A Legacy from the Post-WWII Period2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 8, p. e103367-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political ideologies, policies and economy affect land use which in turn may affect biodiversity patterns and future conservation targets. However, few studies have investigated biodiversity in landscapes with similar physical properties but governed by different political systems. Here we investigate land use and biodiversity patterns, and number and composition of birds and plants, in the borderland of Austria, Slovenia and Hungary. It is a physically uniform landscape but managed differently during the last 70 years as a consequence of the political map of Europe after World War I and II. We used a historical map from 1910 and satellite data to delineate land use within three 10-kilometre transects starting from the point where the three countries meet. There was a clear difference between countries detectable in current biodiversity patterns, which relates to land use history. Mobile species richness was associated with current land use whereas diversity of sessile species was more associated with past land use. Heterogeneous landscapes were positively and forest cover was negatively correlated to bird species richness. Our results provide insights into why landscape history is important to understand present and future biodiversity patterns, which is crucial for designing policies and conservation strategies across the world.

  • 29.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Assessing changes in plant distribution patterns - indicator species versus plant functional types2004In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet conservation goals it is necessary to assess vegetation status and to be able to monitor effects of management and environmental change. In northern Europe grazed grasslands are one of the most threatened habitat in the rural landscape and thus in focus for conservation plans. At present managers use species indicator list to assess past and present management status of grassland and succession stages in particular, as well as effects of the environment. However, these indicators have rarely been scientifically tested. In this study we discuss if plant functional traits may be a key to select suitable indicator species for monitoring land-use change in Swedish rural landscape. The suitability of two possible monitoring tools: (i) plant species selected from functional traits (PFTs) and (ii) indicator species commonly used today to assess grassland management status, were tested along two gradients, a succession gradient and a wetness gradient. We found no association between successional change and plant functional traits, but a response in plant functional traits was found along the wetness gradient. However, the more common non-scientific indicator species responded fairly well to the varying gradient categories along both gradients. We believe that there is a need to further validate the ecological mechanisms behind the present-day indicators and to place them in a geographical context.

  • 30.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. växtekologi.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Remnant grassland habitats as source communities for plant diversification in agricultural landscapes2008In: BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION, Vol. 141, p. 233-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately there has been a shift in Sweden from grazing species-rich semi-natural grasslands towards grazing ex-arable fields in the modern agricultural landscape. These fields normally contain a fraction of the plant species richness compared to semi-natural grasslands. However, small remnant habitats have been suggested as important for plant species diversity and conservation as they may function as refugia for grassland specialists in fragmented and highly modified agricultural landscapes. In this study, we examined whether plant communities on small remnant habitats, i.e. midfield islets, can function as sources for grassland species to disperse out into surrounding grazed ex-fields (former arable fields). We examined species richness and grassland specialists (species favoured by grazing) and their ability to colonize fields after 5 and 11 years of grazing. The fields that had been grazed for a shorter time were fairly species-poor with few grassland specialists. A longer period of grazing had a positive effect on total and small-scale species diversity in both islets and fields. Species composition became more similar with time, and the number of grassland specialists in both habitats increased. We found that grassland specialists dispersed step-wise into the fields, and the number of grassland specialists decreased with distance from the source. Our study suggests that remnant habitats, such as midfield islets, do function as a source community for grassland specialists and enhance diversification of grassland species when grazing is introduced. For long-term conservation of plant species, incorporating small refugia into larger grazing complexes may thus enhance species richness.

  • 31. Dahms, Henriette
    et al.
    Lenoir, Lisette
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Wolters, Volkmar
    Dauber, Jens
    Restoration of Seminatural Grasslands: What is the Impact on Ants?2010In: Restoration Ecology, ISSN 1061-2971, E-ISSN 1526-100X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 330-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of species-rich seminatural grasslands in Northern Europe has decreased significantly due to the abandonment of traditional land use practices. To preserve these habitats, an increasing number of abandoned and overgrown grasslands have been restored by cutting down trees and shrubs and reintroducing grazing. These practices are considered a useful tool to recover the species richness of vascular plants, but their impact on other taxa is hardly known. Here we studied ants as one important group of grassland insects. We investigated (1) the effects of restoration of nongrazed and afforested seminatural grasslands, compared to continuously managed reference sites; and (2) the modulating impacts of habitat characteristics and time elapsed since restoration. We found a total of 27 ant species, 11 of these were characteristic of open habitats and seven characteristic of forests. Neither species richness per site nor the number of open-habitat species, nor the number of forest species differed between restored and reference sites. Yet, within the restored sites, the total species richness and the number of open-habitat species was positively related to the time since restoration and the percentage of bare rock. High frequencies of most open-habitat species were associated with low vegetation, older restored sites, and reference sites. Most forest species showed their highest frequencies in tree- and shrub-dominated habitat. We conclude that restoration efforts have been successful in terms of retrieving species richness. A regular and moderate grazing regime subsequent to the restoration is suggested in order to support a high abundance of open-habitat species.

