Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1 - 46 av 46
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Rosen, Ann
    Blom, Kerstin
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    The Polysomnographical Meaning of Changed Sleep Quality-A Study of Treatment with Reduced Time in Bed2023Ingår i: Brain Sciences, ISSN 2076-3425, E-ISSN 2076-3425, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikel-id 1426Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reports of poor sleep are widespread, but their link with objective sleep (polysomnography-PSG) is weak in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between changes in subjective and objective sleep variables using data from a study of the reduction in time in bed (TIB). Methods: One sleep recording was carried out at baseline and one at treatment week 5 (end of treatment) (N = 34). Results: The Karolinska Sleep Quality Index improved and was correlated with improvement in sleep efficiency (r = 0.41, p < 0.05) and reduction in TIB (r = -0.47, p < 0.01) and sleep latency (r = 0.36, p < 0.05). The restorative sleep index showed similar results. Improvements in the insomnia severity index (ISI) essentially lacked correlations with changes in the PSG variables. It was suggested that the latter may be due to the ISI representing a week of subjective sleep experience, of which a single PSG night may not be representative. Conclusions: It was concluded that changes in the subjective ratings of sleep are relatively well associated with changes in the PSG-based sleep continuity variables when both describe the same sleep.

  • 2.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Emotional working memory in older adults after total sleep deprivation2017Ingår i: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 40, nr Suppl. 1, s. e110-e110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Even though the occurrence of sleep problems increases with age, few studies have focused on the cognitive effects of acute sleep deprivation in elderly. Most previous research indicate that, compared to young, older adults show less impairment in e.g. attention after sleep deprivation. However, little is known of whether the same pattern holds for higher cognitive functions. In addition, while old age is usually related to a general decrease in working memory abilities, performance on working memory tasks may differ depending on the emotional valence of the stimuli, where positive stimuli seem to be beneficial for working memory performance in older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory in older adults using two levels of working memory load.

    Materials and methods: A healthy sample of 48 old adults (MAge=66.69 years, SDAge=3.44 years) was randomized into a total sleep deprivation group (TSD; n=24) or a sleep control group (SC; n=24). They performed a working memory task (n-back) containing positive, negative and neutral pictures in a low (1-back) and a high (3-back) working memory load condition. Performance was measured as Accuracy (d'), Omissions and Reaction Time (RT).

    Results: For the d' and Omissions we performed two separate 2x2x3 (sleep, working memory load, valence) repeated measures analyses of variance (rmANOVA). For the RTs, we applied a mixed-effects model. For both d' and RT we found no effect of sleep deprivation (Ps > .05). For valence, we found main effects on both d' (F1,46 = 5.56, P=.005) and RT (F1,95.7 = 4.84, P=.01). d' did not differ for positive and neutral pictures, but was in both cases significantly better than for negative pictures. RTs were significantly faster for positive pictures. However, a working memory loadvalence interaction (F1,95.7 = 4.50, P=.01) further revealed an effect of valence in the low, but not in the high load condition. In the low load condition, RTs were faster for positive than for neutral pictures and faster for neutral than for negative pictures. There was no significant effect of Omissions.

    Conclusions: Our results showed that emotional working memory performance was not significantly affected by one night of sleep deprivation in older adults, which contrast what we found in a sample of young adults from the same project. In line with previous research, our results indicate a beneficial effect of positive stimuli on working memory in older adults. This effect was present in both groups and most pronounced for reaction times in the condition with a lower cognitive demand. We can conclude that, among older adults, the working memory performance is not impaired by sleep deprivation and that the benefits of positive stimuli on working memory seem intact. These findings contribute to a better understanding of older adults' cognitive functioning after sleep deprivation.

  • 3.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Positivity Effect and Working Memory Performance Remains Intact in Older Adults After Sleep Deprivation2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikel-id 605Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Older adults perform better in tasks which include positive stimuli, referred to as the positivity effect. However, recent research suggests that the positivity effect could be attenuated when additional challenges such as stress or cognitive demands are introduced. Moreover, it is well established that older adults are relatively resilient to many of the adverse effects of sleep deprivation. Our aim was to investigate if the positivity effect in older adults is affected by one night of total sleep deprivation using an emotional working memory task.

    Methods: A healthy sample of 48 older adults (60-72 years) was either sleep deprived for one night (n = 24) or had a normal night's sleep (n = 24). They performed an emotional working memory n-back (n = 1 and 3) task containing positive, negative and neutral pictures.

    Results: Performance in terms of accuracy and reaction times was best for positive stimuli and worst for negative stimuli. This positivity effect was not altered by sleep deprivation. Results also showed that, despite significantly increased sleepiness, there was no effect of sleep deprivation on working memory performance. A working memory load x valence interaction on the reaction times revealed that the beneficial effect of positive stimuli was only present in the 1-back condition.

    Conclusion: While the positivity effect and general working memory abilities in older adults are intact after one night of sleep deprivation, increased cognitive demand attenuates the positivity effect on working memory speed.

  • 4.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Positivity effect in older adults after sleep deprivation2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Porada, Danja K.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Monell Chemical Senses Center, USA; University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Does insufficient sleep affect how you learn from reward or punishment? Reinforcement learning after 2 nights of sleep restriction2021Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 30, nr 4, artikel-id e13236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To learn from feedback (trial and error) is essential for all species. Insufficient sleep has been found to reduce the sensitivity to feedback as well as increase reward sensitivity. To determine whether insufficient sleep alters learning from positive and negative feedback, healthy participants (n = 32, mean age 29.0 years, 18 women) were tested once after normal sleep (8 hr time in bed for 2 nights) and once after 2 nights of sleep restriction (4 hr/night) on a probabilistic selection task where learning behaviour was evaluated in three ways: as generalised learning, short-term win-stay/lose-shift learning strategies, and trial-by-trial learning rate. Sleep restriction did not alter the sensitivity to either positive or negative feedback on generalised learning. Also, short-term win-stay/lose-shift strategies were not affected by sleep restriction. Similarly, results from computational models that assess the trial-by-trial update of stimuli value demonstrated no difference between sleep conditions after the first block. However, a slower learning rate from negative feedback when evaluating all learning blocks was found after sleep restriction. Despite a marked increase in sleepiness and slowed learning rate for negative feedback, sleep restriction did not appear to alter strategies and generalisation of learning from positive or negative feedback.

