Change search
Refine search result
1 - 30 of 30
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Bighiu, Maria Alexandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eriksson-Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Biofouling of leisure boats as a source of metal pollution2017In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 997-1006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of harmful metals from antifouling paints to water bodies is a well-known problem. In this study, we measured both the amount of biofouling growth on leisure boats during one season as well as the concentration of metals accumulated by the biofouling matrix. Furthermore, the efficiency of antifouling paints and mechanical boat cleaning as well as the effect of hull colour on biofouling were evaluated. Unlike paint residues, biofouling waste has never been regarded as a source of metal contamination and has previously been neglected in the scientific literature. Our results revealed that the biofouling waste contained very high concentrations of metals, up to 28,000 mg copper/kg dw and 171,000 mg zinc/kg dw, which exceeds the guidance values for least sensitive land use in Sweden by factors of 140 and 340, respectively. This observation is important because the contaminated biofouling waste is commonly disposed of in boatyard soils at the end of each season, thus increasing the levels of metal pollution. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the amount of biofouling if the boats were coated with copper or zinc containing paints or no paint at all, indicating that biocide paints might not be necessary in low-salinity areas such as the Stockholm archipelago. For boats that were not painted at all during the season, those washed on boat washers (mechanically) had on average half of the amount of biofouling compared to boats that were not cleaned mechanically. The results of the study indicate the importance of proper management of biofouling waste as well as the use of more environmentally friendly removal methods for biofouling such as boat washers.

  • 2.
    Dahl, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lind, Charlotta Rubio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Food quality effects on copepod growth and development: Implications for bioassays in ecotoxicological testing2009In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 351-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated effects of six algal species in 25 combinations on growth and reproduction of the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes. In the first lifecycle test, Rhodomonas salina, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Dunaliella tertiolecta were used. The results showed that R. salina was the best food, whereas P. tricornutum (0% development success) and D. tertiolecta (41.7% malformations) were poor food items. In the second lifecycle test, a mixture of R. salina, Tetraselmis suecica, and Thalassiosira weisflogii (selected from screening tests) was tested together with a mono-diet of R. salina. Also in this test, copepods fed R. salina performed better (i.e. had higher survival and reproductive success) compared with the other treatment. We conclude that R. salina is appropriate to use as food in toxicity testing with N. spinipes, whereas some of the algae commonly used as feed in ecotoxicological tests with other copepods had detrimental effects on the development, reproduction, and survival of N. spinipes.

  • 3.
    Dahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Enhus, Carolina
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Induced production of brominated aromatic compounds in the alga Ceramium tenuicorne2015In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 22, p. 18107-18114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Baltic Sea, high concentrations of toxic brominated aromatic compounds have been detected in all compartments of the marine food web. A growing body of evidence points towards filamentous algae as a natural producer of these chemicals. However, little is known about the effects of environmental factors and life history on algal production of brominated compounds. In this study, several congeners of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and brominated phenols (BPs) were identified in a naturally growing filamentous red algal species (Ceramium tenuicorne) in the Baltic Sea. The identified substances displayed large seasonal variations in the alga with a concentration peak in July. Production of MeO-/OH-PBDEs and BPs by C. tenuicorne was also established in isolated clonal material grown in a controlled laboratory setting. Based on three replicates, herbivory, as well as elevated levels of light and salinity in the culture medium, significantly increased the production of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP). Investigation of differences in production between the isomorphic female, male and diploid clonal life stages of the alga grown in the laboratory revealed a significantly higher production of 2,4,6-TBP in the brackish water female gametophytes, compared to the corresponding marine gametophytes. Even higher concentrations of 2,4,6-TBP were produced by marine male gametophytes and sporophytes.

  • 4.
    Eklund, B
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Elfström, M.
    Borg, H
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    TBT originates from pleasure boats in Sweden in spite of firm restrictions.2008In: Open Environmental Sciences, Vol. 2, p. 124-132Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Review of the use of Ceramium tenuicorne growth inhibition test for testing toxicity of substances, effluents, products sediment and soil2017In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 195, p. 88-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growth inhibition test has been developed based on two clones of the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, one originating from 7 PSU and the other from 20 PSU. The species can be adapted to different salinities and the test can be carried out between 4 and 32 PSU. This test became an ISO standard in 2010 (ISO 107 10) for testing of chemicals and water effluents. In this study new and published data has been compiled on toxicity of single substances, waste waters from pulp mills, leachates from antifouling paints, harbour sediments and soil used for maintenance of leisure boats. The results show that the alga is sensitive to both metals and organic compounds and to biocides used in antifouling paints. By testing leachates from antifouling paints these could be ranked according to their toxicity. Similarly, the toxicity of waste waters from pulp mills was determined and the efficiency of secondary treatment evaluated. Further, the test method proved useful to test the toxicity in sediment samples. Sediments from small town harbours and ship lanes were shown to be harmful and compounds originating from antifouling paints were responsible for a large part of the inhibiting effect. The alga proved to be sensitive to contaminants leaking from boat yard soil. The growth inhibition test is a robust test that has high repeatability and reproducibility and easily can be applied on water, soil and sediment samples without being too costly. The species is found wort-wide in temperate waters, which makes the results relevant for large areas. In the Baltic Sea C tenuicorne is the most common red alga species and is thus particularly relevant for this area. The overall results show that contaminants from boat activities and the use of antifouling paints in particular pose a threat to the environment.

