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  • 1. Almenberg, Johan
    et al.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Exponential growth bias and financial literacy2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 17, p. 1693-1696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tendency to underestimate the future value of a variable growing at a constant rate, an example of exponential growth bias, has been linked to household financial decision-making. We show that exponential growth bias and standard measures of financial literacy are negatively correlated in a representative sample of Swedish adults. Since financial literacy is linked to household decision-making, our results indicate that examining the relationship between exponential growth bias and household finance without adequate controls for financial literacy may generate biased results.

  • 2. Dreber, A.
    et al.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gränsmark, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Little, A. C.
    Facial masculinity predicts risk and time preferences in expert chess players2013In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 20, no 16, p. 1477-1480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examine the relationship between risk-taking, impatience and facial masculinity in expert chess players. We combine a large panel data set from high-level chess games with measures of both risk-taking and impatience in chess with facial masculinity, a proxy for testosterone exposure in puberty. We find that male players with high pubertal testosterone exposure are more impatient by playing shorter chess games. For female players, we find that facial masculinity is negatively correlated with risk-taking.

  • 3. Dreber, Anna
    et al.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gränsmark, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Beauty queens and battling knights: Risk taking and attractiveness in chess2013In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 90, no June, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the relationship between attractiveness and risk taking in chess. We use a large international panel dataset on high-level chess competitions which includes a control for the players’ skill in chess. This data is combined with results from a survey on an online labor market where participants were asked to rate the photos of 626 expert chess players according to attractiveness. Our results suggest that male chess players choose significantly riskier strategies when playing against an attractive female opponent, even though this does not improve their performance. Women's strategies are not affected by the attractiveness of the opponent.

  • 4. Franke, Andreas G.
    et al.
    Gränsmark, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Agricola, Alexandra
    Schühle, Kai
    Ronnmel, Thilo
    Sebastian, Alexandra
    Balló, Harald E.
    Gorbulev, Stanislav
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Frank, Björn
    Ruckes, Christian
    Tüscher, Oliver
    Lieb, Klaus
    Methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine for cognitive enhancement in chess: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial2017In: European Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0924-977X, E-ISSN 1873-7862, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 248-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stimulants and caffeine have been proposed for cognitive enhancement by healthy subjects. This study investigated whether performance in chess - a competitive mind game requiring highly complex cognitive skills - can be enhanced by methylphenidate, modafinil or caffeine. In a phase IV, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 39 male chess players received 2 x 200 mg modafinil, 2 x 20 mg methylphenidate, and 2 x 200 mg caffeine or placebo in a 4 x 4 crossover design. They played twenty 15-minute games during two sessions against a chess program (Fritz 12; adapted to players' strength) and completed several neuropsychological tests. Marked substance effects were observed since all three substances significantly increased average reflection time per game compared to placebo resulting in a significantly increased number of games lost on time with all three treatments. Treatment effects on chess performance were not seen if all games (n=3059) were analysed. Only when controlling for game duration as well as when excluding those games lost on time, both modafinil and methylphenidate enhanced chess performance as demonstrated by significantly higher scores in the remaining 2876 games compared to placebo. In conjunction with results from neuropsychological testing we conclude that modifying effects of stimulants on complex cognitive tasks may in particular result from more reflective decision making processes. When not under time pressure, such effects may result in enhanced performance. Yet, under time constraints more reflective decision making may not improve or even have detrimental effects on complex task performance.

  • 5.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A Comparative Study of Net Transfers for Different Immigrant Groups: Evidence from Germany2014In: International migration (Geneva. Print), ISSN 0020-7985, E-ISSN 1468-2435, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 175-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of immigration to Western welfare states, certain aspects, such as the financial cost of providing social welfare, have become a subject of debate. The net amount of costs and tax payments, sometimes referred to as net transfers, has been used as a measure for evaluating the sustainability of welfare state systems. The present study analyses determinants of the volume of net transfers in Germany in 2002 with reference to immigrants from Poland, Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Lebanon and Iran. The study focuses on the differences and similarities between their outcomes. In line with previous research, the results below suggest that employment situation and family composition explain a large part of the differences in net transfers. One outcome that has not previously been adequately addressed, however, is that the legal immigration status granted on arrival in Germany is of considerable importance.

  • 6.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Determination of Net Transfers for Immigrants in Germany2007Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Does immigration induce native flight from public schools?2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 645-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For more than a century, parents in Denmark could enroll their children into privately operated free schools. Results from this study indicate an increase in native Danes' propensity to enroll their children in free schools as the share of children with immigrant background becomes larger in their municipality of residence. The effect is most pronounced in small, and medium-sized municipalities, while it seems absent in larger municipalities. The study explores changes in the immigrant population in Danish municipalities 1992-2004, a period marked by a substantial influx of refugees, where a state-sponsored placement policy restricted their initial choice of residence.

  • 8.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Stödet för välfärdsstaten är starkt2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Impact of Immigration on the Size of Government: Empirical Evidence from Danish Municipalities2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 113, no 1, p. 74-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have reported a negative relationship between ethnic heterogeneity and the size of the public sector. One problem with this literature is that ethnic composition is hardly exogenous, which obstructs attempts to reveal causal mechanisms. This paper explores the impact of changes in ethnic heterogeneity in Danish municipalities from 1995 through 2001, a period marked by an unprecedented influx of refugees. A state-sponsored placement policy restricted their choice of residence and required local governments to accept them as citizens. The analysis of the impact of this influx has not revealed any support for the claim of a decline in public sector size.

  • 10.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Using 'Shares' vs. 'Log of Shares' in Fixed-Effect Estimations2011In: Journal of Economics and Econometrics, ISSN ISSN 2032-9652 E-ISSN 2032-9660, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at potential implications emerging from including "shares" as a control variable in fixed effect estimations. By shares we refer to the ratio of a sum of units over another, such as the share of immigrants in a city or school. As will be shown in this paper, alogarithmic transformation of shares has methodological merits compared to the use of shares defined as mere ratios.

  • 11.
    Gerdes, Christer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gränsmark, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Strategic behavior across gender: A comparison of female and male expert chess players2010In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 766-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to measure differences in risk behavior among expert chess players. The study employs a panel data set on international chess with 1.4 million games recorded over a period of 11 years. The structure of the data set allows us to use individual fixed-effect estimations to control for aspects such as innate ability as well as other characteristics of the players. Most notably, the data contains an objective measure of individual playing strength, the so-called Elo rating. In line with previous research, we find that women are more risk-averse than men. A novel finding is that men choose more aggressive strategies when playing against female opponents even though such strategies reduce their winning probability.

     

  • 12.
    Gerdes, Christer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Schultz-Nielsen, Marie Louise
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Indvandringens betydning for de offentlige finanser i Danmark2011Report (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Gerdes, Christer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Schultz-Nielsen, Marie Louise
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The significance of immigration for public finances in Denmark2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the economic consequences of immigration for public finances in Denmark. Using new figures for the period 2004-2008, net transfers are calculated, and presented as an extension to the figures that already existed for the period 1991-2001. The net transfers are calculated from a marginal perspective, which means that the included public expenditures and incomes can be traced to each individual person in our sample. The study is therefore suited for analyzing the economic consequences if more/less people immigrate. A consistent pattern to emerge throughout is that net transfers from Western first- and second-generation immigrants to state funds are positive, while those from non-Western first- and second-generation immigrants are negative. The new calculations show that net transfers from non-Western first- and second-generation immigrants fell from DKK -12.8 billion in 2004 to DKK -9.1 billion in 2008, largely due to the improved employment situation in Denmark. The results also show, however, that the composition chosen of the group of non-Western immigrants has a significant effect on the calculation of net transfers, in that these transfers are reduced to DKK -2.2 billion if refugees are excluded from this group.

  • 14.
    Gerdes, Christer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Immigrants from the New EU Member States and the Swedish Welfare State2008Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Gerdes, Christer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Is immigration challenging the economic sustainability of the Nordic welfare model?2011In: Changing social equality. The Nordic welfare model in the 21st century / [ed] Jon Kvist, Johan Fritzell, Björn Hvinden, Olli Kangas, Bristol: The Policy Press , 2011, p. 187-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Gerdes, Christer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Post-enlargement migration and adjustment in a receiving country: the case of Sweden2016In: Labor migration, EU enlargement, and the great recession / [ed] Martin Kahanec, Klaus F. Zimmermann, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2016, p. 123-138Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden’s immigration policy has changed drastically on several occasions over time. Immigration policy was very liberal from the 1860s until WW1, with no requirements regarding passports, visas or work permits, although international migration mainly involved emigration during this period in the context of Sweden, with wages lower than in neighboring countries. The policy changed in 1914 after the start of WW1, and the controls became gradually more stringent during the war, with a work permit compulsory and difficult to attain for those who wanted to move to Sweden for work. While the immigration regulation remained after the war, the requirements for those coming from other Nordic countries were made slightly less stringent. The work permit requirement in the interwar-period was motivated by the high unemployment rate, based upon the notion that jobs should be reserved for natives.

  • 17.
    Gerdes, Christer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Post-Enlargement Migration and Labour Market Impact in Sweden2009In: EU Labor Markets After Post-Enlargement Migration, Berlin: Springer , 2009, p. 163-179Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Gerdes, Christer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Utvidgningen av EU och arbetskraftsinvandringen: de svenska erfarenheterna2014In: Multiethnica. Meddelande från Centrum för multietnisk forskning, Uppsala universitet, ISSN 0284-396X, no 35, p. 3-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Gränsmark, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Dreber, Anna
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Beaty Queens and batling Knights : Riks Taking and Attractiveness in ChessManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we explore the relationship between attractiveness and risk taking in chess. We examine whether people use riskier strategies when playing with attractive opponents, whether this affects performance, and whether there are gender differences in the reaction to an attractive opponent. We use a large international panel dataset on chess competitions which includes a control for the players’ skill in chess. We combine this data with results from a large survey on an online labor market where participants were asked to rate the photos of 626 expert chess players. Our results suggest that male chess players choose significantly riskier strategies when playing against an attractive female opponent, although this does not improve their performance. Women’s strategies are not affected by the attractiveness of the opponent.

1 - 19 of 19
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