  • 6.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The effect of sleep loss on emotional working memory2016Ingår i: Abstracts, 2016, Vol. 25(S1), s. 17-18Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Emotional stimuli differently affect working memory (WM) performance. As sleep deprivation has a known impact on both emotion and WM our aim was to investigate how one night without sleep affects emotional WM performance. Methods: Healthy subjects (n = 56; age 18–30 years) were randomized to a total sleep deprivation (TSD) or a rested control (RC) condition. Subjects rated their affective state and performed a 1 and a 3-back WM task consisting of neutral, positive and negative pictures at 3 pm or 6 pm (balanced) the day after sleep manipulation. Accuracy (d’) and target response time (RT) were used as outcomes. Results: In the TSD condition, subjects rated themselves as less positive (P = 0.006) but not more negative than in the RC condition. In the WM task, TSD had a detrimental effect on accuracy (P = 0.03) regardless of difficulty. Moreover, accuracy was higher in the 1-back than in the 3-back (P < 0.001) and higher for neutral compared to both negative and positive stimuli (Ps < 0.05). RT was faster for positive compared to negative and neutral stimuli (Ps < 0.05). The latter effect was particularly pronounced in the TSD condition as shown by a condition*valence interaction (P < 0.03). Conclusions: One night of total sleep loss impaired emotional WM accuracy. Noticeable, RT was faster for positive stimuli compared to negative and neutral stimuli. This effect was particularly pronounced after sleep loss. This suggests that sleep loss strengthens the opposing effects of positive and negative stimuli on WM performance, possibly due to increased emotion reactivity.

  • 7.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory2019Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 28, nr 1, artikel-id e12744Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emotional dysregulation and impaired working memory found after sleep loss can have severe implications for our daily functioning. Considering the intertwined relationship between emotion and cognition in stimuli processing, there could be further implications of sleep deprivation in high‐complex emotional situations. Although studied separately, this interaction between emotion and cognitive processes has been neglected in sleep research. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 1 night of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory. Sixty‐one healthy participants (mean age: 23.4 years) were either sleep deprived for 1 night (n = 30) or had a normal night’s sleep (n = 31). They performed an N‐back task with two levels of working memory load (1‐back and 3‐back) using positive, neutral and negative picture scenes. Sleep deprivation, compared with full night sleep, impaired emotional working memory accuracy, but not reaction times. The sleep‐deprived participants, but not the controls, responded faster to positive than to negative and neutral pictures. The effect of sleep deprivation was similar for both high and low working memory loads. The results showed that although detrimental in terms of accuracy, sleep deprivation did not impair working memory speed. In fact, our findings indicate that positive stimuli may facilitate working memory processing speed after sleep deprivation.

  • 8.
    Nilsonne, G.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, S.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, J.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Almeida, R.
    Fischer, H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, G.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, M.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fransson, P.
    Åkerstedt, T.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Increased global FMRI signal variability after partial sleep deprivation: Findings from the Stockholm sleepy brain study2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Neural correlates of sleep deprivation are not fully understood and the difference between young and older adults in this regard has received little attention. We aimed to investigate the effect of partial sleep deprivation on resting state connectivity.

    Methods: 30 younger (20–30 years) and 23 older (65–75 years) healthy participants underwent MR imaging after normal sleep and partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep). We acquired two runs of eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance images. Participants were monitored with eye-tracking to ensure their eyes remained open during scanning.

    Results: Global signal variability, defined as log-transformed standard deviation of average gray matter signal, was increased following partial sleep deprivation (0.16 [0.07, 0.24], p = 0.0004). In contrast to previous studies, we did not find that partial sleep deprivation inhibited connectivity in the default mode network, nor in other major networks investigated.

    Conclusion: Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. This novel finding should be confirmed using independent data. Our finding of no difference in default mode connectivity in the sleep deprived state, could possibly be due to stricter monitoring of participants’ wakefulness compared to some earlier studies.

  • 9.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Frida M.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on self-rated health and sickness2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Detection of facial mimicry by electromyography during fMRI scanning2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether electromyography (EMG) could be used to detect facial mimicry during fMRI scanning.

    EMG activity in the superciliary corrugator muscle increased when participants viewed angry faces.

  • 11.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Petrovic, P
    Fischer, H
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Petrovic, P
    Fischer, Håkan
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Almeida, Rita
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fransson, Peter
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Intrinsic brain connectivity after partial sleep deprivation in young and older adults2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation has been reported to affect intrinsic brain connectivity, notably in the default mode network, but studies to date have shown inconsistent effects and have largely included young participants. We therefore aimed to investigate effects of partial sleep deprivation on intrinsic brain connectivity in young and older participants. Methods: Participants aged 20-30 (n = 30) and 65-75 (n = 23) years underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep) in a cross-over design, with two eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) runs in each session. We assessed intrinsic brain connectivity using independent components analysis (ICA) as well as seed-region analyses of functional connectivity, and also analysed global signal variability, regional homogeneity, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations. Participants were monitored with eye-tracking to ensure they did not fall asleep during scanning. Results: Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability, defined as log-transformed standard deviation of average gray matter signal (0.16 [0.07, 0.24], p = 0.0004). In contrast to previous studies, sleep deprivation did not cause major changes in investigated resting state networks, nor did it cause changes in regional homogeneity. Younger participants had higher functional connectivity in most examined resting state networks, as well as higher regional homogeneity in brain areas including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions: We show for the first time that partial sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. This outcome should be examined as a potential biomarker for sleepiness using independent data. Unlike a few earlier studies, we did not find less default mode connectivity in the sleep deprived state, possibly because of stricter monitoring of participants' wakefulness.

  • 14.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Almeida, Rita
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Fransson, Peter
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Intrinsic brain connectivity after partial sleep deprivation in young and older adults: results from the Stockholm Sleepy Brain study2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 9422Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep deprivation has been reported to affect intrinsic brain connectivity, notably reducing connectivity in the default mode network. Studies to date have however shown inconsistent effects, in many cases lacked monitoring of wakefulness, and largely included young participants. We investigated effects of sleep deprivation on intrinsic brain connectivity in young and older participants. Participants aged 20–30 (final n = 30) and 65–75 (final n = 23) years underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep) in a cross-over design, with two 8-minutes eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) runs in each session, monitored by eye-tracking. We assessed intrinsic brain connectivity using independent components analysis (ICA) as well as seed-region analyses of functional connectivity, and also analysed global signal variability, regional homogeneity, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations. Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. Changes in investigated resting state networks and in regional homogeneity were not statistically significant. Younger participants had higher connectivity in most examined networks, as well as higher regional homogeneity in areas including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. In conclusion, we found that sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability, and we speculate that this may be caused by wake-state instability.