  • 6.
    Eklund, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ek, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Holm, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Linde,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kemiska analyser i vatten och sediment och biologiska tester av sediment i anslutning till båttvätt i Wasahamnen och jämförelse med Bullandö marina, Säck naturhamn och referensstation i Klagsfjärden.2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Eklund, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eklund, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Pleasure Boatyard Soils are Often Highly Contaminated2014In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 930-946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contamination in pleasure boatyards has been investigated. Measured concentrations of copper, zinc, lead, mercury, cadmium, tributyltin (TBT), the 16 most common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (a16 PAHs), and the seven most common polychlorinated biphenyls (a7 PCBs) from investigations at 34 boatyards along the Swedish coast have been compiled. The maximum concentrations were 7,700 for Cu, 10,200, for Zn, 40,100 for Pb, 188 for Hg, 18 for Cd, 107 for TBT, 630 for carcinogenic PAHs, 1,480 for a16 PAHs, and 3.8 mg/kg DW for a7 PCB; all 10-2,000 higher than the Swedish environmental qualitative guidelines. In addition, the mean of the median values found at the 34 places shows that the lower guidance value for sensitive use of land was exceeded for the a7 PCBs, carcinogenic PAHs, TBT, Pb, Hg, and Cu by a factor of 380, 6.8, 3.6, 2.9, 2.2 and 1.7, respectively. The even higher guideline value for industrial use was exceeded for the a7 PCBs and TBT by a factor of 15 and 1.8, respectively. TBT, PAHs, Pb, Cd, and Hg are prioritized substances in the European Water Framework Directive and should be phased out as quickly as possible. Because of the risk of leakage from boatyards, precautions should be taken. The high concentrations measured are considered to be dangerous for the environment and human health and highlight the urgent need for developing and enforcing pleasure boat maintenance guidelines to minimize further soil and nearby water contamination.

  • 8.
    Eklund, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bengtsson, Henrik
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Pollutant Concentrations and Toxic Effects on the Red Alga Ceramium tenuicorne of Sediments from Natural Harbors and Small Boat Harbors on the West Coast of Sweden2016In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 583-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation set out to analyze the toxicity of surface sediments in a number of natural harbors and small boat harbors on the west coast of Sweden. This was done with the growth inhibition method with Ceramium tenuicorne. Also, concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), irgarol, organotin compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments were analyzed. The small boat harbors were heavily polluted by Cu, Zn, butyltins, and PAHs, and to a lesser extent by Pb. The Cu, Pb, Zn, and butyltins probably originated from their past and/or present use in antifouling paints, whereas the PAHs probably had multiple sources, including boat motor exhausts. The measured toxicity of the sediment was generally related to their Cu, Zn, and butyltin content, although other toxic substances than those analyzed here probably contributed to the toxicity in some of the harbors. The natural harbor sediments contained less pollutants and were less toxic than the small boat harbor sediments. Nevertheless, our data indicate that the boating pressure today may be high enough to produce toxic effects even in natural harbors in pristine areas. The strongest relationship between toxicity and the major pollutants was obtained when the sediment toxicity was expressed as gram wet weight per liter compared with gram dry weight per liter and gram total organic carbon per liter. Hence, for pollutants that can be elutriated with natural sea water, sediment toxicity expressed as gram wet weight per liter appears preferable.

  • 9.
    Eklund, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Johansson, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Contamination of a boatyard for maintenance of pleasure boats2014In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 955-967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The object of this study was to study a boat maintenance facility by investigating the degree of contamination and assessing how leachate water from soil affects organisms from three trophic levels. Materials and methods Surface and subsurface (20-cm depth) soil samples were collected in a typical boatyard (200 boats, 12,000 m(2)) at a 70-(station A), 90-(station B), 120-(station C) and 160-m (station D) distance from the shoreline. Three replicate samples, similar to 10 m apart, were taken at stations A, B and C, respectively, and one replicate was taken at station D (i.e. altogether 20 samples with 10 at surface and subsurface, respectively). The total copper (Cu), lead (Pb), tin (Sn) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were determined for all replicates. Pooled samples from the respective stations were used for analysis of organotin compounds, irgarol and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Leachate waters were produced from the pooled samples and used for toxicity testing with the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne and the crustacean Nitocra spinipes. Results and discussion Very high concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn were detected, with maximum values of 16,300, 6,430 and 18,600 mg/kg dw, respectively. Organic hazardous compounds were found in high concentrations with maximum values of 37, 27 and 16 mg/kg dw for tributytin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT), respectively. All pollutants exceeded existing guidance values for both sensitive land use and less sensitive land use by several factors, in both surface and subsurface soil. The least and worst cases of total amount of TBT (12 000 m(2) and 0.2 m depth) were estimated to be 10 and 122 kg of TBT. Leachates were shown to be toxic in all three test organisms. Conclusions Several known hazardous pollutants were found in boatyard maintenance areas and they exceeded recommended guidance values by several factors. Leachates were shown to be toxic to test organisms of several trophic orders. This underlines that boat maintenance facilities in general should be better regulated to minimize further exposure to humans and spread of contaminants in the environment. The amounts of contaminants accumulated in these areas call for investigations of how remediation should be performed.

