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  • 1.
    Brunsson, Nils
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Gustafsson, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Hur vet du att björnen inte är farlig?2014In: Alla dessa marknader: RJ:s årsbok 2014/2015 / [ed] Jenny Björkman, Björn Fjæstad & Susanna Alexius, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2014, p. 65-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2. Brunsson, Nils
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE). Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Macro-organizations – a way of organizing organizations2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. Brunsson, Nils
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Markets, Trust, and the Construction of Macro-Organizations2018In: Organizing and Reorganizing Markets / [ed] Nils Brunsson, Mats Jutterström, Oxford University Press, 2018, p. 136-152Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can buyers know what they are buying? In many markets this is no trivial problem, particularly for ambitious, contemporary consumers who care about the way a product has been produced and its effects on health or the physical environment. Buyers have little choice but to trust sellers’ descriptions of the origins and effects of the product, which, in turn, evokes the question of how the buyers can trust the sellers. We describe how the problem of trust has justified the production of new formal organizations, such as certification organizations, accreditation organizations, meta-organizations for the accreditation organizations, and meta-meta-organizations for these meta-organizations. In order to create trust in organizations at one level, a new level of organizations has been created for monitoring the lower level. We argue that such a ‘macro-organization’ is unlikely to represent a stable solution, but has inherent tendencies for further growth.

  • 4.
    Brunsson, Nils
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE). Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE). Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Why does organization among organizations expand?2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5. Brunsson, Nils
    et al.
    Gustafsson Nordin, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE). Stockholm School of Economics, Sverige.
    ‘Un-responsible’ Organization: How More Organization Produces Less Responsibility2022In: Organization Theory, E-ISSN 2631-7877, Vol. 3, no 4, article id 26317877221131582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the world becomes more and more organized, it seems ever more difficult to find anyone responsible. Why is that? We argue that the extensive external organization of organizations in contemporary society provides the key. Formal organizations are collective orders with great potential for concentrating responsibility on top managers and the organization. But when they are organized by other organizations, this potential is undermined, and responsibility becomes diluted rather than concentrated. We explain this outcome by analysing the communication of decisions as a main producer of responsibility and by defining organization as a decided order. Our analysis draws upon and contributes to research about partial organization, but it also contributes to literatures on global governance and organizational institutionalism.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Leksaker och CE-märkningar: det mobila ansvaret2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines the organization and distribution of responsibility for toys. Toys are one of many product categories to which the regulation of CE-marking applies. CE-marking in turn is part of the EU program for product safety of the Single Market, called The New Approach. Hence, by following the responsibility distribution for toys it is possible to analyze how the New Approach and the EU organizes responsibility. The report concludes that there is not one single actor responsible for toys placed on the market. Moreover, by the specific way of organizing markets that the New Approach prescribes, responsibility is not only distributed among several organizations, but also rather diffused.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Constructing authority in transnational governance: rationality, hierarchy and state involvement in the world of certification standards.2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Constructing authority in transnational governance – rationality, hierarchy and state involvement in the world of certifications.2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores the construction of authority in transnational governance by empirically focusing on accreditation of certification practices. Two case studies are presented: a) a historical account of an organic labeling scheme in Sweden that illustrates a shift from accreditation conducted by an NGO, to a state-run accreditation system developed by the EU, and b) an account of the organization of the highly authoritative EU accreditation system, to explain the somewhat unexpected shift identified in the first case. We argue that authority is derived from the way the EU system is organized – resembling a rational bureaucracy and thus based on rational authority. Based on our findings, we discuss three organizing principles that together contribute to its construction: the shaping of seemingly neutral agents; the creation of exclusiveness and monopolization of concepts; and promoting representations of a hierarchical and rationally organized system. From the study of authority construction within the EU context it becomes obvious that public authorities can be key players in ways that have not been recognized before.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Hyper-organized eco-labels – An organization studies perspective on the implications of Tripartite Standards Regimes2018In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, Vol. 75, p. 124-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we analyze the specific tools used to organize global food governance: standards, certification and accreditation, to develop and enhance the discussion regarding Tripartite Standards Regimes (TSR). The dynamics and implications of TSRs are discussed through an in-depth process study of the organization of a Swedish eco-label and the two TSRs of which this labeling organization has been a part of between 1985 and 2016. Using the theoretical concept hyper-organization, the article shows the development of four and five-fold organizational layers of control. Two implications of the hyper-organized TSRs are highlighted: (1) Public authorities play a much greater part in global food governance than previous research has acknowledged. The role of the state, in turn, has implications for how legitimacy and responsibility are sought. (2) In the complex organization of standards, certification and accreditation, responsibility is diffused and very hard to locate. Surprisingly, as the role of public authorities in TSRs becomes clearer and more articulate, the system grows more complex, making responsibility even harder to locate.