  • 15. Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.
    et al.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Quested, Eleanor
    Cumming, Jennifer
    Aujla, Imogen J.
    Redding, Emma
    Within- and between-person predictors of disordered eating attitudes among male and female dancers: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2016Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 27, s. 101-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This longitudinal study examined potential predictors of disordered eating attitudes (DEA) for male and female dancers, with a particular focus on whether environmental predictors (perceptions of task- and ego-involving motivational climate) added significantly to the prediction made by intrapersonal predictor variables (demographics/training, self-esteem, perfectionism).

    Methods and Design: Young dancers (N = 597, 73.4% female, M = 14.69 years old, SD = 2.04) from UK Centres for Advanced Training completed questionnaires 1-5 times over a two-year period, depending on how long they were enrolled at their centre. Multilevel modelling was employed to examine both between- and within-person predictors of DEA.

    Results: For females, lower self-esteem and higher perfectionistic concerns were significant between person predictors of DEA. Increased levels of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns were significant within-person predictors. For males, increased perfectionistic concerns and perceptions of the motivational climate as more task- and ego-involving were significant between-person predictors of DEA. No significant within-person predictors emerged.

    Conclusions: Findings contribute to the literature on DEA in aesthetic activities and the debate concerning the (mal-)adaptiveness of perfectionistic strivings. They also raise questions about how environmental aspects should best be conceptualized and measured in studies of this type. In particular, however, results demonstrate that the predictors of DEA among males and females may not be the same, and suggest that future interventions may therefore need to be sex-specific.

  • 16.
    Schraml, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Perski, Aleksander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The role of social jetlag and stress in academic achievement among adolescentsArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Mood impairment is stronger in young than in older adults after sleep deprivation2019Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 28, nr 4, artikel-id e12801Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep deprivation commonly impairs affective regulation and causes worse mood. However, the majority of previous research concerns young adults. Because susceptibility to sleep deprivation and emotion regulation change distinctively across adult age, we tested here the hypothesis that the effect of sleep deprivation on mood is stronger in young than in older adults. In an experimental design, young (18–30 years) and older adults (60–72 years) participated in either a sleep control (young, n = 63; older, n = 47) or a total sleep deprivation condition (young, n = 61; older, n = 47). Sleepiness, mood and common symptoms of sleep deprivation were measured using established questionnaires and ratings. Sleep‐deprived participants felt more sleepy, stressed and cold, and reported lower vigour and positive affect, regardless of age. All the other outcome measures (negative affect, depression, confusion, tension, anger, fatigue, total mood disturbance, hunger, cognitive attenuation, irritability) showed a weaker response to sleep deprivation in the older group, as indicated by age*sleep deprivation interactions (ps < 0.05). The results show that older adults are emotionally less affected by sleep deprivation than young adults. This tolerance was mainly related to an attenuated increase in negative mood. This could possibly be related to the well‐known positivity effect, which suggests that older adults prioritize regulating their emotions to optimize well‐being. The results also highlight that caution is warranted when generalizing results from sleep deprivation studies across the adult lifespan.

  • 18.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Freidle, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sleep in everyday life – relationship to mood and performance in young and older adults: a study protocol2023Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, artikel-id 1264881Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory based sleep deprivation studies demonstrate that lack of sleep impairs well-being and performance ability, but suggest that these effects are mitigated in older adults. Yet, much less is known whether day-to-day variations of sleep have similar consequences in the context of everyday life. This project uses an intensive longitudinal design to investigate the occurrence of day-to-day variations in sleep and their impact on mood and performance in everyday life and to examine whether effects differ between young and older adults. We aim to include 160 young (18–30 years) and 160 older adults (55–75 years) to complete a 21-day experience sampling method (ESM) protocol. During the ESM period, participants are asked to fill in (i) a brief morning questionnaire, (ii) 8 short daytime questionnaires addressing momentary well-being, sleepiness, stress, and mind wandering, followed by a 1 min cognitive task and (iii) a brief evening questionnaire, all delivered via a mobile phone application. Sleep will be measured using self-reports (daily questions) and objectively with wrist actigraphy. The impact of adult age on mean levels and intraindividual variability of sleep will be analyzed using mixed-effects location scale models. The impact of sleep on daily cognitive performance will be analyzed using multilevel linear mixed models. The relationship of sleep to mean values and variability of positive and negative affect in young and older adults will be analyzed using mixed-effects location scale modeling. The overarching purpose of the project is improving the current knowledge on the occurrence of day-to-day variations in sleep and their relationship to performance as well as positive and negative affect in young and older adults.

  • 19.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. University of Regensburg, Germany.
    Geisler, Peter
    Hajak, Göran
    Zulley, Jürgen
    Rupprecht, Rainer
    Wetter, Thomas C.
    Popp, Roland F. J.
    The effect of partial sleep deprivation on computer-based measures of fitness to drive2016Ingår i: Sleep and Breathing, ISSN 1520-9512, E-ISSN 1522-1709, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 285-292Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Using a partial sleep deprivation paradigm, the aim of the study was to investigate the sensitivity of a computer-based test battery of fitness to drive to detect impairments related to sleepiness.

    METHODS: Forty-seven healthy subjects (34 females, mean age 26.0 ± 6.8 years) participated in a counterbalanced within-subject design of two conditions: (i) normal night sleep and (ii) partial sleep deprivation (PSD) with 4 h time in bed. For the assessment of fitness to drive, we used a validated traffic psychological test battery. Moreover, well-established measures of sleepiness highly responsive to sleep deprivation were applied: the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), pupillography (Pupil Unrest Index (PUI) as physiological sleepiness indicator) and two sustained attention tasks (psychomotor Vigilance Task and Mackworth Clock Test).