  • 10.
    Eklund, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Watermann, Burkard
    Persistence of TBT and copper in excess on leisure boat hulls around the Baltic Sea2018In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 15, p. 14595-14605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A handheld XRF-analyzer specially calibrated for measurements of metals on plastic boat hulls has been used on leisure boats in Denmark (DK), Finland (FI), and Germany (DE). The results on tin and copper are presented as mu g metal/cm(2). Tin is a proxy for the occurrence of organotin compounds on the boat. Two or three sites were visited in each country and between 25 and 90 boats were measured at each site. Every boat was measured at six to eight places, and the results are presented both as mean and median values. Linear regression of mean to median values of the 377 data pairs shows high relationship with R-2 = 0.9566 for tin and R-2 of 0.9724 for copper and thus both ways of calculation may be used. However, for regulative use, it is suggested that all individual measurements on each boat should be presented and used for decisions of removal or sealing of boat hulls. The results are compared with published data from different parts of Sweden, i.e., boats in fresh water, brackish water, and salt water. The results show that tin with mean values > 50 mu g Sn/cm(2) is still found on 42, 24, and 23% of the boats in DK, FI, and DE, respectively. The corresponding percentages based on median values are 38, 22, and 18% for DK, FI, and DE, respectively. The variation among boats is high with a maximum mean value of 2000 mu g Sn/cm(2). As comparison, one layer of an old TBT antifouling paint Hempels Hard racing superior, corresponds to 300 mu g Sn/cm(2). The percentage of boats with tin >400 mu g Sn/cm(2) content based on mean values was 10% in DK, 5% in FI, and 1% in DE. The corresponding median values were 9, 6, and 1% for DK, FI, and DE. Copper, >100 mu g Cu/cm(2), was detected on all measured boats in DK and in DE and on all but 3% of the FI boats. One layer of Hempels MilleXtra corresponds to I' 4000 mu g Cu/cm(2). The recommendation on the can is to apply two layers. The proportion of boats with higher mean copper values than 8000 mu g Cu/cm(2) was 51, 56, and 61 for boats in DK, FI, and DE, respectively. The proportion based on median values > 8000 mu g Cu/cm(2) was 50, 54, and 61% for DK, FI, and DE. The conclusion is that many leisure boats around the Baltic Sea still display or possess antifouling paints containing organotin compounds and that more than half of the boats have more copper than needed for one boat season according to the paint producers. Much of these known toxic compounds will probably be released into the environment and harm the biota. The calibrated XRF-method, intended for area measurements on boat hulls, is an easy and cheap way to detect boats with organotin compounds and high copper content. We recommend environmental authorities to use this method for identification of such boats and to use the results for requesting measures to minimize further leakage to the environment.

  • 11.
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Vilhelmsson, S.
    Stockholm University.
    Wiklund, Stig Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Contaminants and habitat choice in the Baltic Sea: Behavioural experiments with the native species, Monoporeia affinis, and the invasive genus, Marenzelleria2009In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 81, p. 238-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The invasive polychaete genus, Marenzelleria and the native amphipod, Monoporeia affinis are food and habitat competitors in the Baltic Sea. Previous studies have shown that moderate densities of Marenzelleria can affect the behaviour of M. affinis. To examine the short-term interactive effects of interspecific habitat choice and environmental contaminants a series of habitat colonisation experiments were performed. The contaminants examined included harbor sediments and sediment spiked with the antifouling substances, Cu, Zn and Irgarol. Polychaetes and amphipods were exposed to contaminants in single-species and two-species experiments. In spiked-sediment experiments, M. affinis showed clear dose-dependent response. These experiments verified that behavioural response of M. affinis to different habitats is a sensitive method for testing toxicity under controlled conditions. In experiments with three different harbor sediments and reference sediment both species showed the lowest preference for the reference sediment. This sediment also had the lowest content of quality food, indicating that factors such as food quality and quantity may override the disturbing effects of contaminants in natural sediments. The presence of Marenzelleria spp. did not affect amphipod habitat choice, indicating no short-term effects, which implies that both species can co-exist provided sufficient food is available.