  • 32. Dainese, Matteo
    et al.
    Isaac, Nick J. B.
    Powney, Gary D.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Öckinger, Erik
    Kuussaari, Mikko
    Pöyry, Juha
    Benton, Tim G.
    Gabriel, Doreen
    Hodgson, Jenny A.
    Kunin, William E.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Sait, Steven M.
    Marini, Lorenzo
    Landscape simplification weakens the association between terrestrial producer and consumer diversity in Europe2017In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 3040-3051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land-use change is one of the primary drivers of species loss, yet little is known about its effect on other components of biodiversity that may be at risk. Here, we ask whether, and to what extent, landscape simplification, measured as the percentage of arable land in the landscape, disrupts the functional and phylogenetic association between primary producers and consumers. Across seven European regions, we inferred the potential associations (functional and phylogenetic) between host plants and butterflies in 561 seminatural grasslands. Local plant diversity showed a strong bottom-up effect on butterfly diversity in the most complex landscapes, but this effect disappeared in simple landscapes. The functional associations between plant and butterflies are, therefore, the results of processes that act not only locally but are also dependent on the surrounding landscape context. Similarly, landscape simplification reduced the phylogenetic congruence among host plants and butterflies indicating that closely related butterflies become more generalist in the resources used. These processes occurred without any detectable change in species richness of plants or butterflies along the gradient of arable land. The structural properties of ecosystems are experiencing substantial erosion, with potentially pervasive effects on ecosystem functions and future evolutionary trajectories. Loss of interacting species might trigger cascading extinction events and reduce the stability of trophic interactions, as well as influence the longer term resilience of ecosystem functions. This underscores a growing realization that species richness is a crude and insensitive metric and that both functional and phylogenetic associations, measured across multiple trophic levels, are likely to provide additional and deeper insights into the resilience of ecosystems and the functions they provide.

  • 33.
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boyd, Emily
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Reading, England.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Dalen, Love
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Ermold, Matti
    Hambäck, Peter A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lagerholm, Vendela K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Moor, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    van der Velde, Ype
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Wageningen University & Research Center, Netherlands.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Interacting effects of change in climate, human population, land use, and water use on biodiversity and ecosystem services2015In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 1, article id UNSP 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human population growth and resource use, mediated by changes in climate, land use, and water use, increasingly impact biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. However, impacts of these drivers on biodiversity and ecosystem services are rarely analyzed simultaneously and remain largely unknown. An emerging question is how science can improve the understanding of change in biodiversity and ecosystem service delivery and of potential feedback mechanisms of adaptive governance. We analyzed past and future change in drivers in south-central Sweden. We used the analysis to identify main research challenges and outline important research tasks. Since the 19th century, our study area has experienced substantial and interlinked changes; a 1.6 degrees C temperature increase, rapid population growth, urbanization, and massive changes in land use and water use. Considerable future changes are also projected until the mid-21st century. However, little is known about the impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services so far, and this in turn hampers future projections of such effects. Therefore, we urge scientists to explore interdisciplinary approaches designed to investigate change in multiple drivers, underlying mechanisms, and interactions over time, including assessment and analysis of matching-scale data from several disciplines. Such a perspective is needed for science to contribute to adaptive governance by constantly improving the understanding of linked change complexities and their impacts.

  • 34.
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Implications of climate and land-use change for landscape processes, biodiversity, ecosystem services, and governance2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. s1-S5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the Special Issue summarizes the results of 14 scientific articles from the interdisciplinary research program Ekoklim at Stockholm University, Sweden. In this program, we investigate effects of changing climate and land use on landscape processes, biodiversity, and ecosystem services, and analyze issues related to adaptive governance in the face of climate and land-use change. We not only have a research focus on the 22 650 km(2) Norrstrom catchment surrounding lake Malaren in south-central Sweden, but we also conduct research in other Swedish regions. The articles presented here show complex interactions between multiple drivers of change, as well as feedback processes at different spatiotemporal scales. Thus, the Ekoklim program highlights and deals with issues relevant for the future challenges society will face when land-use change interacts with climate change.