    RESULTS: Subjective and physiological sleepiness were significantly increased after PSD, accompanied by large (d > 1.50 for KSS) and medium (d = 0.55 for PUI) effect sizes. Sleepiness-related performance decrements were found in both sustained attention tasks (d = 0.59-0.77). Assessing driving-related ability, PSD induced decrements only in the test domain Reaction Test (reaction time d = 0.54 and motor time d = 0.45). All other subtests-as well as the overall judgement of fitness to drive-were not significantly affected by PSD.

    CONCLUSION: In contrast to established tests of sustained attention and subjective sleepiness, computer-based test batteries of fitness to drive might lack sensitivity to core aspects of sleepiness as they mainly consist of short and stimulating subtests. Therefore, tasks that require sustained attention should be an essential part of traffic psychological test batteries when sleepiness is a potential issue.

  • 20.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fors, Carina
    Anund, Anna
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Taillard, Jacques
    Phillip, Pierre
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    In-car countermeasures open window and music revisited on the real road: popular but hardly effective against driver sleepiness2012Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 595-599Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of two very commonly used countermeasures against driver sleepiness, opening the window and listening to music, on subjective and physiological sleepiness measures during real road driving. In total, 24 individuals participated in the study. Sixteen participants received intermittent 10-min intervals of: (i) open window (2 cm opened); and (ii) listening to music, during both day and night driving on an open motorway. Both subjective sleepiness and physiological sleepiness (blink duration) was estimated to be significantly reduced when subjects listened to music, but the effect was only minor compared with the pronounced effects of night driving and driving duration. Open window had no attenuating effect on either sleepiness measure. No significant long-term effects beyond the actual countermeasure application intervals occurred, as shown by comparison to the control group (n = 8). Thus, despite their popularity, opening the window and listening to music cannot be recommended as sole countermeasures against driver sleepiness.

  • 21.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lindberg, E
    Gruber, G
    Fischer, Håkan
    Theorell-Hagloew, J
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of age on the macro- and microstructure of sleep in women2014Ingår i: Journal of sleep research, Special issue: abstracts of the 22nd Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, 16–20 September 2014, Tallinn, Estonia, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, s. 149-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Eva
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sleep as a means of recovery and restitution in women: the relation with psychosocial stress and health2014Ingår i: Psychosocial Stress and Cardiovascular Disease in Women / [ed] Kristina Orth-Gomer, Springer, 2014, s. 107-127Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University of Regensburg, Germany.
    Popp, Roland
    Haas, Jessica
    Zulley, Jürgen
    Geisler, Peter
    Alpers, Georg W.
    Osterheider, Michael
    Eisenbarth, Hedwig
    Shortened night sleep impairs facial responsiveness to emotional stimuli2013Ingår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 93, nr 1, s. 41-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep deprivation deteriorates mood, impairs the recognition of facial expressions, and affects the ability to regulate emotions. The present study investigated the effect of partial sleep deprivation on facial responses to emotional stimuli. Thirty-three healthy undergraduates were tested twice: after a night with (i) 8h and (ii) 4h sleep. Self-reported sleepiness and sustained attention (Psychomotor Vigilance Task) were assessed. Emotional reactivity was measured with facial Electromyogram (EMG) while participants were asked to respond with either compatible or incompatible facial muscles to emotional stimuli in order to study whether partial sleep deprivation caused slower reactions mainly in response to incompatible stimuli (due to an additional effort to suppress the compatible reaction caused by decreased inhibitory control) or in response to both compatible and incompatible stimuli. Self-reported sleepiness and reaction times in a sustained attention task significantly increased after one night of partial sleep deprivation. Facial reactions to emotional stimuli were decelerated. No significant interaction between sleep restriction and compatibility of the muscle to the picture valence could be observed. Hence, volitional facial reactions in response to emotional stimuli were slower after one night of reduced sleep, but affective inhibitory control was not significantly impaired. However, slowed facial responding to emotional stimuli may affect social interaction after sleep restriction.

  • 24.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lindberg, E.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Theorell-Haglöw, J.
    Sleep length misperception and its association to subjective sleep quality and objective sleep duration in a large sample of women2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Eva
    Gruber, Georg
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny
    Age affects sleep microstructure more than sleep macrostructure2017Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 277-287Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that the quantity and quality of physiological sleep changes across age. However, so far the effect of age on sleep microstructure has been mostly addressed in small samples. The current study examines the effect of age on several measures of sleep macro- and microstructure in 211 women (22–71 years old) of the ‘Sleep and Health in Women’ study for whom ambulatory polysomnography was registered. Older age was associated with significantly lower fast spindle (effect size f2 = 0.32) and K-complex density (f2 = 0.19) during N2 sleep, as well as slow-wave activity (log) in N3 sleep (f2 = 0.21). Moreover, total sleep time (f2 = 0.10), N3 sleep (min) (f2 = 0.10), rapid eye movement sleep (min) (f2 = 0.11) and sigma (log) (f2 = 0.05) and slow-wave activity (log) during non-rapid eye movement sleep (f2 = 0.09) were reduced, and N1 sleep (f2 = 0.03) was increased in older age. No significant effects of age were observed on slow spindle density, rapid eye movement density and beta power (log) during non-rapid eye movement sleep. In conclusion, effect sizes indicate that traditional sleep stage scoring may underestimate age-related changes in sleep.

  • 26.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Age-dependent effects of sleep deprivation on task performance and mind wandering2017Ingår i: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 40, nr Suppl. 1, artikel-id e297Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Mind wandering, the drift of attention from the current task at hand to self-generated thought is commonly associated with poorer performance, and could be a potential pathway through which sleep deprivation affects performance. Little is known about this, however. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to address the effect of sleep deprivation on mind wandering and performance in a sustained attention task. In addition, we studied age as moderating factor, since older individuals are generally less prone to mind wandering.

    Materials and methods: Healthy young (18-30years) and older (60-72years) subjects participated in either a normal night sleep (NSD) or a total sleep deprivation (SD) condition, i.e. 4 conditions: NSD (n=31), SD (n=30), NSDold (n = 24), SDold (n= 24). Performance was measured using the Sustained Attention to Response Task, during which 10 thought probes were included that prompted the subjects to answer a question on what they were you just thinking about, using predefined answer alternatives. Mind wandering was quantified as occurrence of task-unrelated thoughts.