  • 12. Feiler, Ute
    et al.
    Ratte, Monika
    Arts, Gertie
    Bazin, Christine
    Brauer, Frank
    Casado, Carmen
    Doeren, Laszlo
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gilberg, Daniel
    Grote, Matthias
    Gonsior, Guido
    Hafner, Christoph
    Kopf, Willi
    Lemnitzer, Bernd
    Liedtke, Anja
    Matthias, Uwe
    Okos, Ewa
    Pandard, Pascal
    Scheerbaum, Dirk
    Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild
    Stewart, Kathleen
    Teodorovic, Ivana
    Wenzel, Andrea
    Pluta, Hans-Juergen
    Inter-laboratory trial of a standardized sediment contact test with the aquatic plant Myriophyllum aquaticum (ISO 16191)2014In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 662-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A whole-sediment toxicity test with Myriophyllum aquaticum has been developed by the German Federal Institute of Hydrology and standardized within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ISO 16191). An international ring-test was performed to evaluate the precision of the test method. Four sediments (artificial, natural) were tested. Test duration was 10 d, and test endpoint was inhibition of growth rate (r) based on fresh weight data. Eighteen of 21 laboratories met the validity criterion of r >= 0.09 d(-1) in the control. Results from 4 tests that did not conform to test-performance criteria were excluded from statistical evaluation. The inter-laboratory variability of growth rates (20.6%-25.0%) and inhibition (26.6%-39.9%) was comparable with the variability of other standardized bioassays. The mean test-internal variability of the controls was low (7% [control], 9.7% [solvent control]), yielding a high discriminatory power of the given test design (median minimum detectable differences [MDD] 13% to 15%). To ensure these MDDs, an additional validity criterion of CV <= 15% of the growth rate in the controls was recommended. As a positive control, 90 mg 3,5-dichlorophenol/kg sediment dry mass was tested. The range of the expected growth inhibition was proposed to be 35 +/- 15%. The ring test results demonstrated the reliability of the ISO 16191 toxicity test and its suitability as a tool to assess the toxicity of sediment and dredged material. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:662-670. (c) 2013 SETAC

  • 13.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A practical ranking system to compare toxicity of anti-fouling paints2006In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, no 52, p. 1661-1667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxicity of a number of new anti-fouling paints, claimed to function by physical means and not by leakage of toxic substances, have been tested on two common organisms in the Baltic Sea, i.e., the red macro alga Ceramium tenuicorne and the copepod Nitocra spinipes. In order to compare the toxicity between the paints a ranking system was developed based on the EC50- and LC50-values. The results showed a wide span in toxicity with the most toxic paints ranked 160 times more toxic than the ones ranked least toxic. Also, TBT, irgarol and diuron, which have been used as active ingredients in traditional anti-fouling paints, were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the two test organisms. The results showed that the test organisms were equally sensitive to the substances as similar organisms in earlier studies. In conclusion, the ranking system presented in this study permits ranking and comparison of total toxicity of complex mixtures.

  • 14.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sundberg, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Grunder, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hazard identification of contaminated sites-ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish2008In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 263-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim, and scope It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment. To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated with,e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites that are in greatest need of remediation. In most European countries, this prioritization process has almost exclusively been based on chemical analyses of known substances; only seldom toxicity data has been considered. The main objective of the current study was therefore to develop a tool for hazard identification of sediment by ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in a crustacean and a fish. A secondary objective was to investigate the difference in potential toxicity between compoundswith different polarities.

    Materials and methods Early life stages of the crustacean Nitocra spinipes and the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, which represent organisms from different trophic levels (primary and secondary consumer) and with different routes of exposure(i.e., ingestion through food, diffusive uptake, and maternal transfer), were exposed to hexane and acetone fractions(semi-polar compounds) of sediment from five locations,ranging from heavily to low contaminated. Preliminary tests showed that the extracts were non-bioavailable to the crustacean when exposed via water, and the extracts were therefore loaded on silica gel. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed using nano-injection technique.

    Results and discussion Clear concentration–response relationships of both mortality and larval development were observed in all tests with N. spinipes. Also for rainbow trout,the observed effects (e.g., abnormality, hemorrhage, asymmetric yolk sac) followed a dose-related pattern. Interestingly, our results indicate that some of the locations contained toxic semi-polar compounds, which are normally not considered in risk assessment of sediment since they are focused on compounds isolated in the hexane fraction.

    Conclusions The ranking of the five sediments followed the expected pattern of potential toxicity in both organisms, i.e.,sediments with known pollution history caused major effects while reference sediments caused minor effects in the two test systems. Silica gel turned out to be an excellent carrier for exposure of N. spinipes to very hydrophobic and otherwise non-bioavailable sediment extracts.

    Recommendations and perspectives Since both test systems demonstrated that a substantial part of the potential toxicity was caused by semi-polar compounds in the acetone fractions,this study enlightens our poor understanding of which compounds are causing adverse effects in environmental samples. Therefore, by investigating potential toxicity (i.e., hazard identification) as a first screening step in prioritizing processes,these implications could be avoided. For proper sediment risk assessment, we however recommend whole sediment toxicity tests to be used for selected sites at following tiers.

  • 15.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Toxicity of anti-fouling paints for use on ships and leisure boats to non-target organisms representing three trophic levels2010In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 3, p. 681-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leachates of anti-fouling paints for use on ships and leisure boats are examined for their ecotoxicological potential. Paint leachates were produced in both 7‰ artificial (ASW) and natural seawater (NSW) and tested on three organisms, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, and the crustacean Nitocra spinipes. Generally, leaching in ASW produced a more toxic leachate and was up to 12 times more toxic to the organisms than was the corresponding NSW leachate. The toxicity could be explained by elevated concentrations of Cu and Zn in the ASW leachates. Of the NSW leachates, those from the ship paints were more toxic than those from leisure boat paints. The most toxic paint was the biocide-free leisure boat paint Micron Eco. This implies that substances other than added active agents (biocides) were responsible for the observed toxicity, which would not have been discovered without the use of biological tests.