  • 35. Envall, Ida
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Jan
    Jakobsson, Simon
    Rundlöf, Maj
    Åberg, Charlotte
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    What is the effect of giving the grazers access to additional nutrient sources on biodiversity in semi-natural pastures? A systematic review protocol2021In: Environmental Evidence, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 16Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Semi-natural pastures are unfertilized grasslands with a long history of traditional low-input grazing management. This kind of pastures are recognized for their high species richness. However, as a consequence of modernization of agriculture, many of the semi-natural pastures have been lost during the last century, leading to a serious threat to farmland biodiversity. Semi-natural pastures are relatively low in productivity. Hence, to increase profitability, farmers may want to give the grazing animals access to additional nutrient sources. This can be done either as supplementary feeding, or by fencing the semi-natural pastures into the same enclosure as improved, more nutrient-rich, pastures. These practices are, however, controversial. It is argued that since semi-natural pastures are species-rich partly because they are nutrient-poor, introducing additional nutrients into the system should be avoided. Accordingly, in Sweden, these interventions are often prohibited while receiving financial subsidies for management of semi-natural pastures. However, since many farmers are dependent on such support to maintain their pastures, these prohibitions often cause problems. The question has been raised whether giving the grazers access to additional nutrient sources really affect the biodiversity in semi-natural pastures, as is assumed. The primary aim of the proposed systematic review is to answer this question.

    Method: Peer-reviewed and grey literature will be searched for using bibliographic databases, search engines, specialist websites and stakeholder contacts. The references will be screened for relevance according to a predefined set of eligibility criteria. The criteria will be tested and clarified iteratively, until consistency in interpretations is achieved. Thereafter, the literature will be screened in two stages, first based upon title and abstract and then by examining full texts. Full text screening will be performed with blinded decisions by two independent reviewers. Each relevant study will then be critically appraised, based on a set of predefined validity criteria. A narrative synthesis will be provided, outlining the evidence base in terms of bibliographic information and study metadata. If possible, quantitative syntheses based on meta-analyses will be performed. Identified relevant knowledge gaps will be highlighted and discussed.

  • 36. Gotzenberger, Lars
    et al.
    de Bello, Francesco
    Brathen, Kari Anne
    Davison, John
    Dubuis, Anne
    Guisan, Antoine
    Leps, Jan
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Moora, Mari
    Partel, Meelis
    Pellissier, Loic
    Pottier, Julien
    Vittoz, Pascal
    Zobel, Kristjan
    Zobel, Martin
    Ecological assembly rules in plant communities-approaches, patterns and prospects2012In: Biological Reviews, ISSN 1464-7931, E-ISSN 1469-185X, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 111-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how communities of living organisms assemble has been a central question in ecology since the early days of the discipline. Disentangling the different processes involved in community assembly is not only interesting in itself but also crucial for an understanding of how communities will behave under future environmental scenarios. The traditional concept of assembly rules reflects the notion that species do not co-occur randomly but are restricted in their co-occurrence by interspecific competition. This concept can be redefined in a more general framework where the co-occurrence of species is a product of chance, historical patterns of speciation and migration, dispersal, abiotic environmental factors, and biotic interactions, with none of these processes being mutually exclusive. Here we present a survey and meta-analyses of 59 papers that compare observed patterns in plant communities with null models simulating random patterns of species assembly. According to the type of data under study and the different methods that are applied to detect community assembly, we distinguish four main types of approach in the published literature: species co-occurrence, niche limitation, guild proportionality and limiting similarity. Results from our meta-analyses suggest that non-random co-occurrence of plant species is not a widespread phenomenon. However, whether this finding reflects the individualistic nature of plant communities or is caused by methodological shortcomings associated with the studies considered cannot be discerned from the available metadata. We advocate that more thorough surveys be conducted using a set of standardized methods to test for the existence of assembly rules in data sets spanning larger biological and geographical scales than have been considered until now. We underpin this general advice with guidelines that should be considered in future assembly rules research. This will enable us to draw more accurate and general conclusions about the non-random aspect of assembly in plant communities.

  • 37.
    Hahn, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Heinrup, Malena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Landscape heterogeneity correlates with recreational values: a case study from Swedish agricultural landscapes and implications for policy2018In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 696-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agri-environmental schemes are often targeted at heterogenic landscapes to support several ecosystem services besides food production. The question is whether heterogenic landscapes also support recreation values. Previous studies suggest this but statistical analysis of the relation between heterogeneity and recreation is lacking. To assess this, we used a quantitative Landscape Heterogeneity Index (LHI), developed for biodiversity conservation. We asked five different user groups to score 12 photographs of landscapes depicting different LHI. All user groups, especially conservationists and hunters, preferred the heterogeneous landscapes and this difference was statistically significant for all groups except farmers. Accessibility, in terms of roads, had no obvious impact on the recreational value conveyed by the photos. The paper provides evidence that the recreational value amplifies biodiversity-based values of heterogeneous landscapes and argues that such landscapes also provide resilience and insurance value buffering against unexpected risks. Implications for policy are discussed.

    HIGHLIGHTS

    Recreational value was positively correlated to landscape heterogeneity.

    This correlation was statistically significant for all user groups except farmers.

    Accessibility, in terms of roads, had no obvious impact on the recreational value.

    The multi-functionality of heterogeneous agricultural landscapes including resilience and the insurance value should be better acknowledged in policy.

  • 38.
    Henriksson Malinga, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Jewitt, Graham P. W.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    On the other side of the ditch: exploring contrasting ecosystem service coproduction between smallholder and commercial agriculture2018In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 4, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing for increased multifunctionality of agricultural landscapes is a crucial step toward a sustainable global agriculture. We studied two contrasting agricultural landscapes that exist in parallel on two sides of a ditch in the South African Drakensberg Mountains. The large-scale commercial and smallholder farmers operate within a similar biophysical context but have different farming intensities, management practices, socioeconomic positions, ethnic identities, cultural contexts, and land tenure systems. To assess multifunctionality, we examined the ecosystem services coproduced within these two social-ecological systems, by applying a mixed-method approach combining in-depth interviews, participatory mapping, and expert assessments. The results indicate clear differences between the two farming systems and farmer groups in terms of supply, demand, and the capacity of the farmers to influence ecosystem service production within their landscapes. Commercial farmers can generally produce agricultural products to meet their demand and have the capacity to mitigate land degradation and erosion. Smallholder food production is low, and the demand for ecosystem services is high. Since the smallholders lack the resources to mitigate unsustainable use, this leads to overuse and land degradation. Both landscape types manifest aspects of multifunctionality but vary in the outcomes. Unequal access to land; skills; and natural, financial, and technical resources can hamper multifunctionality and the development toward an equitable and sustainable agriculture in South Africa.

  • 39.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Bernes, Claes
    Bullock, James M.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    How does roadside vegetation management affect the diversity of vascular plants and invertebrates? A systematic review2018In: Environmental Evidence, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 7, no 1, article id UNSP 17Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With appropriate management, based on vegetation removal that reverses late-successional vegetation stages, roadsides can support high levels of biodiversity. However, current recommendations for roadside management to conserve or restore biodiversity are largely based on research on non-roadside grassland habitats, and much of the evidence on how roadside management practices affect biodiversity is found in non-peer-reviewed grey literature. Therefore, based on suggestions from key stakeholders and an initial systematic map that identified 97 studies on how biodiversity is affected by vegetation removal on roadsides, we conducted a full systematic review of the effects on plant and invertebrate diversity of disturbance-based maintenance of roadsides. Methods: The review was restricted to effects of non-chemical interventions such as mowing, burning, grazing and mechanical shrub removal. Studies were selected from the systematic map and from an updated search for more recent literature using a priori eligibility criteria. Relevant articles were subject to critical appraisal of clarity and susceptibility to bias, and studies with low or unclear validity were excluded from the review. Data on species richness, species diversity and abundance of functional groups were extracted together with metadata on site properties and other potential effect modifiers. Results from the 54 included studies were summarised in a narrative synthesis, and impacts of mowing practices on the total species richness and diversity of plants and on the abundance of forbs, graminoids and woody plants were quantitatively analysed using t tests of study-level effect ratios. Results: Nearly all of the 54 studies included in the review were conducted in Europe (29) or North America (24). The vast majority of studies (48) examined impacts of mowing. Effects on vascular plants were reported in 51 studies, whereas 8 of the studies reported on invertebrates. Quantitative analysis of plant species richness and species diversity showed that mowing effects were dependent on the interplay between mowing frequency and hay removal. Thus, there were no statistically significant overall effects of mowing vs. no mowing, frequency of mowing, timing of mowing or hay removal. However, species richness was higher in roadsides mowed once or twice per year with hay removal than in unmown roadsides, and positively affected by mowing twice compared to once per year. Similar, but less pronounced, effects were found for plant species diversity. In addition, mowing had a negative impact on woody plant abundance, and increased mowing frequency had a negative impact on graminoid abundance. The few studies on invertebrates showed effects that diverged across taxon groups, and there was not enough data for quantitative analysis of these results. Conclusions: The results provide evidence on the effects of mowing on plant species richness. To increase plant species richness, roadsides should be mowed each year, preferably twice per year, and hay should be removed after each cutting. The review also identifies large knowledge gaps concerning roadside management and its effects on biodiversity, especially regarding invertebrates. Hence, this systematic review provides not only a valuable basis for evidence-based management but also guidance for future research on this topic, essential to inform management of road networks for biodiversity conservation.

  • 40.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Governing nature by numbers - EU subsidy regulations do not capture the unique values of woody pastures2015In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 191, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vast majority of European farmers are dependent on EU subsidies, which makes subsidy regulations through the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) powerful tools in shaping agricultural landscapes. Unfortunately, steering recommendations are sometimes arbitrary, like in the case of pasture management, where 50 trees per hectare constitute an upper limit to qualify for subsidies. Although pasture biodiversity is well studied and the core of many CAP conservation programmes, it is seldom studied as direct effects of subsidy systems. In this paper, we examine plant diversity in relation to the impact of subsidy systems in Swedish woody pastures along a gradient from 3 to 214 trees per hectare. We selected 64 sites where we recorded vascular plants, soil properties and canopy cover. We found a general increase in γ- and β-diversity along the gradient, whereas α-diversity and the number of grassland specialists remained indifferent along the gradient. Additionally, tree density, organic content and C:N-ratio were the strongest predictors of species composition. Hence, when CAP regulations encourage tree cutting for pastures to qualify for subsidies there is risk of homogenisation of EU grasslands, leading to decreased γ- and β-diversity. If a general target for the subsidies is to increase biodiversity, there is need to scrutinise these regulation details to preserve the high values of woody pastures. We argue that habitat variation, species diversity and low intensity management, rather than a specific number of trees, should be the main incentives for financial support to preserve biodiversity.

  • 41.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    The importance of trees for woody pasture bird diversity and effects of the European Union's tree density policy2017In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 1638-1647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Recent reforms in the Common Agricultural Policy aim for a greening of the subsidy system with potential improvements for biodiversity conservation. As part of that process, the tree density limit for pastures to qualify for European Union subsidies has been increased from 50 to 100 trees per hectare. However, recent studies show that the high biodiversity values of these habitats may be threatened by these limits, highlighting the need for policy improvements. Still, little is known about the direct effects of tree density limitations on bird communities in woody pastures. 2. We investigated how bird diversity and species composition are affected by tree density in 49 Swedish woody pastures along a gradient of 4-214 trees per hectare. We recorded bird communities, tree density and stand structure estimates in the field and estimated forest cover in the surrounding landscape from aerial photos. Using generalised additive models and redundancy analysis, we analysed how bird territorial species richness, bird abundance and species composition are affected by tree density, taking into account other local and landscape scale explanatory variables. 3. Tree density had a significant positive effect on bird species richness at low tree densities and species richness saturated at approximately 50 trees per hectare. Shrub density had a significant positive linear effect on both bird species richness and abundance. Tree and shrub density were also the major drivers of bird community composition, with secondary effects of tree species diversity and landscape forest cover. 4. Policy implications. Our results show that tree density is not the limiting factor, but rather a driver of bird diversity and species composition in woody pastures and that tree density limits may fail to capture the whole range of biological values. To improve policy recommendations, we therefore stress the importance of considering additional social-ecological drivers associated to management quality, e.g. taking into account moral and cultural motivations among farmers, to preserve biodiversity in woody pastures.

  • 42.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Tree density limitations within EU overlook woody pasture bird diversityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Norway.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Exploring the effects of pasture trees on plant community patterns2019In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 809-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions

    We aim to answer three questions: (a) what are the effects of canopy shading of different tree species on seed germination of eight understorey grassland species? (b) how is plant species’ occurrence in understorey communities affected by differences in canopy cover and does that depend on tree species composition? and (c) are there mechanistic links between the effects of trees on species’ germination and their occurrence in the understorey plant community?

    Location

    Semi‐natural wooded pastures in the biosphere reserve Östra Vätterbranterna, southern Sweden.

    Methods

    In this study, we examined the germination of eight grassland plant species in a seed sowing experiment under natural conditions in the field. Seeds were sown beneath and outside the canopy of two tree species within 48 plots split up by four wooded pasture sites. We combined observed germination responses with a plant community survey to assess the effects of canopy cover in relation to tree species composition on plant community responses. We analysed these data in relation to species’ seed mass and vegetative shade tolerance.

    Results

    Shade‐tolerant species germinated better beneath compared to outside tree canopies, without any clear advantage of large‐seeded over small‐seeded species. As expected, species’ shade tolerance was also positively related to canopy cover within the understorey plant community. Importantly, we found strong tree species‐specific effects of canopy shading on the species’ germination response, but not on their presence within the plant community. However, optimal canopy cover conditions for germination and for the mature plants differed across grassland species and depended on tree species.

    Conclusions

    Our results show that different tree species play key ecosystem engineering roles in shaping wooded grassland plant community composition at the germination stage. Management practices favouring specific tree species may therefore be highly relevant for targeted biodiversity conservation of wooded semi‐natural grasslands.

  • 44.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Exploring the effects of pasture trees on plant community patternsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Norway.
    Wood, Heather
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Ekroos, Johan
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Contrasting multi-taxa functional diversity patterns along vegetation structure gradients of woody pastures2020In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 29, p. 3551-3572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Woody pastures represent keystone habitats for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, contributing to increased resource availability, landscape heterogeneity and structural variability. High taxonomic diversity is closely linked to vegetation structure in woody pastures, but examining functional characteristics of species assemblages can shed more light on the ecological mechanisms driving divergent responses to habitat characteristics and help guide good management practices. To this end, we use a multi-taxa approach to investigate how plant, bat and bird taxonomic and functional diversity are affected by pasture tree and shrub density, structural complexity and proximate forest cover in southern Sweden. In particular, we use a trait exclusion approach to estimate the sensitivity of diversity-environment relationships to specific traits. We found little congruence between corresponding diversity metrics across taxa. Bird species richness responded stronger to environmental variables than functional diversity metrics, whereas the functional response to the environment was stronger than the taxonomic response among plants and bats. While increasing tree densities increased the taxonomic diversity of all three taxa, a simultaneous functional response was only evident for plants. Contrasting measures of vegetation structure affected different aspects of functional diversity across taxa, driven by different traits. For plants and birds, traits linked to resource use contributed particularly to the functional response, whereas body mass had stronger influence on bat functional diversity metrics. Multi-taxa functional approaches are essential to understand the effects of woody pasture structural attributes on biodiversity, and ultimately inform management guidelines to preserve the biological values in woody pastures.

  • 46.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Wood, Heather
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Ekroos, Johan
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Contrasting multi-taxa functional diversity patterns along vegetation structure gradients of woody pasturesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Livsey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Guasconi, Daniela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Long-term soil organic carbon changes after cropland conversion to grazed grassland in Southern Sweden2023In: Soil use and management, ISSN 0266-0032, E-ISSN 1475-2743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing awareness of the potential value of agricultural land for climate change mitigation. In Sweden, cropland areas have decreased by approximately 30% over recent decades, creating opportunities for these former croplands to be managed for climate change mitigation by increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. One potential land-use change is conversion of cropland to grazed grasslands, but the long-term effect of such change in management is not well understood and likely varies with soil type and site-specific conditions. Through sampling of mineral and peatland soils within a 75-year chronosequence of land converted from crop production to grazed grassland, we assessed how time since conversion, catenary position, and soil depth affected SOC storage. The SOC stocks calculated at an equivalent soil or ash mass increased through time since conversion in mineral soils at all topographic positions, at a rate of ~0.65% year−1. Soils at low topographic positions gained the most carbon. Peat SOC stock gains after conversion were large, but only marginally significant and only when calculated at an equivalent ash mass. We conclude that the conversion of mineral soil to grazed grassland promotes SOC accumulation at our sites, but climate change mitigation potential would need to be evaluated through a full greenhouse gas balance.

  • 48.
    Jonason, Dennis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Ekroos, Johan
    Öckinger, Erik
    Helenius, Juha
    Kuussaari, Mikko
    Tiainen, Juha
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Weak functional response to agricultural landscape homogenisation among plants, butterflies and birds2017In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 1221-1230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures of functional diversity are expected to predict community responses to land use and environmental change because, in contrast to taxonomic diversity, it is based on species traits rather than their identity. Here, we investigated the impact of landscape homogenisation on plants, butterflies and birds in terms of the proportion of arable field cover in southern Finland at local (0.25 km2) and regional (> 10 000 km2) scales using four functional diversity indices: functional richness, functional evenness, functional divergence and functional dispersion. No uniform response in functional diversity across taxa or scales was found. However, in all cases where we found a relationship between increasing arable field cover and any index of functional diversity, this relationship was negative. Butterfly functional richness decreased with increasing arable field cover, as did butterfly and bird functional evenness. For butterfly functional evenness, this was only evident in the most homogeneous regions. Butterfly and bird functional dispersion decreased in homogeneous regions regardless of the proportion of arable field cover locally. No effect of landscape heterogeneity on plant functional diversity was found at any spatial scale, but plant species richness decreased locally with increasing arable field cover. Overall, species richness responded more consistently to landscape homogenisation than did the functional diversity indices, with both positive and negative effects across species groups. Functional diversity indices are in theory valuable instruments for assessing effects of land use scenarios on ecosystem functioning. However, the applicability of empirical data requires deeper understanding of which traits reliably capture species’ vulnerability to environmental factors and of the ecological interpretation of the functional diversity indices. Our study provides novel insights into how the functional diversity of communities changes in response to agriculturally derived landscape homogenisation; however, the low explanatory power of the functional diversity indices hampers the ability to reliably anticipate impacts on ecosystem functioning.

  • 49. Knudby, Anders
    et al.
    Nordlund, Lina Mtwana
    Palmqvist, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wikström, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Koliji, Alan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Using multiple Landsat scenes in an ensemble classifier reduces classification error in a stable nearshore environment2014In: International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, ISSN 1569-8432, E-ISSN 1872-826X, Vol. 28, p. 90-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medium-scale land cover maps are traditionally created on the basis of a single cloud-free satellite scene, leaving information present in other scenes unused. Using 1309 field observations and 20 cloud- and error-affected Landsat scenes covering Zanzibar Island, this study demonstrates that the use of multiple scenes can both allow complete coverage of the study area in the absence of cloud-free scenes and obtain substantially improved classification accuracy. Automated processing of individual scenes includes derivation of spectral features for use in classification, identification of clouds, shadows and the land/water boundary, and random forest-based land cover classification. An ensemble classifier is then created from the single-scene classifications by voting. The accuracy achieved by the ensemble classifier is 70.4%, compared to an average of 62.9% for the individual scenes, and the ensemble classifier achieves complete coverage of the study area while the maximum coverage for a single scene is 1209 of the 1309 field sites. Given the free availability of Landsat data, these results should encourage increased use of multiple scenes in land cover classification and reduced reliance on the traditional single-scene methodology.

  • 50. Krauss, J
    et al.
    Bommarco, R
    Guardiola, M
    Heikkinen, R
    Helm, A
    Kuussaari, M
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Öckinger, E
    Pärtel, M
    Pino, J
    Pöyry, J
    Raatikainen, K M
    Sang, A
    Stefanescu, C
    Teder, T
    Zobel, M
    Steffan-Dewenter, I
    Habitat fragmentation causes immediate and time-delayed biodiversity loss at different trophic levels2010In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 597-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensification or abandonment of agricultural land use has led to a severe decline of semi-natural habitats across Europe. This can cause immediate loss of species but also time-delayed extinctions, known as the extinction debt. In a pan-European study of 147 fragmented grassland remnants, we found differences in the extinction debt of species from different trophic levels. Present-day species richness of long-lived vascular plant specialists was better explained by past than current landscape patterns, indicating an extinction debt. In contrast, short-lived butterfly specialists showed no evidence for an extinction debt at a time scale of c. 40 years. Our results indicate that management strategies maintaining the status quo of fragmented habitats are insufficient, as time- delayed extinctions and associated co-extinctions will lead to further biodiversity loss in the future.

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