  • 10.
    Gustafsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. Handelshögskolan, Sverige.
    International standards and the dilution of responsibility2023In: Research handbook on soft law / [ed] Eliantonio; Mariolina; Emilia Korkea-aho; Ulrika Mörth, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, p. 177-189Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter sets out to do two things: to discuss international standards as a form of soft law and to demonstrate the usefulness of organization theory in doing so. International standards have received substantial scholarly attention during the last 20 years, but they have rarely been discussed as a kind of soft law, despite how well they fit the definition. Using insights from organization studies where scholars long have been theorizing about standards, we show how standards tend to dilute responsibility. Standards have a tendency to generate more organization and instead of clarifying or concentrating responsibility, it seems difficult to find anyone responsible in a world of standards. Discussing standards as an example of soft law, the framework for responsibility dilution presented in the chapter speaks to scholars also outside the realm of standard studies specifically.

  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    The Certification Paradox: Monitoring as a Solution and a Problem2013In: Trust and Organizations: Confidence across Borders / [ed] Marta Reuter, Filip Wijkström, Bengt Kristensson Uggla, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, p. 91-109Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Egels-Zandén’s chapter we could see how multinational shoe companies work in order to create trust in their brands by using a process logic framework in their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) efforts. In other words, the companies and their suppliers undertake a dialogue and negotiate with the actors within civil society as to a reasonable interpretation of the freedom of association. This example indicates that confidence has become all the more important in today’s market exchange. It is no longer sufficient to offer products and services of high quality at a reasonable price but, instead, it has also become important to, as a producer, be transparent and open for dialogue. One must be able to demonstrate that the production process has been conducted in an acceptable manner, in terms of specific values, such as sustainability, the work environment, and human rights. If consumers, civil society actors, and journalists discover that a company has used child labor, harmful chemicals, or has denied its employees acceptable working conditions, there is a high risk that the company will be criticized in the media, which, in turn, can seriously damage its reputation and the possibility of market survival.

  • 12.
    Gustafsson Nordin, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Narratives of internal audit: The Sisyphean work of becoming "independent"2022In: Critical Perspectives on Accounting, ISSN 1045-2354, E-ISSN 1095-9955, p. 102448-102448, article id 102448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Gustafsson Nordin, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Why does partial organization expand? A conceptual primer to turn partial organization into an explanatory theory2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Partial organization is a neat theoretical solution: it broadens the scope outside the formal organization and distinguishes between the organized and the non-decided. The purpose of this paper is to make a first, conceptual step towards exploring the drivers of partial organization and its expansion. We put partial organization in dialogue with other organizational theories and outline three different theoretical ways to explain why partial organization expands. First, the elaboration of organizational actorhood results in expanded partial organization. Second, new forms of organization, which deviate from the standard model of centralized organization, drive partial organization. And third, decided orders outside organizations perpetually expand, because they are based on decisions. Partial organization consequently expands for different reasons, but attention is focused on organizational expansion that satisfies Western principles, such as liberalisms and democracy. The theory of partial organization, however, would give us the tools to likewise analyze equally coercive sanctioning or power-laden hierarchies and to fully grasp organizational expansion. Mobilizing the lens of partial organization across Western contexts could bring the benefit of discovering cultural features and differences of organization, which in turn will increase the explanatory power of partial organization. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE). Handelshögskolan i Stockholm, Sverige.
    Brunsson, Nils
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Gustafsson, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Why organization happens - the case of macro-organizations2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why does organization happen and why does organization expand? We discuss these questions by examining how a fairly simple form of organization in the form of standards expanded and finally led to the emergence of two global macro-organizations in the fields of management and sustainability. We find four ways by which organization expanded in these cases and we analyze the arguments for expansion used by the organizers. We argue that the search for trust, transparency, independence and impartiality can be significant drivers of organization.

  • 15.
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Gustafsson, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Organizing for Independence2019In: Organization outside Organizations: The Abundance of Partial Organization in Social Life / [ed] Göran Ahrne, Nils Brunsson, Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 155-176Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we investigate how certification and accreditation organizations put much effort in constructing an image of independence for the outside world to see and endorse. It is difficult for an organization to proclaim its own independence; rather, a fundamental way of convincing others of its independence is through entering dependency relationships with other formal organizations that grant the organization independence, like the dubbing of knights. We analyse the character of organizational dependencies with respect to rules, sanctions, hierarchy, monitoring, and membership and conclude that the search for independence result in the addition of elements to elements, driving more and more organization. We discuss how the adding of elements form a complex system of interdependent organizations, which resembles a rational, authoritative Weberian bureaucracy. Although this bureaucratic system may be understood as organization – a decided and systematized order – it is not a discernible entity. It is partial and as such it lacks a central authority to govern and to which an overall responsibility could be ascribed. Paradoxically, the efforts aiming at ensuring independence resulted in the organizations becoming dependent not only on each other, but also on the decided order surrounding them.

  • 16.
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Gustafsson, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Value-neutralizing in verification markets: organizing for independence through accreditation2014In: Configuring Value Conflicts in Markets / [ed] Alexius, Susanna & Tamm Hallström, Kristina, Padstow: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 82-99Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE). Handelshögskolan i Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Svärdsten, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Opening the black box of distance within the context of auditing2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyze the role of distance in the construction of independence in financial and certification auditing. The ideal of independence tends to be regarded as a core value and the key feature for our trust in auditing services and the construction of independence has been of interest for auditing researchers for a long time. Previous studies of financial audit have shown that independence is commonly secured through the establishment of generic auditing standards. Through standards auditing work supposedly is turned into a transparent, neutral and rather “technical” matter of comparing rule against practice which, in turn, also safeguards independence in relation to the auditee. Another, complimentary way of constructing independence in financial auditing is to refer to a professional ethos, disciplining the auditor to be independent from the auditee. In the world of certifications, the idea of using a generic standard dominates and for the construction of independence to be credible, it is also important that the organization setting such standards is not the same as the organization performing the audit. Moreover, there are specific accreditation organizations auditing the certification auditors with reference to standards set by another (standard-setting) organization and by such auditing procedure granting independence for the certifier, a rational ideal of a watchdog watching the watchdog through means of organization. In sum, independence is constructed by referring to a professional ethos, by using generic auditing standards or by organizational separation. Furthermore, auditing work is supposed to avoid involvement of political and commercial interests.    

    One common denominator in these independence constructions is that independence is closely connected to the idea of distance: in order for the auditor to be independent, some sort of distance is needed from the auditee. Being independent and keeping a distance from the auditee is, in turn, assumed to create trust in the audit. However, as we conceptually elaborate and empirically show in this paper, audits can gain trust in other ways than the common assumption: trust can be installed in audits even though the auditor is not clearly separated from the auditee, even though the auditing process is not made transparent by standards, even though the auditor is providing consultancy and even though the audit has a clear political agenda. By discussing ideas of independence in relation to different dimensions of distance, we contribute with new insights into how auditing practices are organized in order to be trustworthy. We also contribute with new theoretical insights to the discussion about distance and independence within both the financial and certification audit literature. 

  • 18.
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE). Handelshögskolan i Stockholm, Sverige.
    Gustafsson Nordin, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Gustavsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Från rationalisering till hyperrationalisering: Kännetecken, konsekvenser och möjliga motståndsstrategier2022In: Organisation & Samhälle, ISSN 2001-9114, E-ISSN 2002-0287, ISSN 2001-9114, no 2, p. 36-41Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE). Handelshögskolan i Stockholm, Sverige.
    Gustafsson Nordin, IngridStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).Gustavsson, MartinStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Tema: Hyperrationalisering2022Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
1 - 19 of 19
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