  • 16.
    Lagerström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Norling, Matz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Metal contamination at recreational boatyards linked to the use of antifouling paints-investigation of soil and sediment with a field portable XRF2016In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 10146-10157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of a field portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (FPXRF) to measure Cu, Zn, and Pb in soil and sediments at recreational boatyards by Lake Malaren in Sweden was investigated. Confirmatory chemical analysis on freeze-dried samples shows that, ex situ, the FPXRF produces definitive level data for Cu and Zn and quantitative screening data for Pb, according to USEPA criteria for data quality. Good agreement was also found between the ex situ measurements and the in situ screening. At each of the two studied boatyards, >40 in situ soil measurements were carried out. Statistical differences in soil concentration based on land use were consequently found: the areas used for boat storage and maintenance were significantly higher in Cu and Zn than the areas used for car parking and transportation. The metal pollution in the boat storage areas is therefore shown to be directly linked to hull maintenance activities during which metal-containing antifouling paint particles are shed, end up on the ground, and consequently pollute the soil. In the boat storage areas, the Cu and Zn concentrations often exceeded the national guideline values for soil. In this study, they were also shown to increase with increasing age of the boatyard operation. Pb soil concentrations were only elevated at a few measurement points, reflecting the phasing out of Pb compounds from antifouling products over the past 2 decades. In the surface sediments, concentrations of Cu and Zn were 2-3 times higher compared to deeper levels. No decrease in metal concentration with time was found in the sediments, indicating that boat owners are not complying with the ban of biocide-containing paints in freshwater introduced over 20 years ago.

  • 17.
    Lagerström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Strand, Jakob
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Total tin and organotin speciation in historic layers of antifouling paint on leisure boat hulls2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 220, p. 1333-1341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite their ban on small vessels in 1989 in the EU, organotin compounds (OTCs) are still being released into the environment due to their presence in historic paint layers on leisure boats. 23 paint samples scraped from recreational boats from three countries around the Baltic Sea were analyzed for total tin (Sn) and OTCs. Two antifouling paint products were also subjected to the same analyses. A new method for the detection of Sn in paint flake samples was developed and found to yield more accurate results compared to four different acid digestion methods. A new method was also developed for the extraction of OTCs from ground paint flakes. This endeavor revealed that existing methods for organotin analysis of sediment may not have full recoveries of OTCs if paint flakes are present in the sample. The hull paint samples had Sn concentrations ranging from 25 to 18,000 mg/kg paint and results showed that tributyltin (TBT) was detected in all samples with concentrations as high as 4.7 g (as Sn)/kg paint. TBT was however not always the major OTC. Triphenyltin (TPhT) was abundant in many samples, especially in those originating from Finland. Several other compounds such as monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tetrabutyltin (TeBT), monophenyltin (MPhT) and diphenyltin (DPhT) were also detected. These could be the result of degradation occurring on the hull or of impurities in the paint products as they were also identified in the two analyzed paint products. A linear correlation (r(2) = 0.934) was found between the total tin content and the sum of all detected OTCs. The detection of tin can therefore be used to indicate the presence of OTCs on leisure boats. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

  • 18. Lagerström, Maria
    et al.
    Yngsell, Daniel
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Identification of commercial and recreational vessels coated with banned organotin paint through screening of tin by portable XRF2019In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 362, p. 107-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most effective biocide used historically in antifouling paints is tributyltin (TBT). However, due to its extreme toxicity to non-target organisms and its persistence in the environment, the use of TBT and other organotin compounds (OTCs) was restricted in EU on leisure boats and ships in 1989 and 2003, respectively. Nevertheless, studies worldwide still report TBT to be released from both ships and leisure boats. Here, we present a new application for a field portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) used for screening for organotin paint through measurements of tin (Sn) on leisure boats and ships. Measurements on ships built after the restrictions showed concentrations of up to 68 mu g Sn/cm(2), likely due to impurities of inorganic Sn, as shown through chemical analysis of 21 organotin-free paints. A threshold value of 100 mu g Sn/cm(2) is suggested, where exceedance indicates presence of OTCs. Screening with the XRF method showed 10% of the commercial vessels (n = 30) and 23-29% of leisure boats (n = 693, investigated in this and in a previous study) to hold concentrations exceeding 100 mu g Sn/cm(2). The XRF technique presented here provides a useful tool for quick screening and identification of vessels holding banned organotin paint.

  • 19.
    Langlet, David
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Eklund, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ansvar för förorenad mark på båtuppläggningsplatser med fokus på ideella föreningar: [Liability for Contaminated Land at Leisure Boatyards with a Focus on Non-Profit Associations]2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Summaries of completed soil surveys at 34 leisure boatyards in Swedish coastal municipalities have shown that such areas are often highly contaminated by a variety of known hazardous substances and compounds, such as various metals (copper, zinc, lead, mercury, cadmium) and organic compounds (organotin compounds (e.g. TBT), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ). TBT, PAHs, lead, cadmium and mercury compounds are among the priority substances which, according to the EU’s Water Framework Directive and its daughter directives, are to be phased out since they pose a significant risk to the aquatic environment. These are also substances that are important to remove from soil.

    A rough estimate indicates that there are about 2500 places in Sweden that may have been contaminated as a result of storage and maintenance work on pleasure boats alone. The report analyzes who bears the legal responsibility for these polluted sites. The emphasis is on the public law responsibility for any assessment and decontamination that may be required under Chapter 10 of the Environmental Code but the potential legal consequences of land contamination in the relationship between landowners and leaseholders are also looked at.

    The County Administrative Boards manage most of the decontamination operations on the basis of an order of priority based on risk classification. Leisure boatyards are usually categorized as two out of four on the risk classification scale. However, with respect to leisure boatyards it is the municipalities that are supervisory authorities and thus have the mandate to, inter alia, require the person responsible under the Environmental Code to take decontamination measures.

    The basic rule regarding liability for the remediation of contaminated land and water areas is that any person who pursue or have pursued an activity or taken a measure that is a contributory cause of the contamination (termed “operators”) are liable for remedying it to the extent that can be considered reasonable. The reasonability assessment that this necessitates includes both environmental factors, including planned future land use, and factors relating to the operator, including how much time has elapsed since the contamination took place and the extent to which the environmental risks were known at that time. Joint and several liability applies which means that any operator who contributed to the contamination may be required to pay for the remediation. However, any operator who shows that her contribution to the environmental damage is so insignificant that it does not by itself justify any remedial action is responsible only for such portion of the remedial action as corresponds to her own contribution to the harm.

    In situations where no operator can be made to perform or pay for remediation the property owner becomes liable for remediation even when she had nothing to do with the polluting activity. However, this applies only if the property owner acquired the property after 31 December 1998 and if she then knew or should have discovered the contamination.

    Whether leisure boat clubs are to be held liable for contamination depends on whether they are considered operators of the polluting activity. That, in turn, depends on whether they are considered to have the factual and legal ability to take action against damage or detriment caused by the activity. Relevant case law clearly supports that leisure boat clubs are to be regarded as operators with respect to activities carried out by their respective members and thus liable for any contamination. That does not preclude that individual members may also be considered operators. In most cases, however, the potential liability of individual members is of less importance since the above mentioned exception to the principle of joint and several liability makes it practically very difficult to hold them liable. However, any person who has polluted her own property through maintenance work on pleasure boats should be easier to hold liable were the municipality to pursue such a case. With respect to leisure boatclubs that lease the land where they operate the landowner may have the right to require that the land be restored to the state in which it was before the lease started, even if that is not explicitly stated in the lease agreement. The land owner may also be able to makea claim based on tort law if, for example, the value ofthe land decreases due to the leaseholder’s polluting activities.

    In addition to liability for remediation there is an equally important responsibility to prevent damage from ongoing activities. This entails an obligation to implement protective measures and take any other precautions that are not unreasonable in view of the benefits of the measures compared to the costs. This obligation applies to leisure boat clubs as well as to individual boat owners and may, if necessary, be supplemented by injunctions issued by the regulatory authority. It is important for the leisure boat clubs to adopt clear rules for their members and make sure that they are complied with.

    Lease agreements can also be an important instrument for regulating how leisure boatyards are used, including by specifying substances that may not be used and measures that must be taken to prevent the spread of toxic paint or other contaminants that have already reached the soil.There may also be reason for the legislature to consider making leisure boatyards subject to a permit requirement. Such a requirement would clarify the responsibility and send a signal about the potentially serious consequences of activities at leisure boatyards.

    Download full text (pdf)
    ITM-rapport 222
  • 20. Lundström, E.
    et al.
    Hermansson, M.
    Linde,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ek, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    2007. Ekotoxikologisk testing av avloppsvatten och läkemedelssubstanser med bakterie, alg, kräftdjur och fiskembryon.2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Lundström, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bjorlenius, Berndt
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lavén, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Characterization of additional sewage treatment technologies: Ecotoxicological effects and levels of selected pharmaceuticals, hormones and endocrine disruptors2010In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 73, no 7, p. 1612-1619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, two conventional (with and without sand filter) and four additional (moving bed biofilm reactor, ozone, moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone and a membrane bio reactor) treatment technologies were operated in small-scale at Hammarby Sjostad sewage treatment plant, Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were tested with five short-term ( <= 7 days exposure) ecotoxicological tests, and analyzed for a number of target analytes, comprising pharmaceuticals, natural hormones and industrial chemicals. Overall, the tested effluents generated few adverse effects at lower concentrations ( < 50% sewage effluent), and no major differences were observed between any of the treatments. The effluent treated with the moving bed biofilm reactor resulted in the lowest effects in the ecotoxicological tests. The most efficient treatment technology with regard to the pharmaceutical residues was the ozone treatment, which however caused negative effects in some of the ecotoxicological tests.

  • 22.
    Tjensvoll, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Johansson, Lisen
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Suspension of TBT-contaminated sediment causes physiologicalstress in macroalgae and blue musselsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tributyltin is a toxic compound that has been used in antifouling paint for boats andships. Due to the immediate toxic effects at very low concentrations it was banned in many countries in 1986. Due to its slow degradation it is expected to be stored in the sediment for many decades. This experiment simulated a small boat harbour with frequent resuspension events of TBT-contaminated sediment to measure the impacts onthe release, bioavailability and effects of tributyltin. Physiological stress responses were measured in two coastal species, the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the red algaCeramium tenuicorne. Response variables measured were respiration, ammonia excretion, clearance rate and survival rate (for mussels) and growth inhibition (for thealga). Resuspension released both dissolved and particle-bound TBT to the surrounding water and made it bioavailable for both organisms. There was a clear toxic effect of the highest concentrations and it was evident that both mussels and algae showed a fasterand more negative response when the sediment was suspended. Repeated or continuous exposure to suspended TBT-contaminated sediment can exert a risk to the organisms living in environments such as harbours.

  • 23. Wester, Misse
    et al.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    My Husband Usually Makes Those Decisions": Gender, Behavior, and Attitudes Toward the Marine Environment2011In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 70-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human behavior impacts the environment we live in. In order to better understand how one group, boat owners, in three Nordic countries adjacent to the Baltic Sea; Sweden, Finland and Denmark, viewed the relationship between the marine environment, leisure boats and issues of responsibility, a survey study was conducted (n = 1701). The results show that there are differences between gender in many areas and those women in general are more environmentally friendly than men in their views and behavior. Men and women seek information about boating by different channels and this knowledge may be used in future information campaigns. Both men and women ranked boat owners as having the lowest impact on the marine environment and perceived these to be responsible for addressing environmental issues caused by leisure boat activities. The results also show that it is important to prove the effectiveness of an environmentally safe product since this factor is ranked higher than price when considering buying a product. The results suggest that once environmentally friendly behavior is established, such as recycling, this behavior continues. One implication of this study is that small changes in human behavior are seen as acceptable but larger commitments are more difficult to achieve. If individuals do not feel responsible for causing environmental damage, this aspect needs to be addressed in information aimed at this group. Novel approaches on framing the information and new ways of disseminating information are needed.

  • 24.
    Wiklund, Ann-Kristin Eriksson
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Malm, Torleif
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Honkakangas, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Spring development of hydrolittoral rock shore communities on wave-exposed and sheltered sites in the northern Baltic proper2012In: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 75-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spring development in the hydrolittoral zone was investigated at five wave-sheltered and five wave-exposed sites on four occasions from late March to late May (every third week). The number of species was higher at the sheltered locations and increased significantly over time. The difference in community structure was significant: over 95% of the Bray-Curtis dissimilarities were due to the biomass of only eleven taxa, and the total Bray-Curtis dissimilarity between exposed and sheltered sites was 75%. Macroalgae made up 70-80% of the total biomass and was dominated by filamentous species. In contrast to previous studies, macroalgal biomass was higher at the exposed sites, which may be due to the fact that this was a spring study, unlike previous studies, which were conducted during summer.

  • 25.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bighiu, Maria Alexandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lundgren, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    XRF measurements of tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats2016In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 213, p. 594-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tributyltin (TBT) and other organotin compounds have been restricted for use on leisure boats since 1989 in the EU. Nonetheless, release of TBT is observed from leisure boats during hull maintenance work, such as pressure hosing. In this work, we used a handheld X-ray Fluorescence analyser (XRF) calibrated for antifouling paint matrixes to measure tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats in Sweden. Our results show that over 10% of the leisure boats (n = 686) contain >400 mu g/cm(2) of tin in their antifouling coatings. For comparison, one layer (40 mu m dry film) of a TBT-paint equals approximate to 800 mu g Sn/cm(2). To our knowledge, tin has never been used in other forms than organotin (OT) in antifouling paints. Thus, even though the XRF analysis does not provide any information on the speciation of tin, the high concentrations indicate that these leisure boats still have OT coatings present on their hull. On several leisure boats we performed additional XRF measurements by progressively scraping off the top coatings and analysing each underlying layer. The XRF data show that when tin is detected, it is most likely present in coatings close to the hull with several layers of other coatings on top. Thus, leaching of OT compounds from the hull into the water is presumed to be negligible. The risk for environmental impacts arises during maintenance work such as scraping, blasting and high pressure hosing activities. The data also show that many boat owners apply excessive paint layers when following paint manufacturers recommendations. Moreover, high loads of copper were detected even on boats sailing in freshwater, despite the more than 20 year old ban, which poses an environmental risk that has not been addressed until now.

  • 26.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Comparison of toxicity and release rates of Cu and Zn from anti-fouling paints leached in natural and artificial brackish seawater2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 12, p. 2459-2466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantification of release rates of Cu and Zn from biocide-containing and biocide-free antifouling paints, used on ships and leisure boats, were conducted in brackish artificial and natural seawater (ASW and NSW). To determine the toxicity of Cu and Zn, toxicity tests were performed with organisms from three trophic levels. Generally, the release rates of both Cu and Zn were higher in ASW than in NSW for the tested paints. The release rate of Cu in NSW was higher from the ship paints (3.2–3.6 μg cm-2d-1) than from the leisure boat paint (1.1 μg cm-2d-1). Biocide-free paints leached more Zn (4.4–8.2 μg cm-2d-1) than the biocide-containing paints (0.7–3.0 μg cm-2d-1). In conclusion, both Cu and Zn may be toxic to non-target organisms in areas with high boat density. To account for ecological risk associated with anti-fouling paints, Zn as wells as the active ingredients should be considered.