    Results: Applying a 2 (age) X 2 (sleep deprivation) ANOVA, significant main effects for sleep deprivation and age were observed for omissions, indicating worse performance after sleep deprivation and in young participants (p's < .05). These main effects were dominated by an age*sleep deprivation interaction (p = .04), which was due to sleep deprivation causing significantly more omission errors in young subjects (Mean ±SEM; NSD: 2.3 ±0.9; SD: 13.1 ±4.1) but not in older subjects (NSDold: 1.9 ±0.4; SDold: 2.8 ±0.9).

    Likewise, main and interaction effects for age and sleep deprivation were significant for task-unrelated thoughts (p's < 0.01). Task unrelated thoughts were significantly more frequent after sleep loss in young (NSD: 1.5 ±0.2; SD: 4.3 ±0.6), but not older subjects (NSDold: 0.3 ±0.2; SDold: 0.5 ±0.2) (interaction age*sleep deprivation p < .01). Young subjects had significantly more task-unrelated thoughts than older, regardless of sleep condition.

    Task-unrelated thoughts correlated with errors of omission (r = 0.65, p < .001). Also, including task unrelated thoughts as covariate in the age * sleep deprivation ANOVA, main and interactions effect of age and sleep deprivation were no longer significant.

    Reaction time was significantly slower in older adults, but no main or interaction effect of sleep deprivation occurred. Errors of commission were not affected by condition.

    Conclusions: The results show that sleep deprivation caused both mind wandering and poorer task performance in young but not older participants. In addition, mind wandering rates correlated with errors of omission, which may indicate that a diminished ability to shut down off-task thoughts after sleep deprivation could be an important pathway to performance decrements after sleep loss. In line with previous research, mind wandering appears to occur less frequently in older individuals compared with younger. This lower occurrence of mind wandering in older subjects may potentially enable them to better maintain performance after sleep deprivation and partially explain the higher resilience of older adults to sleep deprivation.

  • 27.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Van Leeuwen, Wessel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The effect of sleep loss on the response to acute psychosocial stress in young and elderly2016Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 25(S1), s. 48-48, artikel-id 245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Both sleep loss and social stress are risk factors for health and performance ability. It is assumed that sleep and stress are bidirectional linked, but most of the previous research has focused on studying sleep problems as consequence of stress. We believe that it is important to improve our understanding of the reverse connection, which is less studied. This presentation will cover recent experimental human studies that have investigated how sleep loss affects stress responses and whether it makes individuals more vulnerable to psychosocial stress. A study by Minkel et al. (Health Psychology, 2014) reported that the cortisol response to an acute stress situation was increased after sleep deprivation compared with a control condition indicating a more pronounced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. I will also present recently collected data from young (18–30 years) and older (60–72 years) subjects that participated in four conditions (between subject design):

    (i) normal night sleep.

    (ii) normal night sleep & acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test).

    (iii) total sleep deprivation.

    (iv) total sleep deprivation & acute stress.

    The presentation thus provides state of the art knowledge of the link between sleep loss and vulnerability to stress.

  • 28.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ericson, Mats
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Does sleep deprivation increase the vulnerability to acute psychosocial stress in young and older adults?2018Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 96, s. 155-165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep loss and psychosocial stress often co-occur in today’s society, but there is limited knowledge on the combined effects. Therefore, this experimental study investigated whether one night of sleep deprivation affects the response to a psychosocial challenge. A second aim was to examine if older adults, who may be less affected by both sleep deprivation and stress, react differently than young adults. 124 young (18–30 years) and 94 older (60–72 years) healthy adults participated in one of four conditions: i. normal night sleep & Placebo-Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), ii. normal night sleep & Trier Social Stress Test, iii. sleep deprivation & Placebo-TSST, iv. sleep deprivation & TSST. Subjective stress ratings, heart rate variability (HRV), salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and cortisol were measured throughout the protocol. At the baseline pre-stress measurement, salivary cortisol and subjective stress values were higher in sleep deprived than in rested participants. However, the reactivity to and recovery from the TSST was not significantly different after sleep deprivation for any of the outcome measures. Older adults showed higher subjective stress, higher sAA and lower HRV at baseline, indicating increased basal autonomic activity. Cortisol trajectories and HRV slightly differed in older adults compared with younger adults (regardless of the TSST). Moreover, age did not moderate the effect of sleep deprivation. Taken together, the results show increased stress levels after sleep deprivation, but do not confirm the assumption that one night of sleep deprivation increases the responsivity to an acute psychosocial challenge.

  • 29.
    Sundelin, Tina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; New York University, USA.
    Bayard, Frida
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Cybulski, Lukasz
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Framing effect, probability distortion, and gambling tendency without feedback are resistant to two nights of experimental sleep restriction2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikel-id 8554Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies suggest that sleep deprivation affects risky decision making. However, most of these are confounded by feedback given after each decision, indicating that decisions may be based on suboptimal feedback-learning rather than risk evaluation. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of sleep loss on aspects of prospect theory, specifically the framing effect and probability distortion. In this within-subjects design, 25 people had (i) two nights of an 8 h sleep opportunity, and (ii) two nights of a 4 h sleep opportunity, in a counter-balanced order. Following the two nights, they performed a gambling task with no immediate feedback; for each round, they could either gamble for a full amount, or take a settlement framed as a gain or a loss for part of the amount. Sleep restriction did not significantly affect the tendency to gamble, the framing effect, or probability distortion, as compared to normal sleep. These results indicate that two nights of sleep restriction affects neither general gambling tendency, nor two of the main predictions of prospect theory. This resilience may be due to a less extreme sleep loss than in previous studies, but also indicates that learning components and risk biases should be separated when assessing the effect of sleep loss on risky behaviour.

  • 30.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Petrovic, P
    Fischer, H
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment.2014Ingår i: SFSS (Svensk Förening för Sömnforskning och Sömnmedicin) Årskongress 5-7 Maj 2014, Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm: Svensk förening för sömnforskning och sömnmedicin , 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Petrovic, P.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Golkar, Armita
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sleep restriction caused impaired emotional regulation without detectable brain activation changes—a functional magnetic resonance imaging study2019Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, nr 3, artikel-id 181704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep restriction has been proposed to cause impaired emotional processing and emotional regulation by inhibiting top-down control from prefrontal cortex to amygdala. Intentional emotional regulation after sleep restriction has, however, never been studied using brain imaging. We aimed here to investigate the effect of partial sleep restriction on emotional regulation through cognitive reappraisal. Forty-seven young (age 20–30) and 33 older (age 65–75) participants (38/23 with complete data and successful sleep intervention) performed a cognitive reappraisal task during fMRI after a night of normal sleep and after restricted sleep (3 h). Emotional downregulation was associated with significantly increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (pFWE < 0.05) and lateral orbital cortex (pFWE < 0.05) in young, but not in older subjects. Sleep restriction was associated with a decrease in self-reported regulation success to negative stimuli (p< 0.01) and a trend towards perceiving all stimuli as less negative (p = 0.07) in young participants. No effects of sleep restriction on brain activity nor connectivity were found in either age group. In conclusion, our data do not support the idea of a prefrontal-amygdala disconnect after sleep restriction, and neural mechanisms underlying behavioural effects on emotional regulation after insufficient sleep require further investigation.

  • 33. Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lamm, Claus
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    It hurts me too – an fMRI study of the effects of sleep restriction and age on empathy for pain2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Many emotional processes are affected by sleep restriction (Beattie et al. 2015). Whether this is likewise true for social emotions, such as empathy, is not known. Empathy for pain has previously been studied using paradigms where subjects are presented with pain in others or pictures of pain in others. These paradigms consistently activated areas in the anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. Aging affects both sleep (Vitiello 2012) and emotional functions (Mather 2012), but whether the role of sleep in emotional functioning is stable across age is not known. This study aims to investigate how neural and behavioral responses to pain in others are affected by sleep restriction and age, and whether age modulates the role of sleep in responses to pain in others.

    Methods: In a randomized cross-over experimental design, 47 healthy younger (age: 20-30) and 39 older (age: 65-75) volunteers underwent fMRI twice, after either normal sleep or sleep restricted to 3 hours. In an event-related fMRI task, participants viewed pictures of needles pricking a hand (pain condition) or Q-tips touching a hand (control condition), and reported their vicarious unpleasantness. Preprocessing and analyses were performed in SPM12 and included slice time correction, realignment, DARTEL normalization and smoothing with an 8x8x8 FWHM kernel. First level analyses included fixed effects for events, motion parameters and button presses. At second level a full factorial design was applied. Additional region of interest analyses were performed in anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex.

    Results: The contrast pain > control robustly activated anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula (FWE p < 0.05, fig 1) as well as other areas previously proposed as the core empathy for pain network (Lamm et al. 2011). Older participants generally experienced more unpleasantness in response to pictures of pain compared to younger participants (p < 0.001), and this was accompanied by higher activity in bilateral angular gyrus (FWE p < 0.05). Age and sleep interacted so that sleep restriction caused decreased unpleasantness in young and increased unpleasantness in old to pain stimuli (p < 0.01), even though there was no significant simple main effect of sleep restriction in any age group. In clusters in bilateral insula, old participants showed more activity and young less activity in response to pain after sleep restriction (p < 0.001 uncorrected).

    Conclusions: Compared to younger participants, older subjects generally responded more to pain in others, shown as subjective experience as well as brain responses. With sleep restriction, empathic responses in young and old changed in opposite directions, so that empathic responses increased in older and decreased in younger participants. Given that empathy is crucial in effective interaction with others, our findings imply possible age-related changes in prosocial behavior, amplified by short sleep.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilssone, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lamm, Claus
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud Universiteit, Netherlands.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The effect of sleep restriction on empathy for pain: An fMRI study in younger and older adults2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 12236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Age and sleep both affect emotional functioning. Since sleep patterns change over the lifespan, we investigated the effects of short sleep and age on empathic responses. In a randomized cross-over experimental design, healthy young and older volunteers (n = 47 aged 20–30 years and n = 39 aged 65–75 years) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after normal sleep or night sleep restricted to 3 hours. During fMRI, participants viewed pictures of needles pricking a hand (pain) or Q-tips touching a hand (control), a well-established paradigm to investigate empathy for pain. There was no main effect of sleep restriction on empathy. However, age and sleep interacted so that sleep restriction caused increased unpleasantness in older but not in young participants. Irrespective of sleep condition, older participants showed increased activity in angular gyrus, superior temporal sulcus and temporo-parietal junction compared to young. Speculatively, this could indicate that the older individuals adopted a more cognitive approach in response to others’ pain. Our findings suggest that caution in generalizability across age groups is needed in further studies of sleep on social cognition and emotion.

  • 35.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm .
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    A combined fMRI and EMG study of emotional contagion following partial sleep deprivation in young and older humans2020Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 17944Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep deprivation is proposed to inhibit top-down-control in emotion processing, but it is unclear whether sleep deprivation affects emotional mimicry and contagion. Here, we aimed to investigate effects of partial sleep deprivation on emotional contagion and mimicry in young and older humans. Participants underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep opportunity at the end of night), crossed-over with a full sleep condition in a balanced order, followed by a functional magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography (EMG) experiment with viewing of emotional and neutral faces and ratings of emotional responses. The final sample for main analyses was n = 69 (n = 36 aged 20–30 years, n = 33 aged 65–75 years). Partial sleep deprivation caused decreased activation in fusiform gyri for angry faces and decreased ratings of happiness for all stimuli, but no significant effect on the amygdala. Older participants reported more anger compared to younger participants, but no age differences were seen in brain responses to emotional faces or sensitivity to partial sleep deprivation. No effect of the sleep manipulation was seen on EMG. In conclusion, emotional contagion, but not mimicry, was affected by sleep deprivation. Our results are consistent with the previously reported increased negativity bias after insufficient sleep.

    The Stockholm sleepy brain study: effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive and emotional processing in young and old. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02000076.

  • 36. Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Eva
    Predictors for Development of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Women: A Population-Based 10-Year Follow-Up2015Ingår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, nr 12, s. 1995-2002Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives:

    To analyze predictors of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and to analyze how changes within risk factors over time predict incident EDS in women.

    Design:

    Population-based prospective study.

    Setting:

    General population of the City of Uppsala, Sweden.

    Participants:

    From a random, general population sample of 7,051 women from the Sleep and HEalth in women (“SHE”) cohort, 4,322 women without EDS at baseline were followed up after 10 y.

    Interventions:

    N/A.

    Measurements and Results:

    At baseline and follow-up, women answered a questionnaire on sleeping habits, somatic disease, obesity, insomnia, anxiety and depression, lifestyle, and social factors. The risk of incident EDS was analyzed from changes over time in risk factors using logistic regression modeling. Of the women, EDS developed in 7.9%. Incident: insomnia (adjusted odds ratio = 5.01; 95% confidence interval 3.63–6.92), anxiety and/or depression (3.34; 2.22–5.02), somatic disease (1.73; 1.17–2.55), obesity (1.91; 1.14–2.57), snoring (1.91; 1.17–3.10) and smoking (4.31; 1.95–9.54) were all independent risk factors for the development of EDS. In addition, persistent: insomnia (4.44; 2.97–6.65) and anxiety and/or depression (4.91; 3.17–7.62) increased the risk of developing EDS. Apart from incident: snoring and obesity, similar results were obtained when only including women without somatic disease in the analyses.

    Conclusion:

    Insomnia, anxiety and/or depression, and smoking were the most important factors for predicting incident excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and, in addition, somatic disease, obesity, and snoring predicted EDS. It is important not only to treat these conditions but also to inform women of the importance of a healthy lifestyle in order to prevent and reduce EDS in women.

  • 37.
    Thuné, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effects of partial sleep deprivation on the neural mechanisms of face perception2014Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, Special issue: abstracts of the 22nd Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, 16–20 September 2014, Tallinn, Estonia, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, s. 245-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Gruber, Georg
    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny
    Lindberg, Eva
    Short sleep-poor sleep? A polysomnographic study in a large population-based sample of women2019Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 28, nr 4, artikel-id e12812Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of studies on the association between total sleep time (TST) and other polysomnographical parameters. A key question is whether a short sleep is an expression of habitual short sleep, or whether it reflects temporary impairment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between TST and amount of sleep stages and sleep continuity measures, in a large population-based sample of women (n = 385), sleeping at home in a normal daily life setting. The results show that sleep efficiency, N1 (min), N2 (min), REM (min), REM% and proportion of long sleep segments, increased with increasing TST, whereas the number of awakenings/hr, the number of arousals/hr, N1% and REM intensity decreased. In addition, longer sleep was more associated with TST being perceived as of usual duration and with better subjective sleep quality. TST was not associated with habitual reported sleep duration. It was concluded that short TST of a recorded sleep in a real-life context may be an indicator of poor objective sleep quality for that particular sleep episode. Because individuals clearly perceived this reduction, it appears that self-reports of poor sleep quality often may be seen as indicators of poor sleep quality. It is also concluded that PSG-recorded sleep duration does not reflect habitual reported sleep duration in the present real-life context.

  • 39.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hallvig, David
    Anund, Anna
    Fors, Carina
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Having to stop driving at night because of dangerous sleepiness - awareness, physiology and behaviour2013Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 380-388Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of accidents are due to the driver falling asleep at the wheel, but details of this link have not been studied on a real road. The purpose of the present study was to describe the development of sleepiness indicators, leading to the drive being terminated prematurely by the onboard expert driving instructor because of imminent danger. Eighteen individuals participated during a day drive and a night drive on a motorway (both 90 min). Eight drivers terminated (N) prematurely (after 43 min) because of sleep-related imminent danger [according to the driving instructor or their own judgement (two cases)]. The results showed very high sleepiness ratings (8.5 units on the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) immediately before termination (<7 at a similar time interval for those 10 who completed the drive). Group N also showed significantly higher levels of sleep intrusions on the electroencephalography/electro-oculography (EEG/EOG) than those who completed the drive (group C). The sleep intrusions were increased in group N during the first 40 min of the night drive. During the day drive, sleep intrusions were increased significantly in group N. The night drive showed significant increases of all sleepiness indicators compared to the day drive, but also reduced speed and driving to the left in the lane. It was concluded that 44% of drivers during late-night driving became dangerously sleepy, and that this group showed higher perceived sleepiness and more sleep intrusions in the EEG/EOG.

  • 40.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    d'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Gruber, G.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Women sleep better and have a stronger response to late night curtailed sleep than men, particularly in older individuals - effects on polysomnographical sleep2016Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 25, s. 156-156, artikel-id P206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Higher age is associated with poorer sleep and women report more sleep problems than men, despite indications of better physiological sleep. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether a common daily life sleep problem, late night curtailed sleep, would have different effects depending on gender and age. Methods: 60 healthy individuals (equal groups of gender and age (20–30 and 65–75 years)) participated in an experiment with a full night’s sleep and one night with reduced sleep between 0400 h and 0700 h, in a balanced design. Sleep was recorded through standard polysomnography (PSG) at home. Results: The results showed the expected main effect of sleep loss. Older participants had a lower TST, N3%, sleep efficiency, but more N1%, longer N3 latency, and fewer awakenings. Women had more N3%, more REM%, more N3%, and shorter N3 latency compared with men. The curtailed late night sleep caused a stronger increase in N3%, and more pronounced reductions in REM%, a stronger reduction in N1%, and N3 latency in women than men. In the higher age group the N3% response in men was strongly attenuated compared to that of women. Conclusions: The results show that women, apart form getting more N3% and less N1% even in the normal sleep condition, have a stronger response to late night sleep, particularly in higher age groups.

  • 41.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    D'onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Effects of late-night short-sleep on in-home polysomnography: relation to adult age and sex2018Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 27, nr 4, artikel-id e12626Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bedtime is frequently delayed by many factors in life, and a homeostatic response to the delay may compensate partly for increased time awake and shortened sleep. Because sleep becomes shorter with age and women complain of disturbed sleep more often than men, age and sex differences in the homeostatic response to a delayed bedtime may modify the homeostatic response. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of late-night short-sleep (3 h with awakening at about 07:00 hours) on in-home recorded sleep in men and women in two age groups (20-30 and 65-75 years). Results (N = 59) showed that late-night short-sleep was associated with an increase in percentage of N3 sleep and a decrease in percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, as well as decreases in several measures of sleep discontinuity and rapid eye movement density. Men showed a smaller decrease in percentage of rapid eye movement sleep than women in response to late-night short-sleep, as did older individuals of both sexes compared with younger. Older men showed a weaker percentage of N3 sleep in response to late-night short-sleep than younger men. In general, men showed a greater percentage of rapid eye movement sleep and a lower percentage of N3 sleep than women, and older individuals showed a lower percentage of N3 sleep than younger. In particular, older men showed very low levels of percentage of N3 sleep. We conclude that older males show less of a homeostatic response to late-night short-sleep. This may be an indication of impaired capacity for recovery in older men. Future studies should investigate if this pattern can be linked to gender-associated differences in morbidity and mortality.

  • 42.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    d'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Månsson, Kristoffer NT
    Gray Matter Volume Correlates of Sleepiness: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Younger and Older Adults2020Ingår i: Nature and Science of Sleep, ISSN 1179-1608, Vol. 12, s. 289-298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjectively experienced sleepiness is a problem in society, possibly linked with gray matter (GM) volume. Given a different sleep pattern, aging may affect such associations, possibly due to shrinking brain volume.

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between subjectively rated sleepiness and GM volume in thalamus, insula, hippocampus, and orbitofrontal cortex of young and older adults, after a normal night’s sleep.

    Methods: Eighty-four healthy individuals participated (46 aged 20– 30 years, and 38 aged 65– 75 years). Morphological brain data were collected in a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Sleepiness was rated multiple times during the imaging sessions.

    Results: In older, relative to younger, adults, clusters within bilateral mid-anterior insular cortex and right thalamus were negatively associated with sleepiness. Adjustment for the immediately preceding total sleep time eliminated the significant associations.

    Conclusion: Self-rated momentary sleepiness in a monotonous situation appears to be negatively associated with GM volume in clusters within both thalamus and insula in older individuals, and total sleep time seems to play a role in this association. Possibly, this suggests that larger GM volume in these clusters may be protective against sleepiness in older individuals. This notion needs confirmation in further studies.

  • 43.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lindberg, E
    Gruber, G
    Theorell-Haglöw, J
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    What does good sleep in terms of macro and microstructure of sleep in women and how does age affect this relation?2014Ingår i: Journal of sleep research, Special issue: 22nd Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, 16-20 September 2014, Tallinn, Estonia, 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny
    Lindberg, Eva
    What do women mean by poor sleep?: A large population-based sample with polysomnographical indicators, inflammation, fatigue, depression, and anxiety2023Ingår i: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 109, s. 219-225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Survey studies indicate that reports of disturbed sleep are prevalent and may be prospectively linked to several major diseases. However, it is not clear what self-reported disturbed sleep represents, since the link with objective sleep measures (polysomnography; PSG) seems very weak. The purpose of the present study was to try to investigate what combination of variables (PSG, inflammation, fatigue, anxiety, depression) that would characterize those who complain of disturbed sleep. This has never been done before. Participants were 319 women in a population-based sample, who gave ratings of sleep quality, fatigue, depression, and anxiety, then had their sleep recorded at home, and had blood drawn the following morning for analysis of immune parameters. Correlations and hierarchical multivariable regression analyses were applied to the data. For ratings of difficulties initiating sleep, the associations in the final step were ß = .22, (p < .001) for fatigue, ß = 0.22 (p < .001) for anxiety, and ß = 0.17 (p < .01) for sleep latency, with R2 = 0.14. The rating of repeated awakenings was associated with fatigue (ß = 0.35, p < .001) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (ß = 0.12, p < .05), with R2 = 0.19. The rating of early morning awakenings was associated with fatigue (ß = 0.31, p < .001), total sleep time (TST) (ß = −0.20, p < .01), and CRP (ß = 0.15, p < .05), with R2 = 0.17. Interleukin-6 and Tumour Necrosis Factor were not associated with ratings of sleep problems. The results indicate that subjective fatigue, rather than objective sleep variables, is central in the perception of poor sleep, together with CRP.

  • 45.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Gruber, Georg
    Lindberg, Eva
    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny
    The relation between polysomnography and subjective sleep and its dependence on age - poor sleep may become good sleep2016Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 565-570Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Women complain more about sleep than men, but polysomnography (PSG) seems to suggest worse sleep in men. This raises the question of how women (or men) perceive objective (PSG) sleep. The present study sought to investigate the relation between morning subjective sleep quality and PSG variables in older and younger women. A representative sample of 251 women was analysed in age groups above and below 51.5 years (median). PSG was recorded at home during one night. Perceived poor sleep was related to short total sleep time (TST), long wake within total sleep time (WTSP), low sleep efficiency and a high number of awakenings. The older women showed lower TST and sleep efficiency and higher WTSP for a rating of good sleep than did the younger women. For these PSG variables the values for good sleep in the older group were similar to the values for poor sleep in the young group. It was concluded that women perceive different levels of sleep duration, sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset relatively well, but that older women adjust their objective criteria for good sleep downwards. It was also concluded that age is an important factor in the relation between subjective and objective sleep.

  • 46.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Gruber, Georg
    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny
    Lindberg, Eva
    Women with both sleep problems and snoring show objective impairment of sleep2018Ingår i: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 51, s. 80-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Combined insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea has been the focus of considerable research with respect to its health effects. A related issue is whether sleep disturbances in combination with snoring might exert effects on objective sleep variables in the non-clinical general population. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the polysomnographical characteristics of individuals who had sought medical help for both disturbed sleep and for snoring. No previous work of this type has been carried out. Method: For this study we used a representative set of data of 384 women with one night of in-home PSG. We identified those individuals who had sought medical help for sleep problems (SL), individuals that had sought help for snoring (SN), as well as those that had sought help for either both (Combined), or for neither (Control). Results: Our results yielded an N of 46, 16, 21, and 301 individuals, respectively. A one-factor analysis of variance showed significant main effects on N1% (F = 10.2, p < 0.001), N3% (F = 2.7, p < 0.05), AHI/h (F = 5.5, p < 0.001), and a delta power measure (F = 3.8, p < 0.05). The combined group showed significantly higher levels than the other groups for N1% (29% vs < 21%), AHI/h (19/h vs < 10/h) and lower levels for N3%, and a measure of delta power. Reported sleep quality measures did not show the same pattern, since the highest/lowest value were found for either the group presenting snoring alone or sleep problems alone. Conclusion: We concluded that individuals who had sought help for both insomnia and snoring showed impaired sleep in terms of PSG and that this was not reflected in ratings of sleep or health. This suggests that simultaneous sleep disturbances and snoring may potentiate each other to cause impaired sleep, yet the mechanism still needs to be elucidated.

1 - 46 av 46
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf