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  • 1.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Rehnberg, Nora Helmy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Language and eyewitness suggestibility2019In: Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, ISSN 1544-4759, E-ISSN 1544-4767, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 201-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During forensic interviews, eyewitnesses are to retrieve correct information from memory. Cognitive load should be high, leading to risks of giving in to suggestive questions and difficulties in memory retrieval generally. Testifying in a non-native vs. native language may require even more cognitive effort due to the need to inhibit the interference of the native language. Such witnesses may also be more motivated to appear credible because they often belong to ethnic outgroups relative to forensic professionals, risking more scepticism. In this study, Swedish participants (N = 51) reported their memory of a simulated crime event either in English (non-native language) or in Swedish (native language) and were tested for suggestibility and accuracy. Results showed that English-speaking witnesses yielded to more suggestive questions, perceived themselves as less credible but were equally accurate. Results suggest that testifying in a non-native language is taxing cognitive resources, in turn increasing suggestibility and suboptimal memory search.

  • 2.
    Andrén, Victoria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Centre for Innovation, Research and Education, Region Västmanland, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Yourstone, Jenny
    Damberg, Mattias
    Gender and arson: psychosocial, psychological, and somatic offender characteristics at the time of the crime2023In: Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, ISSN 1478-9949, E-ISSN 1478-9957, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 113-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deliberate fire-setting, such as the crime of arson, can have devastating, even lethal, consequences. This study compared factors at the time of arson by female and male offenders in Sweden between 2000–2010. The women (n = 100), and men (n = 100) included in this study were randomly chosen from among all individuals who had been convicted for arson during this period and who underwent forensic psychiatric investigations. Information regarding psychiatric and somatic characteristics, their psychosocial situation, and whether they were in contact with health or social services before the arsons were examined. The results showed that both women and men have complex psychiatric and somatic characteristics, as well as psychosocial situations. Women showed more self-destructive behaviour, lower Global Assessment of Functioning scores, and had been in contact with psychiatric health services to a greater extent than men. More women than men had children. These findings suggest that specific actions may be needed for preventing and treating women compared with men at risk for committing arson.

  • 3. Bäck, Emma A.
    et al.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Defending or Challenging the Status Quo: Position Effects on Biased Intergroup Perceptions2014In: The Journal of Social and Political Psychology, E-ISSN 2195-3325, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 77-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The default ideological position is status quo maintaining, and challenging the status quo is associated with increased efforts and risks. Nonetheless, some people choose to challenge the status quo. Therefore, to challenge the status quo should imply a strong belief in one’s position as the correct one, and thus efforts may be undertaken to undermine the position of others. Study 1 (N = 311) showed that challengers undermined, by ascribing more externality and less rationality, the position of defenders to a larger extent than defenders did of challengers’ position. Studies 2 (N = 135) and 3 (N= 109) tested if these effects were driven by the implied minority status of the challenging position. Results revealed no effects of experimentally manipulated numerical status, but challengers were again more biased than defenders. Study 3 also revealed that challengers felt more negatively toward their opponents (possibly due to greater social identification with like-minded others), and these negative emotions in turn predicted biased attributions. Results are important as they add to the understanding of how intergroup conflict may arise, providing explanations for why challengers are less tolerant of others’ point of view.

  • 4.
    Bäck, Emma A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gilljam, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Esaisson, Peter
    Göteborgs universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Post-decision consolidation in large group decision-making2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-makers tend to change the psychological attractiveness of decision alternatives in favour of their own preferred alternative after the decision is made. In two experiments, the present research examined whether such decision consolidation occurs also among individual group members in a large group decision-making situation. High-school students were presented with a decision scenario on an important issue in their school. The final decision was made by in-group authority, out-group authority or by majority after a ballot voting. Results showed that individual members of large groups changed the attractiveness of their preferred alternative from a pre- to a post decision phase, that these consolidation effects increased when decisions were made by in-group members and when participants identified strongly with their school. Implications of the findings for understanding of group behavior and subgroup relations are discussed.

  • 5.
    Bäck, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Esaiasson, Peter
    Göteborgs universitet Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Gilljam, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Biased attributions regarding the origins of preferences in a group decision situation2010In: European Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0046-2772, E-ISSN 1099-0992, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 270-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current research investigated biases in attributions of the origins of others’ preferences in a group decision situation. In two experiments, students indicated their preferred alternative in a decision on an important issue in their school, and then explained the bases for preferences of those agreeing and disagreeing with them. Results showed that participants saw preferences of those who agreed as more rationally and less externally based than of those who disagreed. This effect increased with perceived issue importance, when the decision was made by in-group representatives, when the decision outcome was concordant with their own preference (Study 1), and, on the externality dimension, when their representatives were in the majority when deciding on an important issue (Study 2). Findings have important implications for our understanding of the tolerance of others and acceptance of group decisions, and ultimately, how group members behave and interact.

  • 6.
    Bäck, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gilljam, M.
    Esaiasson, P.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The role of issue importance in biased biases regarding the origins of preferences2008In: Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Albuquerque, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Important issues seem to elicit attributional biases regarding origins of attitudes, such that people holding the same attitude as oneself (ingroup) is seen as more rational and less externally influenced than people holding an opposing attitude (outgroup) (Kenworthy & Miller, 2002). The current research examines the role of issue importance for such biases in three studies. In Study 1, students read about pros and cons of prohibiting religious symbols in Swedish schools. They stated their preferred alternative, issue importance, and rated origins of preferences for the ingroup and outgroup. Issue importance was related to biases. This relation was tested in two follow-up studies where high school students read about a hypothetical decision situation where their school was to decide whether to prohibit religious symbols or not. In both studies, participants stated preferred decision alternative and issue importance. Decision outcome was manipulated to concord or discord with participants’ preferences. In Study 2, decision-making form varied so the decision was made by the student council, school authorities or by voting. In Study 3, the student council of participants’ own and an adjacent school were going to make the decision together. School size and composition principle of the student council varied. Results showed that biases varied with target group and issue importance in both studies. In Study 2, biases also varied with decision-making form and outcome, although this was not replicated in Study 3. Importance seems to be decisive for biases, and decision-making form and outcome may under some circumstances influence biases.

  • 7.
    Bäck, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Status Quo Change: Bias Differences Between Pro and Con Positions2009In: XIth annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Tampa, February 5-7, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The default ideological position is status quo maintaining (Skitka et. al., 2002), and people typically perceive more self-interest in arguements undermining rather than maintaining the status quo (O’Brien & Crandall, 2005). However, it is not known how people pro status quo change perceive those disagree rather than agree with themselves. In three studies the current research explored how individuals pro and con a status quo change on a controversial issue (e. g., gay couples’ right to child adoption, prohibition of religious symbols in schools) perceived the externality and rationality of preferences among those who agreed and disagreed with their own preference (Kenworthy & Miller, 2002). In all three studies, individuals pro- as compared to con a status quo change showed more bias, that is more perceived externality and less rationality behind preferences of those disagreeing rather than agreeing with themselves. Individuals pro status quo change were more biased when a decision on the target issue was made that concorded rather than discorded with their own preference, whereas those against a change showed more bias with a discordant decision outcome. Because status quo is default position, people who challenge it take a risk, possibly inducing threat feelings which should increase biases (Stephan et. al., 2002). A concordant decision outcome in this situation may have a validating function, boosting self-enhancement and increase biases (Tajfel & Turner, 1986).

  • 8.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    A General Model of Dissonance Reduction: Unifying Past Accounts via an Emotion Regulation Perspective2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 540081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive dissonance has been studied for more than 60 years and many insightful findings have come from this research. However, some important theoretical and methodological issues are yet to be resolved, particularly regarding dissonance reduction. In this paper, we place dissonance theory in the larger framework of appraisal theories of emotion, emotion regulation, and coping. The basic premise of dissonance theory is that people experience negative affect (to varying degrees) following the detection of cognitive conflict. The individual will be motivated to alleviate these emotional reactions and could do so by reducing dissonance in some manner. We argue that detection of dissonance will follow the same principles as when people interpret any other stimuli as emotionally significant. Thus, appraisal theory of emotion, which argues that emotions are generated via the cognitive evaluation of surrounding stimuli, should be applicable to the dissonance-detection process. In short, we argue that dissonance-reduction strategies (attitude change, trivialization, denial of responsibility, etc.) can be understood as emotion-regulation strategies. We further argue that this perspective contributes to reconciling fragmented (and sometimes contrary) viewpoints present in the literature on dissonance reduction. In addition to proposing the general model of dissonance reduction, we illustrate at the hand of empirical data how research on dissonance reduction can be performed without relying on experimental paradigms that focus on a specific reduction strategy.

  • 9.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Dissonance and abstraction: Cognitive conflict leads to higher level of construal2018In: European Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0046-2772, E-ISSN 1099-0992, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 100-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive conflict on abstract thinking. According to action-identification theory, an ambiguous and unfamiliar situation might propel an individual to a more abstract mindset. Based on this premise, cognitive conflict was hypothesized to put people in an abstract mindset. The induced compliance paradigm, in which participants are asked to write a counter-attitudinal essay under either low choice (producing little dissonance) or high choice (producing more dissonance), was employed. Results showed that an abstract mindset was in fact activated in the induced compliance paradigm, and this effect was more pronounced for participants having a more concrete mindset to begin with. The results suggest that the experience of cognitive conflict is closely related to increased abstraction.

  • 10.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Dissonance reduction as emotion regulation: Attitude change is related to positive emotions in the induced compliance paradigm2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, article id e0209012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to clarify how positive and negative emotions are related to the common attitude-change effect in cognitive dissonance research. Drawing on appraisal theories of emotion, and emotion-regulation research, we predicted that negative emotions would be inversely related to attitude change, whereas positive emotions would be positively related to attitude change in the induced compliance paradigm. In two studies, participants (N = 44; N = 106) wrote a counter-attitudinal essay under the perception of high choice, and were later asked to state their emotions in relation to writing this essay, as well as to state their attitude. Results confirmed the predictions, even when controlling for baseline emotions. These findings untangled a previously unresolved issue in dissonance research, which in turn shows how important emotion theories are for the understanding of cognitive dissonance processes.

  • 11.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Dissonance and abstraction: Cognitive conflict leads to higher level of construal2017In: 18th General Meeting of The European Association of Social Psychology: Programme and Abstract Book, European Association of Social Psychology , 2017, p. 123-123Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive conflict on abstraction. Results revealed that an abstract mindset was in fact activated when participants experienced cognitive conflict. This suggest that cognitive conflicts are closely related to increased abstraction.

  • 12.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Cognitive dissonance leads to an abstract mindset2016In: Book of abstract, 2016, p. 38-38Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive dissonance on abstract thinking. According to action-identification theory, whenever people try to understand a situation in a new way, they activate an abstract mindset. Based on this premise, dissonance was hypothesized to put people in an abstract mindset. The induced compliance paradigm, in which participants are asked to write a counter-attitudinal essay under either low choice (producing little dissonance) or high choice (producing more dissonance), was employed. Results showed that dissonance did in fact activate a more abstract mindset, and this effect was more pronounced for participants having a more concrete mindset to begin with. This suggests that increasing abstraction, as a reaction to cognitive conflict, is a way for people to resolve inconsistencies.

  • 13.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    The effects of cognitive dissonance on abstract thinking: Dissonance leads to an abstract mindset2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated how individuals’ abstract thinking increases when experiencing dissonance. Dissonance theory holds that people reduce dissonance by accommodating their attitudes in order to fit their most recent behavior. This process resembles the reasoning of action-identification theory (AIT), which postulates that people usually try to understand their actions in a meaningful and coherent way, and also that actions can take on new meanings when people move from a low-level to a high-level understanding of the action. Thus, acting inconsistently threatens the coherent understanding of ones action; and in order to regain a sense of consonance, people will try to find a new meaning of their action (e.g., via attitude change). However, this occurs when moving to a high-level understanding (i.e., thinking more abstractly) of ones action. However, the effect of dissonance on abstraction should be stronger for individuals with low level of abstraction to begin with – since AIT holds that people who naturally tend to think abstractly already have high-level understandings of their actions. We predicted that: (1) dissonance puts people in a more abstract mindset, and (2) this effect will be more apparent for individuals low in abstraction. First, we established participants’ natural tendencies to abstract thinking with the Gestalt Completion Test (GCT). This variable was later split into low and high GCT. Several days later, we employed the induced compliance paradigm, in which participants were asked to write a counter-attitudinal essay under either low choice or high choice. High-choice participants usually experience more dissonance. We also created a neutral condition (to serve as a comparison to the other conditions) in which individuals were asked to write a pro-attitudinal essay. After the induced compliance manipulation, the Behavior Identification Form (BIF) was used to measure abstraction. The sample consisted of 125 non-psychology students. A 3 (condition: high-choice vs. low-choice vs. neutral) ˙ 2 (GCT: low vs. high) between subjects factorial ANOVA showed that participants in the high-choice condition (who experienced more dissonance) did exhibit a more abstract mindset, and level of GCT moderated this effect. The following simple effects analysis showed a significant effect for the low-GCT groups: (F(2, 119) = 6.607, p = .002, &#951;2 = .100) and the pairwise comparisons revealed that high-choice participants exhibited a significantly more abstract mindset (M = 16.65, SD = 4.54) compared to both the low-choice participants (M = 13.18, SD = 4.45) p = .013, d = .77 and the neutral participants (M = 12.25, SD = 4.71) p < .001, d = .95. No significant effects were found when comparing the high-GCT groups (p = .398). The present study demonstrated that dissonance activates abstract thinking, which is thought to facilitate people’s understanding their recent actions. This finding has important implication for the future study of consequences of cognitive conflicts, and also the study of how abstraction enables people to find new meanings of their own actions. Hence, investigation on these mechanisms could shed more light on how people regulate their thoughts, emotions and behavior in real time.

  • 14.
    Cederborg, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lamb, Michael
    Norrman, Erik
    Evaluating the Quality of Investigative Interviews Conducted After the Completion of a Training Program2021In: Investigative Interviewing Research & Practice (II-RP), Vol. 11, no 1, p. 40-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previous study conducted in Sweden showed that criminal investigators who participated in a 6‐month course, including a systematic and extensive training program based on a flexible protocol and during which they received extended supervision, were able to reduce their use of option‐posing and suggestive questions and used more open‐ended questions at the end of the training. However, that study did not determine whether the participants continued to employ preferred interview techniques in the months after the course concluded. In the present study, therefore, we evaluated interviews conducted by 66 Swedish criminal investigators who were given the same training as the previous participants. They attended four different courses between the autumn term of 2013 and the spring term of 2015.The present study specifically focused on changes in interview quality from before the course started, to the final interview at the end of the course and interviews subsequently conducted four months after the course was completed. The coding distinguished between open‐questions (invitations, directives) and risky questions (option‐posing and suggestive prompts). We found that, over time, the participants made increased use of recommended types of questions (invitations and directive questions) and reduced use of risky question types (option‐posing and suggestive questions). This suggests that the training program enhanced the investigators’ interview behavior and that they maintained their good practices after completing the course. This is an important finding because inappropriate interviewing can undermine the legal rights of both alleged victims and suspects. 

  • 15. Conroy-Beam, Daniel
    et al.
    Buss, David M.
    Asao, Kelly
    Sorokowska, Agnieszka
    Sorokowski, Piotr
    Aavik, Toivo
    Akello, Grace
    Alhabahba, Mohammad Madallh
    Alm, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Amjad, Naumana
    Anjum, Afifa
    Atama, Chiemezie S.
    Duyar, Derya Atamturk
    Ayebare, Richard
    Batres, Carlota
    Bendixen, Mons
    Bensafia, Aicha
    Bizumic, Boris
    Boussena, Mahmoud
    Butovskaya, Marina
    Can, Seda
    Cantarero, Katarzyna
    Carrier, Antonin
    Cetinkaya, Hakan
    Croy, Ilona
    Maria Cueto, Rosa
    Czub, Marcin
    Dronova, Daria
    Dural, Seda
    Duyar, Izzet
    Ertugrul, Berna
    Espinosa, Agustin
    Estevan, Ignacio
    Esteves, Carla Sofia
    Fang, Luxi
    Frackowiak, Tomasz
    Contreras Garduno, Jorge
    Ugalde Gonzalez, Karina
    Guemaz, Farida
    Gyuris, Petra
    Halamova, Maria
    Herak, Iskra
    Horvat, Marina
    Hromatko, Ivana
    Hui, Chin-Ming
    Jaafar, Jas Laile
    Jiang, Feng
    Kafetsios, Konstantinos
    Kavcic, Tina
    Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen
    Kervyn, Nicolas
    Truong, Thi
    Khilji, Imran Ahmed
    Kobis, Nils C.
    Hoang, Moc
    Lang, Andras
    Lennard, Georgina R.
    Leon, Ernesto
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Trinh, Thi
    Lopez, Giulia
    Van Luot, Nguyen
    Mailhos, Alvaro
    Manesi, Zoi
    Martinez, Rocio
    McKerchar, Sarah L.
    Mesko, Norbert
    Misra, Girishwar
    Monaghan, Conal
    Mora, Emanuel C.
    Moya-Garofano, Alba
    Musil, Bojan
    Natividade, Jean Carlos
    Niemczyk, Agnieszka
    Nizharadze, George
    Oberzaucher, Elisabeth
    Oleszkiewicz, Anna
    Omar-Fauzee, Mohd Sofian
    Onyishi, Ike E.
    Ozener, Baris
    Pagani, Ariela Francesca
    Pakalniskiene, Vilmante
    Parise, Miriam
    Pazhoohi, Farid
    Pisanski, Annette
    Pisanski, Katarzyna
    Ponciano, Edna
    Popa, Camelia
    Prokop, Pavol
    Rizwan, Muhammad
    Sainz, Mario
    Salkicevic, Svjetlana
    Sargautyte, Ruta
    Sarmany-Schuller, Ivan
    Schmehl, Susanne
    Sharad, Shivantika
    Siddiqui, Razi Sultan
    Simonetti, Franco
    Stoyanova, Stanislava Yordanova
    Tadinac, Meri
    Varella, Marco Antonio Correa
    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie
    Diego Vega, Luis
    Widarini, Dwi Ajeng
    Yoo, Gyesook
    Zat'kova, Marta
    Zupančič, Maja
    Contrasting Computational Models of Mate Preference Integration Across 45 Countries2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 16885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans express a wide array of ideal mate preferences. Around the world, people desire romantic partners who are intelligent, healthy, kind, physically attractive, wealthy, and more. In order for these ideal preferences to guide the choice of actual romantic partners, human mating psychology must possess a means to integrate information across these many preference dimensions into summaries of the overall mate value of their potential mates. Here we explore the computational design of this mate preference integration process using a large sample of n = 14,487 people from 45 countries around the world. We combine this large cross-cultural sample with agent-based models to compare eight hypothesized models of human mating markets. Across cultures, people higher in mate value appear to experience greater power of choice on the mating market in that they set higher ideal standards, better fulfill their preferences in choice, and pair with higher mate value partners. Furthermore, we find that this cross-culturally universal pattern of mate choice is most consistent with a Euclidean model of mate preference integration.

  • 16. Conroy-Beam, Daniel
    et al.
    Roney, James R.
    Lukaszewski, Aaron W.
    Buss, David M.
    Asao, Kelly
    Sorokowska, Agnieszka
    Sorokowski, Piotr
    Aavik, Toivo
    Akello, Grace
    Alhabahba, Mohammad Madallh
    Alm, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Amjad, Naumana
    Anjum, Afifa
    Atama, Chiemezie S.
    Duyar, Derya Atamturk
    Ayebare, Richard
    Batres, Carlota
    Bendixen, Mons
    Bensafia, Aicha
    Bertoni, Anna
    Bizumic, Boris
    Boussena, Mahmoud
    Butovskaya, Marina
    Can, Seda
    Cantarero, Katarzyna
    Carrier, Antonin
    Cetinkaya, Hakan
    Croy, Ilona
    Maria Cueto, Rosa
    Czub, Marcin
    Donato, Silvia
    Dronova, Daria
    Dural, Seda
    Duyar, Izzet
    Ertugrul, Berna
    Espinosa, Agustin
    Estevan, Ignacio
    Esteves, Carla Sofia
    Fang, Luxi
    Frackowiak, Tomasz
    Garduno, Jorge Contreras
    Ugalde Gonzalez, Karina
    Guemaz, Farida
    Gyuris, Petra
    Halamova, Maria
    Herak, Iskra
    Horvat, Marina
    Hromatko, Ivana
    Hui, Chin-Ming
    Iafrate, Raffaella
    Jaafar, Jas Laile
    Jiang, Feng
    Kafetsios, Konstantinos
    Kavcic, Tina
    Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen
    Kervyn, Nicolas
    Truong, Thi
    Khilji, Imran Ahmed
    Kobis, Nils C.
    Hoang, Moc
    Lang, Andras
    Lennard, Georgina R.
    Leon, Ernesto
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Trinh, Thi
    Lopez, Giulia
    Nguyen, Van
    Mailhos, Alvaro
    Manesi, Zoi
    Martinez, Rocio
    McKerchar, Sarah L.
    Mesko, Norbert
    Misra, Girishwar
    Monaghan, Conal
    Mora, Emanuel C.
    Moya-Garofano, Alba
    Musil, Bojan
    Natividade, Jean Carlos
    Niemczyk, Agnieszka
    Nizharadze, George
    Oberzaucher, Elisabeth
    Oleszkiewicz, Anna
    Omar-Fauzee, Mohd Sofian
    Onyishi, Ike E.
    Ozener, Baris
    Pagani, Ariela Francesca
    Pakalniskiene, Vilmante
    Parise, Miriam
    Pazhoohi, Farid
    Pisanski, Annette
    Pisanski, Katarzyna
    Ponciano, Edna
    Popa, Camelia
    Prokop, Pavol
    Rizwan, Muhammad
    Sainz, Mario
    Salkicevic, Svjetlana
    Sargautyte, Ruta
    Sarmany-Schuller, Ivan
    Schmehl, Susanne
    Sharad, Shivantika
    Siddiqui, Razi Sultan
    Simonetti, Franco
    Stoyanova, Stanislava Yordanova
    Tadinac, Meri
    Correa Varella, Marco Antonio
    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie
    Diego Vega, Luis
    Widarini, Dwi Ajeng
    Yoo, Gyesook
    Zatkova, Marta
    Zupancic, Maja
    Assortative mating and the evolution of desirability covariation2019In: Evolution and human behavior, ISSN 1090-5138, E-ISSN 1879-0607, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 479-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mate choice lies dose to differential reproduction, the engine of evolution. Patterns of mate choice consequently have power to direct the course of evolution. Here we provide evidence suggesting one pattern of human mate choice-the tendency for mates to be similar in overall desirability-caused the evolution of a structure of correlations that we call the d factor. We use agent-based models to demonstrate that assortative mating causes the evolution of a positive manifold of desirability, d, such that an individual who is desirable as a mate along any one dimension tends to be desirable across all other dimensions. Further, we use a large cross-cultural sample with n = 14,478 from 45 countries around the world to show that this d-factor emerges in human samples, is a cross-cultural universal, and is patterned in a way consistent with an evolutionary history of assortative mating. Our results suggest that assortative mating can explain the evolution of a broad structure of human trait covariation.

  • 17. Croy, Ilona
    et al.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Sorokowska, Agnieszka
    COVID-19 and Social Distancing: A Cross-Cultural Study of Interpersonal Distance Preferences and Touch Behaviors Before and During the Pandemic2024In: Cross-Cultural Research, ISSN 1069-3971, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 41-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the introduction of unprecedented safety measures, one of them being physical distancing recommendations. Here, we assessed whether the pandemic has led to long-term effects on two important physical distancing aspects, namely interpersonal distance preferences and interpersonal touch behaviors. We analyzed nearly 14,000 individual cases from two large, cross-cultural surveys – the first conducted 2 years prior to the pandemic and the second during a relatively stable period of a decreased infection rate in May-June 2021. Preferred interpersonal distances increased by 54% globally during the COVID-19 pandemic. This increase was observable across all types of relationships, all countries, and was more pronounced in individuals with higher self-reported vulnerability to diseases. Unexpectedly, participants reported a higher incidence of interpersonal touch behaviors during than before the pandemic. We discuss our results in the context of prosocial and self-protection motivations that potentially promote different social behaviors. 

  • 18.
    Engelkes, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Försvarshögskolan.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Measuring Loyalty: Developing a Scale for a Swedish Military ContextIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of psychometric scales for measuring the levels and directions of loyalty within a military setting. The aim of the present study was to contribute to a further understanding of the concept of loyalty within the military context. For this reason, a scale measuring loyalty towards five different domains – own values, one’s family, the workgroup, the mission, and the nation – within a military context was developed. A total of 14 items, designed to reflect loyal sacrifice and loyal action, were developed and tested using three independent samples from the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF). The results of exploratory factor analyses suggested a 10-item scale. The 10 items were best accounted for by a four-dimensional model with two loyal sacrificial dimensions (moderate and extreme sacrifice, respectively) and two loyal action dimensions (moderate and extreme action, respectively). The result of confirmatory factor analyses generally supported the four-factor representation. Invariance tests between the two confirmatory samples indicated configural invariance for all domains but one. The current study provides the first thoroughly developed and tested scale for measuring loyalty within a military context. The scale also enables identification of possible loyalty dilemmas that may arise in extreme operational environments.

  • 19.
    Engelkes, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Predicting Loyalty: Examining the Role of Social Identity and Leadership in an Extreme Operational Environment – A Swedish Case2024In: Armed Forces and Society, ISSN 0095-327X, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 607-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military organizations often emphasize the importance of loyalty. It has been suggested that loyalty enhances motivation to take great risks and strive to accomplish a mission. However, research into what influences loyalty among military personnel is scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine how leadership and social identity fusion relate to loyalty, using data from a sample consisting of a Swedish military unit on a United Nation mission (N = 152) in Mali. Hierarchical multiple regression results generally showed that social identity fusion and leadership were positively related to a willingness to show loyalty to the closest workgroup, one’s own unit, and the mission. The findings indicate that leadership and high levels of social identity fusion may influence the willingness to be loyal to organizational goals. The practical implication of this study is increased knowledge about the importance of leadership and social identity in developing relevant loyalties.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Andersson, Per A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Costly punishment in the ultimatum game evokes moral concern, in particular when framed as payoff reduction2017In: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-1031, E-ISSN 1096-0465, Vol. 69, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimatum game is a common economic experiment in which some participants reject another's unfair offer of how to split some money, even though it leaves them both worse off. This costly behavior can be seen as enforcement of a fairness norm and has been labeled “altruistic punishment”, suggesting that it is a moral thing to do. But is this behavior viewed as moral by participants? Is it viewed as punishment? And are the payoff consequences of the behavior sufficient to determine the answers to these questions? To investigate this we framed costly punishment in two different ways: either as rejection of an offer (the standard ultimatum game framing) or as reduction of payoff. In a series of paid and hypothetical experiments we found that moral concerns about costly punishment depended on the framing. Specifically, the reduction frame elicited more moral concern about, and less use of, costly punishment than did the rejection frame. Several implications are discussed.

  • 21. Esaiasson, Peter
    et al.
    Persson, Mikael
    Gilljam, Mikael
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Reconsidering the Role of Procedures for Decision Acceptance2019In: British Journal of Political Science, ISSN 0007-1234, E-ISSN 1469-2112, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 291-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Procedural fairness theory posits that the way in which authoritative decisions are made strongly impacts people's willingness to accept them. This article challenges this claim by contending that democratic governments can achieve little in terms of acceptance of policy decisions by the procedural means at their disposal. Instead, outcome favorability is the dominant determinant of decision acceptance. The article explicates that while central parts of procedural fairness theory are true, outcome favorability is still overwhelmingly the strongest determinant of individuals' willingness to accept authoritative decisions. It improves on previous research by locating all key variables into one causal model and testing this model using appropriate data. Findings from a large number of experiments (both vignette and field) reproduce the expected relationships from previous research and support the additional predictions.

  • 22.
    Gilljam, Mikael
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Esaiasson, Peter
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The voice of the pupils: an experimental comparison of decisions made by elected pupil councils, pupils in referenda, and teaching staff2010In: Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, ISSN 1874-8597, E-ISSN 1874-8600, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 73-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article tests whether the form of decision-making used in school environments affects pupils’ views on the legitimacy of the decisions made, and of the decision-making procedure. Building on political science theory on democratic decision-making, it compares pupils’ reactions towards decisions made by pupil councils, by pupils via referendum, and by the teaching staff. The data come from a series of randomized scenario-style experiments in which participants (Swedish pupils involved in upper secondary education) were exposed to a questionnaire describing a decision-making situation. The results show that the form of decisionmaking used matters for pupils’ acceptance of the decision-making procedure, but not necessarily for their willingness to accept the outcome of decisions. Pupil referenda in particular were effective in creating procedural legitimacy.

  • 23. Groyecka-Bernard, Agata
    et al.
    Alm, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sorokowska, Agnieszka
    Conservatism Negatively Predicts Creativity: A Study Across 28 Countries2024In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, ISSN 0022-0221, E-ISSN 1552-5422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found a negative relationship between creativity and conservatism. However, as these studies were mostly conducted on samples of homogeneous nationality, the generalizability of the effect across different cultures is unknown. We addressed this gap by conducting a study in 28 countries. Based on the notion that attitudes can be shaped by both environmental and ecological factors, we hypothesized that parasite stress can also affect creativity and thus, its potential effects should be controlled for. The results of multilevel analyses showed that, as expected, conservatism was a significant predictor of lower creativity, adjusting for economic status, age, sex, education level, subjective susceptibility to disease, and country-level parasite stress. In addition, most of the variability in creativity was due to individual rather than country-level variance. Our study provides evidence for a weak but significant negative link between conservatism and creativity at the individual level (β = −0.08, p < .001) and no such effect when country-level conservatism was considered. We present our hypotheses considering previous findings on the behavioral immune system in humans.

  • 24.
    Gruneau Brulin, Joel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Attachment and Political Institutions: Attachment Style Predicts Lower Levels of Both Social and Institutional Trust2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Gruneau Brulin, Joel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    In the State we Trust? Attachment-Related Avoidance is Related to Lower Trust, Both in Other People and in Welfare State InstitutionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Gruneau Brulin, Joel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    In the State We Trust? Attachment-Related Avoidance Is Related to Lower Trust, Both in Other People and in Welfare State Institutions2022In: The Journal of Social and Political Psychology, E-ISSN 2195-3325, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 158-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social and political trust are crucial for societal well-being and are linked to lower levels of corruption as well as to the size of the welfare state. Interpersonal trust is shaped through attachment-related experiences in close interpersonal relationships. However, previous research has not linked these two strands of research, yielding an important knowledge gap about the potential implications of attachment for social and political trust. Therefore, we investigated whether attachment orientations are related to both social trust and trust in the welfare state. Data were collected in two countries with different organization and size of the welfare state, the United States (n = 284) and Sweden (n = 280). In both countries, attachment-related avoidance (but not anxiety) was negatively related both to social trust and trust in the welfare state, even after controlling for pertinent confounds. Our findings also suggested that social trust may mediate the link between avoidance and trust in the welfare state. These results cohere with an assumption that people’s attachment-related working models may extend to their models of the world at large. We conclude that interpersonal parameters should be considered to fully understand the development of trust in political institutions.

  • 27.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Effort in Memory Retrieval Predicts Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Do sincere eyewitness testimonies contain objective markers of accuracy? Despite the importance of evaluating the accuracy of verbal eyewitness testimonies, the evidence for objective measures are scarce, and current accuracy measures unsatisfactory. We demonstrate that expressed effort during memory retrieval can predict accuracy in honest eyewitnesses. Incorrect memories are recalled with greater effort (e.g. more delays and disfluencies) than correct memories.

  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    'He was...uhm...bald': Retrieval effort predicts eyewitness accuracy2019In: Book of Abstracts: 21st Conference of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology, 2019, p. 327-327, article id PS4.69Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating eyewitness testimonies has proven a difficult task. We investigated if incorrect memories are more effortful to retrieve than correct memories. Participants watched a simulated crime and were interviewed as eyewitnesses. We then analysed retrieval effort cues in witness responses. Results showed that incorrect memories included more “effort cues” than correct memories, and also partially mediated the relationship between confidence and accuracy.

  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Effort in Memory Retrieval Predicts Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do sincere eyewitness testimonies contain objective markers of accuracy? We show that expressions of effort in memory retrieval predict eyewitness accuracy. Incorrect memories are recalled with greater effort than correct memories.

  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Philip U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    The Voice of Eyewitness Accuracy2023In: ICPS 2023 Brussels: Poster Brochure, Association for Psychological Science , 2023, p. 41-41Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In two studies, we examined vocal characteristics of accuracy. Participants watched a staged-crime film and were interviewed as eyewitnesses. A mega- analysis showed that correct responses were uttered with 1) a higher pitch, 2) greater energy in the first formant region, 3) higher speech rate and 4) shorter pauses.

  • 31.
    Gustafsson, Philip U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Eyewitness accuracy and retrieval effort: Effects of time and repetition2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 9, article id e0273455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important task for the law enforcement is to assess the accuracy of eyewitness testimonies. Recent research show that indicators of effortful memory retrieval, such as pausing and hedging (e.g. “I think”, “maybe”), are more common in incorrect recall. However, a limitation in these studies is that participants are interviewed shortly after witnessing an event, as opposed to after greater retention intervals. We set out to mitigate this shortcoming by investigating the retrieval effort-accuracy relationship over time. In this study, participants watched a staged crime and were interviewed directly afterwards, and two weeks later. Half the participants also carried out a repetition task during the two-week retention interval. Results showed that the retrieval-effort cues Delays and Hedges predicted accuracy at both sessions, including after repetition. We also measured confidence, and found that confidence also predicted accuracy over time, although repetition led to increased confidence for incorrect memories. Moreover, retrieval-effort cues partially mediated between accuracy and confidence. 

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  • 32.
    Gustafsson, Philip U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Judging the accuracy of eyewitness testimonies using retrieval effort cues2021In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 1224-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has shown that incorrect statements in eyewitness testimonies contain more cues to effortful memory retrieval than correct statements. In two experiments, we attempted to improve judgments of testimony accuracy by informing participants about these effort cues. Participants read eyewitness testimony transcripts and judged statement accuracy. Performance was above chance in both experiments, but there was only a significant effect of the effort-cue instruction in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, we also compared judgment accuracy between police detectives, police students and laypersons, and found no significant difference, in contrast to previous studies. Moreover, the current study corroborates previous findings that (a) judging testimony accuracy is a difficult task and (b) people spontaneously rely on effort cues to some extent when judging accuracy. However, a complete reliance on effort cues showed substantially better performance than relying on one's own judgments skills at best, and offered equal performance at worst.

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  • 33.
    Gustafsson, Philip U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Predicting Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies With Memory Retrieval Effort and Confidence2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating eyewitness testimonies has proven a difficult task. Recent research, however, suggests that incorrect memories are more effortful to retrieve than correct memories, and confidence in a memory is based on retrieval effort. We aimed to replicate and extend these findings, adding retrieval latency as a predictor of memory accuracy. Participants watched a film sequence with a staged crime and were interviewed about its content. We then analyzed retrieval effort cues in witness responses. Results showed that incorrect memories included more “effort cues” than correct memories. While correct responses were produced faster than incorrect responses, delays in responses proved a better predictor of accuracy than response latency. Furthermore, participants were more confident in correct than incorrect responses, and the effort cues partially mediated this confidence-accuracy relation. In sum, the results support previous findings of a relationship between memory accuracy and objectively verifiable cues to retrieval effort.

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  • 34.
    Gustafsson, Philip U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The semantic structure of accuracy in eyewitness testimony2024In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 15, article id 1211987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two studies, we examined if correct and incorrect statements in eyewitness testimony differed in semantic content. Testimony statements were obtained from participants who watched staged crime films and were interviewed as eyewitnesses. We analyzed the latent semantic representations of these statements using LSA and BERT. Study 1 showed that the semantic space of correct statements differed from incorrect statements; correct statements were more closely related to a dominance semantic representation, whereas incorrect statements were more closely related to a communion semantic representation. Study 2 only partially replicated these findings, but a mega-analysis of the two datasets showed different semantic representations for correct and incorrect statements, with incorrect statements more closely related to representations of communion and abstractness. Given the critical role of eyewitness testimony in the legal context, and the generally low ability of fact-finders to estimate the accuracy of witness statements, our results strongly call for further research on semantic content in correct and incorrect testimony statements.

  • 35.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Sikström, Sverker
    Biases in news media as reflected by personal pronouns in evaluative contexts2014In: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether pronouns in news media occurred in evaluative contexts reflecting psychological biases. Contexts of pronouns were measured by computerized semantic analysis. Results showed that self-inclusive personal pronouns (WeI) occurred in more positive contexts than self-exclusive pronouns (He/SheThey), reflecting self- and group-serving biases. Contexts of collective versus individual pronouns varied; Weoccurred in more positive contexts than I, and He/She in more positive contexts than They. The enhancement of collective relative to individual self-inclusive pronouns may reflect that media news is a public rather than private domain. The reversed pattern among self-exclusive pronouns corroborates suggestions that outgroup derogation is most pronounced at the category level. Implications for research on language and social psychology are discussed.

  • 36.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Selection Bias in Choice of Words:: Evaluations of "I" and "We" Differ Between Contexts, but "They" Are Always Worse2014In: Journal of language and social psychology, ISSN 0261-927X, E-ISSN 1552-6526, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 49-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life, people use language to communicate evaluative messages about social categories. A selection bias in language across two social dimensions not previously integrated was examined: a self-inclusive/self-exclusive dimension and an individual/collective dimension. Pronouns as markers for social categories were adopted (I, We, He/She, and They), and a new measure was developed (the Evaluative Sentence Generating task) to investigate the evaluative context selected for the pronouns. Results demonstrate that individuals select a more positive context for self-inclusive than self-exclusive pronouns and a more positive contexts for individual than collective pronouns. However, in an interpersonal context, evaluative differences between I and We diminished, whereas in an intergroup condition the evaluative gap between self-inclusive and self-exclusive pronouns was magnified.

  • 37.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikstrom, Sverker
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    She and He in News Media Messages: Pronoun Use Reflects Gender Biases in Semantic Contexts2015In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762, Vol. 72, no 1-2, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown a male bias in the media. This study tests this statement by examining how the pronouns She and He are used in a news media context. More specifically, the study tests whether He occurs more often and in more positive semantic contexts than She, as well as whether She is associated with more stereotypically and essential labels than He is. Latent semantic analysis (LSA) was applied to 400 000 Reuters' news messages, written in English, published in 1996-1997. LSA is a completely data-driven method, extracting statistics of words from how they are used throughout a corpus. As such, no human coders are involved in the assessment of how pronouns occur in their contexts. The results showed that He pronouns were about 9 times more frequent than She pronouns. In addition, the semantic contexts of He were more positive than the contexts of She. Moreover, words associated with She-contexts included more words denoting gender, and were more homogeneous than the words associated with He-contexts. Altogether, these results indicate that men are represented as the norm in these media. Since these news messages are distributed on a daily basis all over the world, in printed newspapers, and on the internet, it seems likely that this presentation maintains, and reinforces prevalent gender stereotypes, hence contributing to gender inequities.

  • 38.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    She” and “He” in news media messages: Pronoun use reflects gender biases in frequencies, as well as in evaluative and semantic contextsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Gültekin, Raver
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Alm, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Effects of Eyewitnesses’ Primary Language in Investigative Interviews2023In: ICPS 2023 Brussels: Poster Brochure, Association for Psychological Science , 2023, p. 41-41Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined whether an eyewitness memory accuracy and susceptibility to suggestions were affected by whether the testimony was given in a native or non-native language. Results showed no effects of language on memory accuracy or suggestibility. Witnesses testifying in a non-native vs. native language were less confident in their memory.

  • 40. Hirvikoski, Tatja
    et al.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lajic, Svetlana
    Nordenström, Anna
    Gender role behaviour in prenatally dexamethasone-treated children at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia - a pilot study2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 9, p. e112-E119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure on gender role behaviour. Methods: The participants were 25 of the 40 children (62%, mean age 11 years) at risk for CAH treated with DEX prenatally during the years 1985-1995 in Sweden. The control group consisted of 35 sex- and age-matched healthy children. A new inventory, the Karolinska Inventory of Gender Role Behaviour (KI-GRB), was developed to assess directly school-age children's behaviour, and was evaluated using a separate sample of 160 school-age children. Results: DEX-treated CAH-unaffected boys showed more neutral behaviours than the controls (p = 0.04), while the DEX-treated CAH-unaffected girls did not differ from the controls after adjusting for the site of residence. There was a larger variation in the behaviour of the DEX-treated boys (p < 0.05) and a tendency for less-masculine behaviours in the DEX-treated CAH-unaffected children (p = 0.13). There were no between-group differences in the feminine behaviours. Recalculation of the analyses including the CAH-affected children showed analogous results. Conclusions: This pilot study indicates that the gender role behaviour may be affected in boys as an effect of DEX exposure in early pregnancy. Larger retrospective studies are needed for more conclusive results.

  • 41. Hirvikoski, Tatja
    et al.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordenström, Anna
    Nordström, Anna-Lena
    Lajic, Svetlana
    High self-perceived stress and many stressors, but normal diurnal cortisol rhythm, in adults with ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder).2009In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 418-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is associated with significant impairment in many life activities and may thus increase the risk of chronic stress in everyday life. We compared adults with a DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis (n=28) with healthy controls (n=28) regarding subjective stress and amounts of stressors in everyday life, diurnal salivary cortisol in the everyday environment and salivary cortisol before and after cognitive stress in a laboratory setting. The association between cortisol concentrations and impulsivity was also investigated. Consistent with assumptions, individuals with ADHD reported significantly more self-perceived stress than controls, and subjective stress correlated with the amount of stressors in everyday life. The two groups were comparable with respect to overall diurnal cortisol levels and rhythm, as well as in pre- and post-stress cortisol concentrations. Post-stress cortisol (but not baseline cortisol) concentration was positively correlated with impulsivity. The group with high post-stress cortisol also reported more symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as self-perceived stress and stressors in everyday life. The diagnosis of ADHD significantly increased the risk of belonging to the group with high post-stress cortisol levels. The results in this study warrant a focus not only on the primary diagnosis of ADHD, but also calls for a broader assessment of stressors and subjective stress in everyday life, as well as support comprising stress management and coping skills.

  • 42. Hirvikoski, Tatja
    et al.
    Nordenstrom, Anna
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Ritzen, E. Martin
    Wedell, Anna
    Lajic, Svetlana
    Cognitive functions in children at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia treated prenatally with dexamethasone2007In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 542-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context and Objective: In Sweden, from 1985 through 1995, 40 fetuses at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were treated with dexamethasone (DEX) to prevent virilization of affected females. We report long-term effects on neuropsychological functions and scholastic performance of this controversial treatment. Design and Patients: Prenatally treated children, 7 to 17 yr old, were assessed with standardized neuropsychological tests (A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment and Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children) and child-completed questionnaires measuring self-perceived scholastic competence (Self-Perception Profile for Children). A parent-completed questionnaire (Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 School Scale) was used to evaluate whether the treatment had any impact on the children's school performance. In addition, a child-completed questionnaire measuring social anxiety (The Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised) was completed by the prenatally treated children aged 8 to 17 yr (n = 21) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 26). Results: Of 40 DEX-treated children, 26 (median age, 11 yr) participated in the study. Thirty-five sex- and age- matched healthy children were controls. There were no between-group differences concerning psychometric intelligence, measures of cerebral lateralization, memory encoding, and long-term memory. Short-term treated, CAH-unaffected children performed poorer than the control group on a test assessing verbal working memory (P = 0.003), and they rated lower on a questionnaire assessing self-perception of scholastic competence (P = 0.003). This group also showed increased self-rated social anxiety assessed by The Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised (P = 0.026). Prenatally treated, CAH-affected children performed poorer than controls on tests measuring verbal processing speed, although this difference disappeared when controlling for the child's full-scale IQ. Conclusions: This study indicates that prenatal DEX treatment is associated with previously not described long-term effects on verbal working memory and on certain aspects of self-perception that could be related to poorer verbal working memory. These findings may thus question future DEX treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Therefore, we encourage additional retrospective studies of larger cohorts to either confirm or challenge the present findings.

  • 43. Hirvikoski, Tatja
    et al.
    Nordenström, Anna
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ritzén, E. Martin
    Lajic, Svetlana
    Long-term follow-up of prenatally treated children at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Does dexamethasone cause behavioural problems?2008In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 159, no 3, p. 309-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the long-term effects of prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with emphasis on behavioural problems and temperament.

    Design: A population-based long-term follow-up study of Swedish children at risk for virilising CAH, who had received treatment prenatally with dexamethasone (DEX). The questionnaire-based follow-up was performed when the children had reached school age.

    Methods: Standardised parent-completed questionnaires were used to evaluate adaptive functioning, behavioural/emotional problems and psychopathology, social anxiety and temperament in DEX-exposed school-aged children (<i>n</i>=26) and matched controls (<i>n</i>=35). In addition, the association between parental questionnaires and children's self-ratings was investigated.

    Results: There were no statistically significant differences between DEX-exposed children and controls in measures of psychopathology, behavioural problems and adaptive functioning. In a questionnaire on temperamental traits, DEX-exposed children were described by their parents as being more sociable than controls (<i>P</i>=0.042). The correlation analysis showed only modest parent–child agreement on social anxiety, i.e. the increased social anxiety in children's self-ratings was not confirmed by their parents.

    Conclusions: DEX-treated children showed good overall adjustment. The parent–child agreement with respect to social anxiety was modest, highlighting the importance of multiple information sources and assessment methods. The clinical significance of the observed difference in sociability cannot be determined within the frameworks of this study. Additional studies of larger cohorts are essential to make more decisive conclusions on the safety of the treatment. Until then, it is important that parents are thoroughly informed about the benefits and potential risks and uncertainties of this controversial treatment.

  • 44. Hirvikoski, Tatja
    et al.
    Olsson, Erik M. G.
    Nordenström, Anna
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordström, Anna-Lena
    Lajic, Svetlana
    Deficient cardiovascular stress reactivity predicts poor executive functions in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder2011In: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, ISSN 1380-3395, E-ISSN 1744-411X, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 63-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Associations between cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress reactivity, and executive functions were studied in 60 adults (30 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and 30 controls) using the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT, a test of executive functions) as a cognitive stressor. Despite higher self-perceived stress, the adults with ADHD showed lower or atypical cardiovascular stress reactivity, which was associated with poorer performance on PASAT. Using cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress, and results on PASAT as predictors in a logistic regression, 83.3% of the ADHD group and 86.9% of the controls could be classified correctly.

  • 45. Ingre, Michael
    et al.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Overcoming Knowledge Resistance: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies2022In: Knowledge Resistance in High-Choice Information Environments / [ed] Jesper Strömbäck; Åsa Wikforss; Kathrin Glüer; Torun Lindholm; Henrik Oscarsson, London: Routledge, 2022, p. 254-280Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that our reasoning often is motivated by desires to view the world as we want it to be, and that such motivated reasoning is an important factor behind knowledge resistance. In the current chapter, we review research examining cures for knowledge resistance, specifically for the rebuttal of available facts based on the best evidence. The review included 26 studies reported in 17 papers. The results indicate that there are techniques that to some extent can reduce knowledge resistance. A consistent finding was that people are more open to fact messages framed to be compatible with their worldview or expressed in gain rather than loss terms. Prompting a focus on messages’ explanatory power also decreases the rejection of facts that are in opposition with an individual's motivations. Other techniques show promising results but need to be explored further. In sum, the results suggest a set of strategies to counter biased reasoning, some of which should be possible to use in applied communication contexts. However, further experimental research on this topic using is warranted to replicate and extend current findings.

  • 46. Kowal, Marta
    et al.
    Sorokowski, Piotr
    Sorokowska, Agnieszka
    Dobrowolska, Malgorzata
    Pisanski, Katarzyna
    Oleszkiewicz, Anna
    Aavik, Toivo
    Akello, Grace
    Alm, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Amjad, Naumana
    Anjum, Afifa
    Asao, Kelly
    Atama, Chiemezie S.
    Atamturk Duyar, Derya
    Ayebare, Richard
    Bendixen, Mons
    Bensafia, Aicha
    Bizumic, Boris
    Boussena, Mahmoud
    Buss, David M.
    Butovskaya, Marina
    Can, Seda
    Cantarero, Katarzyna
    Carrier, Antonin
    Cetinkaya, Hakan
    Conroy-Beam, Daniel
    Varella, Marco A. C.
    Cueto, Rosa M.
    Czub, Marcin
    Dronova, Daria
    Dural, Seda
    Duyar, Izzet
    Ertugrul, Berna
    Espinosa, Agustin
    Estevan, Ignacio
    Esteves, Carla S.
    Frackowiak, Tomasz
    Contreras-Graduno, Jorge
    Guemaz, Farida
    Hromatko, Ivana
    Hui, Chin-Ming
    Herak, Iskra
    Jaafar, Jas L.
    Jiang, Feng
    Kafetsios, Konstantinos
    Kavcic, Tina
    Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen
    Kervyn, Nicolas
    Kobis, Nils C.
    Lang, Andras
    Lennard, Georgina R.
    Leon, Ernesto
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lopez, Giulia
    Madallh Alhabahba, Mohammad
    Mailhos, Alvaro
    Manesi, Zoi
    Martinez, Rocio
    McKerchar, Sarah L.
    Mesko, Norbert
    Misra, Girishwar
    Moc Lan, Hoang
    Monaghan, Conal
    Mora, Emanuel C.
    Moya Garofano, Alba
    Musil, Bojan
    Natividade, Jean C.
    Nizharadze, George
    Oberzaucher, Elisabeth
    Omar Fauzee, Mohd S.
    Onyishi, Ike E.
    Ozener, Baris
    Pagani, Ariela F.
    Pakalniskiene, Vilmante
    Parise, Miriam
    Pazhoohi, Farid
    Perun, Mariia
    Pisanski, Annette
    Plohl, Nejc
    Popa, Camelia
    Prokop, Pavol
    Rizwan, Muhammad
    Sainz, Mario
    Salkicevic, Svjetlana
    Sargautyte, Ruta
    Schmehl, Susanne
    Senyk, Oksana
    Shaikh, Rizwana
    Sharad, Shivantika
    Simonetti, Franco
    Tadinac, Meri
    Thi Khanh Ha, Truong
    Thi Linh, Trinh
    Ugalde Gonzalez, Karina
    Van Luot, Nguyen
    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie
    Vega, Luis D.
    Yoo, Gyesook
    Yordanova Stoyanova, Stanislava
    Zadeh, Zainab F.
    Zupancic, Maja
    Reasons for Facebook Usage: Data From 46 Countries2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Seventy-nine percent of internet users use Facebook, and on average they access Facebook eight times a day (Greenwood et al., 2016). To put these numbers into perspective, according to Clement (2019), around 30% of the world's population uses this Online Social Network (OSN) site.

    Despite the constantly growing body of academic research on Facebook (Chou et al., 2009; Back et al., 2010; Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010; McAndrew and Jeong, 2012; Wilson et al., 2012; Krasnova et al., 2017), there remains limited research regarding the motivation behind Facebook use across different cultures. Our main goal was to collect data from a large cross-cultural sample of Facebook users to examine the roles of sex, age, and, most importantly, cultural differences underlying Facebook use.

  • 47.
    Kusterer, Hanna Li
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender typing in stereotypes and evaluations of actual managers2013In: Journal of Managerial Psychology, ISSN 0268-3946, E-ISSN 1758-7778, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 561-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The pm-pose of this paper is to examine gender-related management stereotypes, perceived gender bias and evaluations of actual managers, and to directly compare stereotypes and ratings of actual managers. Design/methodology/approach - Questionnaires were distributed to employees in the bank and insurance sector, and 240 participants rated their actual managers and stereotypes of male and female managers. Findings - Men evaluated the female manager stereotype more positively on communal attributes, and the male manager stereotype more positively on agentic attributes. Women evaluated the female manager stereotype more positively on both communal and agentic attributes, but perceived a higher degree of gender bias in favor of male managers than men did. Actual male and female managers were rated similarly. Still, ratings of actual male managers corresponded more with stereotypes of male than female managers, and ratings of actual female managers corresponded more with stereotypes of female than male managers. Research limitations/implications - Future research needs to determine the direction of association between stereotypes and evaluations of actual managers, and the relative importance of agentic over communal attributes. Practical implications - While women appeared biased in favor of their own gender, men may underestimate the difficulties that female managers encounter. Managers and human resource practitioners should notice these different views, and recognize that gender equality is not achieved in Sweden. Originality/value - The present study contributes with data from an egalitarian society with a positive view of female managers, and a direct comparison of stereotypes and workplace evaluations.

  • 48. Lindgren, Elina
    et al.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Vliegenthart, Rens
    Boomgaarden, Hajo G.
    Damstra, Alyt
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Tsfati, Yariv
    Trusting the Facts: The Role of Framing, News Media as a (Trusted) Source, and Opinion Resonance for Perceived Truth in Statistical Statements2022In: Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, ISSN 1077-6990, E-ISSN 2161-430XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars have raised concerns that on many issues, citizens are reluctant to trust factual evidence and statistics. One factor that has been shown to impact the perceived truth in statistics is how they are presented, where negatively framed statistics are perceived as truer than positive. This study explores when this bias applies and not. Results from a survey experiment confirm the presence of a negativity bias in truth perceptions, but also that effects are heterogeneous and moderated by, in particular, the recipients’ preexisting opinions. These findings provide valuable information to public actors responsible for disseminating factual information to diverse publics.

  • 49.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Group-based biases and validity in eyewitness credibility judgments: Examining effects of witness ethnicity and presentation modality.2005In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 1474-1501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study how witness ethnicity and testimony presentation mode affected judgments of eyewitness credibility, testimonies from 6 immigrant and 6 Swedish accuracy-matched witnesses to a crime were presented to Swedish fact finders (N = 120) in videotape or as a transcript. Results showed that witnesses were perceived as more credible in the visual as compared to the written medium. Moreover, witness ethnicity affected judgments differentially depending on presentation mode for fact finders high in prejudice toward immigrants. Results also revealed that fact finders' judgments corresponded with the self-reported confidence of Swedish, but not immigrant witnesses and that in the transcript condition, judgmental validity was lower in estimates of Swedes' as compared to immigrants' accuracy. The findings indicate that presentation mode can function as a moderator of group-based effects in social judgments, and that both psychological theory and judicial systems need to consider thoroughly how different stimulus presentations compare in terms of the impact on perceivers.

  • 50.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Minnets påverkbarhet2013In: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antikvitets akademiens årsbok, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2013, p. 63-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag vill i detta föredrag ge några exempel på minnets påverkbarhet, exempel som jag hoppas ska visa hur viktigt det är att vi förstår minnets funktioner, både utifrån ett vardagsperspektiv och från ett bredare samhällsperspektiv.

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