  • 27.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hoppe, Sabina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ndungu, Kuria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Effect of Organic Complexation on Copper Accumulation and Toxicity to the Estuarine Red Macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne: A Test of the Free Ion Activity Model2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 3145-3153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current water quality criteria (WQC) regulations on copper toxicity to biota are still based on total dissolved (<0.4 μm membrane filter) copper concentrations with a hardness modification for freshwaters. There are however ongoing efforts to incorporate metal speciation in WQC and toxicity regulations (such as the biotic ligand model-BLM) for copper and other metals. Here, we show that copper accumulation and growth inhibition of the Baltic macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne exposed to copper in artificial seawater at typical coastal and estuarine DOC concentrations (similar to 2−4 mg/L-C as fulvic acid) are better correlated to weakly complexed and total dissolved copper concentrations rather than the free copper concentration [Cu2+]. Our results using a combination of competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV) measurements and model calculations (using visual MINTEQ incorporating the Stockholm Humic Model) show that copper accumulation in C. tenuicorne only correlates linearly well to [Cu2+] at relatively high [Cu2+] and in the absence of fulvic acid. Thus the FIAM fails to describe copper accumulation in C. tenuicorne at copper and DOC concentrations typical of most marine waters. These results seem to indicate that at ambient total dissolved copper concentration in coastal and estuarine waters, C. tenuicorne might be able to access a sizable fraction of organically complexed copper when free copper concentration to the cell membrane is diffusion limited.

  • 28.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ndungu, Kuria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hassellov, Martin
    Breitbarth, Eike
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Influence of salinity and organic matter on the toxicity of Cu to a brackish water and marine clone of the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne2011In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 636-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cu is a major active component in anti-fouling paints, which may reach toxic levels in areas with intense boat traffic and therefore is a metal of environmental concern. The bioavailability of metals is influenced by factors such as salinity and organic matter measured as total organic carbon (TOC). The influence of these two factors was studied, with a focus on brackish water conditions, by exposing a marine and a brackish water clone of the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne to Cu in different combinations of artificial seawater (salinity 5–15‰) and TOC (0–4 mg/L) in the form of fulvic acid (FA). In addition, the toxicity of Cu to both clones was compared in salinity 10‰ and 15‰. The results show that by increasing TOC from 0 to 2 and 4 mg/L, Cu was in general less toxic to both algal clones at all salinities tested (p<0.05). The effect of salinity on Cu toxicity was not as apparent, both a positive and negative effect was observed. The brackish water clone showed generally to be more sensitive to Cu in salinity 10‰ and 15‰ than the marine counterpart. In conclusion, FA reduced the Cu toxicity overall. The Cu tolerance of both strains at different salinities may reflect their origin and their adaptations to marine and brackish water.

  • 29. Ytreberg, Erik
    et al.
    Lagerström, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Albin
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Elwing, Hans
    Dahlström, Magnus
    Dahl, Peter
    Dahlström, Mia
    A novel XRF method to measure environmental release of copper and zinc from antifouling paints2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 225, p. 490-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from vessels and leisure crafts coated with antifouling paints can pose a threat to water quality in semi-enclosed areas such as harbors and marinas as well as to coastal archipelagos. However, no reliable, practical and low-cost method exists to measure the direct release of metals from antifouling paints. Therefore, the paint industry and regulatory authorities are obliged to use release rate measurements derived from either mathematical models or from laboratory studies. To bridge this gap, we have developed a novel method using a handheld X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) to determine the cumulative release of Cu and Zn from antifouling paints. The results showed a strong linear relationship between XRF Kα net intensities and metal concentrations, as determined by ICP-MS. The release of Cu and Zn were determined for coated panels exposed in harbors located in the Baltic Sea and in Kattegat. The field study showed salinity to have a strong impact on the release of Cu, i.e. the release increased with salinity. Contrary, the effect of salinity on Zn was not as evident. As exemplified in this work, the XRF method also makes it possible to identify the governing parameters to the release of Cu and Zn, e.g. salinity and type of paint formulation. Thus, the XRF method can be used to measure environmentally relevant releases of metallic compounds to design more efficient and optimized antifouling coatings.

  • 30.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bighiu, Maria Alexandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    New analytical application for metal determination in antifouling paints2015In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 143, p. 121-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the ban of applying TBT coatings on leisure boats in the late 80s, recent studies show an ongoing spread of TBT from leisure boats, particularly during hull cleaning events. Therefore, countries in EU have adopted expensive measures to clean this wash water. A more cost-efficient measure is to focus directly on the source, i.e. identify leisure boats with high concentrations of TBT and prescribe boat owners to remove the paint. We have developed a new antifouling paint application for a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to be used for identifying boats with high area concentrations (mu g/cm(2)) of Sn (indication that the hull contains TBT paint residues). Copper and zinc are also included in the application since these metals are used in the vast majority of today's paints. A blind test with up to four layers of TBT-, copper- and zinc-based paints showed good correlation between XRF-measured area concentrations and chemically analyzed concentrations. Future usage of the applications involves identification of boat hulls in particular with high Sn concentrations and also with high Cu and Zn concentrations. This method has the potential to become a useful tool in regulatory management of existence and use of toxic elements on boat hulls.

1 - 30 of 30
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf