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  • 1. Barrett, Scott
    et al.
    Dasgupta, Aisha
    Dasgupta, Partha
    Adger, W. Neil
    Anderies, John
    van den Bergh, Jeroen
    Bledsoe, Caroline
    Bongaarts, John
    Carpenter, Stephen
    Chapin, F. Stuart
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Daily, Gretchen
    Ehrlich, Paul
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lambin, Eric F.
    Levin, Simon A.
    Mäler, Karl-Göran
    Naylor, Rosamond
    Nyborg, Karine
    Polasky, Stephen
    Scheffer, Marten
    Shogren, Jason
    Søgaard Jørgensen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Walker, Brian
    Wilen, James
    Social dimensions of fertility behavior and consumption patterns in the Anthropocene2020In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 117, no 12, p. 6300-6307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider two aspects of the human enterprise that profoundly affect the global environment: population and consumption. We show that fertility and consumption behavior harbor a class of externalities that have not been much noted in the literature. Both are driven in part by attitudes and preferences that are not egoistic but socially embedded; that is, each household's decisions are influenced by the decisions made by others. In a famous paper, Garrett Hardin [G. Hardin, Science 162, 1243-1248 (1968)] drew attention to overpopulation and concluded that the solution lay in people abandoning the freedom to breed. That human attitudes and practices are socially embedded suggests that it is possible for people to reduce their fertility rates and consumption demands without experiencing a loss in wellbeing. We focus on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa and consumption in the rich world and argue that bottom-up social mechanisms rather than top-down government interventions are better placed to bring about those ecologically desirable changes.

  • 2.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mwandya, Augustine W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Yahya, Saleh A. S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring 'knowns' and 'unknowns' in tropical seascape connectivity with insights from East African coral reefs2012In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 107, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying a broader landscape perspective to understand spatio-temporal changes in local populations and communities has been increasingly used in terrestrial systems to study effects of human impact and land use change. With today’s major declines in fishery stocks and rapid degradation of natural coastal habitats, the understanding of habitat configuration and connectivity over relevant temporal and spatial scales is critical for conservation and fisheries management of the seascape. Coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves are key-components of the tropical seascape. The spatial distribution of these habitat-types may have strong influences on cross-habitat migration and connectivity patterns among organisms. However, the consequences of seascape fragmentation and ecological connectivity are largely unknown. Here, we review the literature to provide an overview of current knowledge with regards to connectivity and food-web interactions within the tropical seascape. We show that information on fish acting as mobile links and being part of nutrient transfer and trophic interactions is scarce. We continue by making an in-depth analysis of the seascape around Zanzibar (Eastern Africa) to fill some of the knowledge gaps identified by the literature survey. Our analysis shows that (i) fifty percent of all fish species found within the Zanzibar seascape use two or multiple habitat-types, (ii) eighteen percent of all coral reef-associated fish species use mangrove and seagrass beds as juvenile habitat, and (iii) macrocarnivores and herbivores are highly represented among those coral reef fish species that use mangrove and seagrass beds as juvenile habitat. We argue that understanding the inter-linkages within and between habitat-types is essential for successful management of the tropical seascape.

  • 3.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Engström, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Walker, Brian
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Sustainable Ecosystems, Australia.
    General Resilience to Cope with Extreme Events2012In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 4, no 12, p. 3248-3259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Resilience to specified kinds of disasters is an active area of research and practice. However, rare or unprecedented disturbances that are unusually intense or extensive require a more broad-spectrum type of resilience. General resilience is the capacity of social-ecological systems to adapt or transform in response to unfamiliar, unexpected and extreme shocks. Conditions that enable general resilience include diversity, modularity, openness, reserves, feedbacks, nestedness, monitoring, leadership, and trust. Processes for building general resilience are an emerging and crucially important area of research.

  • 4. Chapin III, F. Stuart
    et al.
    Weber, Elke U.
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    van den Bergh, Jeroen
    Adger, W. Neil
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Polasky, Stephen
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Scheffer, Marten
    Segerson, Kathleen
    Anderies, John M.
    Barrett, Scott
    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Fischer, Joern
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Levin, Simon A.
    Shogren, Jason F.
    Walker, Brian
    Wilen, James
    de Zeeuw, Aart
    Earth stewardship: Shaping a sustainable future through interacting policy and norm shifts2022In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, no 9, p. 1907-1920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformation toward a sustainable future requires an earth stewardship approach to shift society from its current goal of increasing material wealth to a vision of sustaining built, natural, human, and social capital—equitably distributed across society, within and among nations. Widespread concern about earth’s current trajectory and support for actions that would foster more sustainable pathways suggests potential social tipping points in public demand for an earth stewardship vision. Here, we draw on empirical studies and theory to show that movement toward a stewardship vision can be facilitated by changes in either policy incentives or social norms. Our novel contribution is to point out that both norms and incentives must change and can do so interactively. This can be facilitated through leverage points and complementarities across policy areas, based on values, system design, and agency. Potential catalysts include novel democratic institutions and engagement of non-governmental actors, such as businesses, civic leaders, and social movements as agents for redistribution of power. Because no single intervention will transform the world, a key challenge is to align actions to be synergistic, persistent, and scalable.

  • 5.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Social-ecological systems as complex adaptive systems: modeling and policy implications2013In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 111-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems linking people and nature, known as social-ecological systems, are increasingly understood as complex adaptive systems. Essential features of these complex adaptive systems – such as nonlinear feedbacks, strategic interactions, individual and spatial heterogeneity, and varying time scales – pose substantial challenges for modeling. However, ignoring these characteristics can distort our picture of how these systems work, causing policies to be less effective or even counterproductive. In this paper we present recent developments in modeling social-ecological systems, illustrate some of these challenges with examples related to coral reefs and grasslands, and identify the implications for economic and policy analysis.

  • 6.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Naturresurshushållning.
    Gräslund, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Huitric, Miriam
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lebel, L
    Feeding aquaculture growth through globalization: exploitation of marine ecosystems for fishmeal2007In: Global Environmental Change, Vol. 17, p. 238-249Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Eggertsen, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Federal University Fluminense, Brazil.
    Ferreira, Carlos E. L.
    Fontoura, Luisa
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Seaweed beds support more juvenile reef fish than seagrass beds in a south-western Atlantic tropical seascape2017In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 196, no 5, p. 97-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seascape connectivity is regarded essential for healthy reef fish communities in tropical shallow systems. A number of reef fish species use separate adult and nursery habitats, and hence contribute to nutrient and energy transfer between habitats. Seagrass beds and mangroves often constitute important nursery habitats, with high structural complexity and protection from predation. Here, we investigated if reef fish assemblages in the tropical south-western Atlantic demonstrate ontogenetic habitat connectivity and identify possible nurseries on three reef systems along the eastern Brazilian coast. Fish were surveyed in fore reef, back reef, Halodule wrightii seagrass beds and seaweed beds. Seagrass beds contained lower abundances and species richness of fish than expected, while Sargassum-dominated seaweed beds contained significantly more juveniles than all other habitats (average juvenile fish densities: 32.6 per 40 m2 in Sargassum beds, 11.2 per 40 m2 in back reef, 10.1 per 40 m2 in fore reef, and 5.04 per 40 m2 in seagrass beds), including several species that are found in the reef habitats as adults. Species that in other regions worldwide (e.g. the Caribbean) utilise seagrass beds as nursery habitats were here instead observed in Sargassum beds or back reef habitats. Coral cover was not correlated to adult fish distribution patterns; instead, type of turf was an important variable. Connectivity, and thus pathways of nutrient transfer, seems to function differently in east Brazil compared to many tropical regions. Sargassum-dominated beds might be more important as nurseries for a larger number of fish species than seagrass beds. Due to the low abundance of structurally complex seagrass beds we suggest that seaweed beds might influence adult reef fish abundances, being essential for several keystone species of reef fish in the tropical south-western Atlantic.

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  • 8.
    Eggertsen, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Larsson, J.
    Porseryd, T.
    Åkerlund, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Chacin, D. H.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jiddawi, N.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Halling, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Coral-macroalgal interactions: Herbivory and substrate type influence growth of the macroalgae Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L. Burman) Collins & Hervey, 1917 on a tropical coral reef2021In: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, ISSN 0022-0981, E-ISSN 1879-1697, Vol. 542, article id 151606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduced macroalgae becoming invasive may alter ecological functions and habitats in recipient ecosystems. In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), non-native strains of the native macroalgae Eucheuma denticulatum were introduced for farming practices and consequently spread into the surrounding seascape. We investigated potential effects of non-native and native strains of this macroalgae on a branching coral. We conducted a four-factor field experiment where we examined growth and holdfast development of introduced and native E. denticulatum on live and dead branches of Acropora sp. in the presence and absence of herbivores in Unguja Island, Zanzibar. Moreover, we estimated coral and macroalgae condition by visual examinations, gene expression analyses, and photosynthetic measurements. Macroalgae did not attach to any live coral and coral condition was not impacted by the presence of E. denticulatum, regardless of geographical origin. Instead, necrotic tissue on the macroalgae in areas of direct contact with corals indicated damage inflicted by the coral. The biomass of E. denticulatum did not differ between the replicates attached to live or dead corals in the experiment, yet biomass was strongly influenced by herbivory and replicates without protection from herbivores had a significantly lower biomass. In the absence of herbivory, introduced E. denticulatum had significantly higher growth rates than native algae based on wet weight measurements. These results contribute to an increased understanding of environmental effects by the farming of a non-native strain of algae on corals and stresses the importance to maintain viable populations of macroalgal feeding fishes in such areas.

  • 9.
    Eggertsen, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Porseryd, Tove
    Åkerlund, Carolina
    Chacin, Dinorah
    Berkström, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jiddawi, Narriman
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Halling, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Coral-macroalgae interactions: herbivory and substrate type influence growth of the macroalgae Eucheuma denticulatum on a tropical reefManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Invasive macroalgae can alter coral reef habitats by causing phase shifts from coral to macroalgal domination with negative ecological effects and dramatic reductions in coral cover. In Tanzania, South East Asian haplotypes of the macroalgae Eucheuma denticulatum, documented to overgrow reef corals in other locations, have been introduced through seaweed farming practices. In this study we examine growth and holdfast development of introduced and native E. denticulatum on live and dead branches of Acropora sp. in the presence and absence of herbivores in Unguja Island, Zanzibar. Coral and macroalgae health were also estimated. Macroalgae did not attach to any live coral. Coral health was not impacted by the presence of E. denticulatum regardless of origin and gene expression analyses did not indicate any additional stress in corals. Necrotic tissue on the macroalgae in areas of direct contact indicated damage inflicted by the coral. The biomass of E. denticulatum did not differ between live or dead corals but was strongly influenced by herbivory.  The study indicates that E. denticulatum may not pose a strong immediate threat to healthy acroporids in the WIO region but stresses the importance to keep corals healthy and maintaining viable populations of macroalgae feeding species.

  • 10.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Aquaculture and ocean stewardship2022In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 13-16Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Lambin, Eric F.
    Adger, W. Neil
    Scheffer, Marten
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Levin, Simon A.
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Anderies, John M.
    Chapin, Stuart
    Crepin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Dauriach, Alice
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Walker, Brian H.
    Watson, James R.
    Wilen, James
    de Zeeuw, Aart
    Transnational corporations and the challenge of biosphere stewardship2019In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 3, no 10, p. 1396-1403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability within planetary boundaries requires concerted action by individuals, governments, civil society and private actors. For the private sector, there is concern that the power exercised by transnational corporations generates, and is even central to, global environmental change. Here, we ask under which conditions transnational corporations could either hinder or promote a global shift towards sustainability. We show that a handful of transnational corporations have become a major force shaping the global intertwined system of people and planet. Transnational corporations in agriculture, forestry, seafood, cement, minerals and fossil energy cause environmental impacts and possess the ability to influence critical functions of the biosphere. We review evidence of current practices and identify six observed features of change towards 'corporate biosphere stewardship', with significant potential for upscaling. Actions by transnational corporations, if combined with effective public policies and improved governmental regulations, could substantially accelerate sustainability efforts.

  • 12.
    Hedberg, Nils
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Isabell, Stenson
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hellström, Micaela
    Tedengren, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Shared Environments Create Conflicts Between Sea Cage Aquculture and Coral Reefs in VietnamManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hedberg, Nils
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hellström, Micaela
    Tedengren, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Spatial correlation and potential conflicts between sea cage farms and coral reefs in South East Asia2015In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 448, p. 418-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the South China and Java Seas, cage farming is a recent regional activity, which since the year 2000 has experienced an annual growth of 29%. The region holds the highest diversity of marine life, which is partly or completely dependent on coral reefs. The increasingly growing coastal human population in the area relies on ecosystem goods and services provided by the reefs that are threatened by anthropogenic activities. Sea cage farming is one of the stressors negatively impacting coral reefs by being point sources of nutrients and other effluents. To date no systematic information is available on the physical location of marine farms in relation to the coral reefs. Little is known about the distance where impact from the farms can be detected on nearby coral reefs. The present survey aimed to fill this gap by assessing to what extent marine cage farms in South East Asia are placed in the vicinity of the reefs and at which distance stress indicators from the farms are observed. We used Google Earth satellite images to investigate the extension and spatial distribution of sea cage aquaculture in relation to the presence of coral reefs. The stress indicators were locally assessed in Central Vietnam by recording turf algal overgrowth, coral mortality, live coral and branching coral cover at increasing distances from the farms. We found that 90% of sea cage farms throughout the region clustered closer than 5 km from coral reefs and 50% of them closer than 1 km from reefs. In Taiwan, 71% of the cages were located within 100m from a reef. This pattern is nonrandom and could not be explained by the natural distribution of coral reefs; only 5% of the Vietnamese coast harbors coral reefs, and sea cage farms are present in these areas only. This indicates that the farms require similar conditions as the reefs including clear and shallow waters and protection against storms and wave action. We found that turf algal overgrowth decreased at 287 m +/- 54 m, dead coral at 1446m +/- 154 m, live coral cover increased at 566 +/- 221 m and branching corals increased at 867 m +/- 140 m from the cage farms. We conclude that proximity to coral reefs should be considered when planning future developments of sea cage aquaculture, and recommend that distances of at least 1.5 km should be kept. Statement of relevance: Consider coral reefs when planning sea cage aquaculture site.

  • 14.
    Hedberg, Nils
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Stenson, Isabell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hellström, Micaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Tedengren, Micael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Causes and consequences of spatial links between sea cage aquaculture and coral reefs in VietnamManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Hedberg, Nils
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Stenson, Isabell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hellström, Micaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Causes and consequences of spatial links between sea cage aquaculture and coral reefs in Vietnam2017In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 481, p. 245-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of the sea cage farms in South East Asia are located close to coral reefs. This causes a conflict between conservation and food production since sea cage aquaculture has a number of negative impacts on coral reefs. The aim of this investigation was to assess the drivers causing the sea cage farmers to place their farms close to reefs and to examine some potential farming effects in detail i.e. usage of coral reef fish for grow out farming and feed. For some 3500 Vietnamese fish and lobster farms, we measured; the distance to the closest coastal city (proxy for infrastructure access), satellite derived Chl a (proxy for water quality), wind fetch, and the adjacent coastal slope and elevation. We also performed 159 semi-structured interviews with fish and lobster cage farmers from three regions in Vietnam. The interviews revealed that the choice of farming site is mainly determined by access to infrastructure, wind and wave shelter, and water quality. Although the farmers used coral reef services, e.g. coral reef derived seedlings, they were in general not aware of coral reef presence or did not find it important for selection of site. Both coral reefs and sea cage farms were found close to steep rocky coasts, which are favorable for corals, and provide sufficient depth for sea cages. Sea cages were always found on the leeward side of the coast where the wind fetch is low enough for the floating farms and their inhabitants. Most of the farms were located within 20 km from a coastal city confirming the importance of access to infrastructure. With few exceptions, sea cage farms were located in areas with good water quality, where also coral reefs are present. The study showed that several of the coral associated species groups farmed were dependent on wild caught seedlings and that 22% of the feed used at farms was trashfish of coral reef associated species. We consider the spatial correlation between sea cage farms and coral reefs as circumstantial and suggest that shared environmental preferences explain the farm distribution pattern, rather than access to ecosystem services provided by the nearby reef itself. We found no evidence that it is necessary for sea cage farms to be located near coral reefs and strongly recommend that sea cages are moved further away from coral reefs, but to areas still providing clear water, shelter and access to infrastructure.

  • 16.
    Hedberg, Nils
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Stenson, Isabell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Nitz Pettersson, Mika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Warshan, Denis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Nguyen-Kim, H.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Antibiotic use in Vietnamese fish and lobster sea cage farms; implications for coral reefs and human health2018In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 495, p. 366-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several papers have reported on the development of antibiotic resistance and implications for human medicine but fewer deal with environmental impacts of antibiotic use. Marine sea cage aquaculture in SE Asia is often established close to coral reef ecosystems. Large amounts of antibiotics are used in the cultivation of fish and lobster and hence released directly into the environment. This study investigates the antibiotic practices in sea cage farms producing fish and spiny lobster in Vietnam, mainly for the domestic market. There are approximately 3500 sea cage farms in Vietnam and we performed semi-structured interviews with 109 sea cage farmers asking them if they use antibiotics and if so; what sort/when/how often/how much. We found that the Vietnamese cage farmers are using antibiotics in an unstructured way, which seems to have little or no effect on the survival of the stock, or profit of the farm. The fact that the farmers live at their farm and use the sea next to the cages both for fishing and collecting filter-feeding bivalves for direct consumption, as well as a toilet, poses an additional risk for the spreading of human antibiotic resistant pathogens. Thirteen different antibiotics were found in the study. Eighty-two percentage of the lobster farmers and 28% of the fishfarmers used antibiotics. The average amounts used were over 5 kg per produced ton of lobster and about 0.6 kg per ton of fish, which is much higher than in other studies. Several antibiotic substances listed as critical and highly important for human medicine by WHO were used prophylactically and routinely with little control and enforcement of regulations. We tested and detected antibiotic resistance to Tetracycline, Vancomycin and Rifampicin in the coral associated bacteria Bacillus niabensis as far as 660m from fish farms with resistance decreasing with distance from the cage farms. The antibiotics are likely to have negative effects on the coral-symbiont relationship adding further risks to an already stressed environment.

  • 17.
    Hedberg, Nils
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Stenson, Isabell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Nitz Pettersson, Mika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Warshan, Denis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Nguyen-Kim, Hanh
    Tedengren, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Antibiotic use on Vietnamese fish and lobster sea cage farms and implications for the coral reef environment and human healthManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Huitric, Miriam
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Development and government policies of the shrimp farming industry in Thailand in relation to mangrove ecosystems2002In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 441-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensive shrimp farming arrived in Thailand during the 1980s and developed virtually unregulated until 1987. Subsidised by the government, it quickly became an important export industry and Thailand has been the world's largest producer of tiger shrimp since 1991. However, the development of the shrimp farming industry in Thailand over the last 20 years in relation to its use of mangrove ecosystems is an example of sequential exploitation of natural resources witnessed through the shift in farm development from one region to another. This sequential exploitation has caused widespread degradation of mangrove ecosystems, and the benefits of the industry may be less than perceived as a result of subsidies and environmental and social impacts. This study follows the development of shrimp farming in Thailand from the 1940s to 1997 and studies national legislation and associated government policy as examples of driving forces behind this development. From our findings it appears that the development of legislation has not followed the same pace as the development of the industry, neither temporally, nor in content nor implementation, and contradictory policies have arisen.

  • 19. Levin, Simon A.
    et al.
    Anderies, John M.
    Adger, Neil
    Barrett, Scott
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Cardenas, Juan Camilo
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Ehrlich, Paul
    Fischer, Joern
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kling, Catherine
    Nyborg, Karine
    Polasky, Stephen
    Scheffer, Marten
    Segerson, Kathleen
    Shogren, Jason
    van den Bergh, Jeroen
    Walker, Brian
    Weber, Elke U.
    Wilen, James
    Governance in the Face of Extreme Events: Lessons from Evolutionary Processes for Structuring Interventions, and the Need to Go Beyond2022In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 697-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing frequency of extreme events, exogenous and endogenous, poses challenges for our societies. The current pandemic is a case in point; but once-in-a-century weather events are also becoming more common, leading to erosion, wildfire and even volcanic events that change ecosystems and disturbance regimes, threaten the sustainability of our life-support systems, and challenge the robustness and resilience of societies. Dealing with extremes will require new approaches and large-scale collective action. Preemptive measures can increase general resilience, a first line of protection, while more specific reactive responses are developed. Preemptive measures also can minimize the negative effects of events that cannot be avoided. In this paper, we first explore approaches to prevention, mitigation and adaptation, drawing inspiration from how evolutionary challenges have made biological systems robust and resilient, and from the general theory of complex adaptive systems. We argue further that proactive steps that go beyond will be necessary to reduce unacceptable consequences.

  • 20.
    Mörk, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lilliesköld Sjöö, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    McClanahan, Tim R.
    Marine Programs, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY, USA.
    Top–down and bottom–up regulation of macroalgal community structure on a Kenyan reef2009In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 331-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Top–down and bottom–up regulation in the form of grazing by herbivores and nutrient availability areimportant factors governing macroalgal communities in the coral reef ecosystem. Today, anthropogenicactivities, such as over-harvesting of herbivorous fish and sea urchins and increased nutrient loading, arealtering the interaction of these two structuring forces. The present study was conducted in Kenya andinvestigates the relative importance of herbivory and nutrient loading on macroalgal communitydynamics, by looking at alterations in macroalgal functional groups, species diversity (H0) and biomasswithin experimental quadrats. The experiment was conducted in situ for 42 days during the dry season.Cages excluding large herbivorous fish and sea urchins were used in the study and nutrient addition wasconducted using coated, slow-release fertilizer (nitrogen and phosphorous) at a site where herbivory isgenerally low and nutrient levels are relatively high for the region. Nutrient addition increased tissuenutrient content in the algae, and fertilized quadrats had 24% higher species diversity. Herbivoreexclusion resulted in a 77% increase in algal biomass, mainly attributable to a >1000% increase in corticatedforms. These results are in accordance with similar studies in other regions, but are unique in thatthey indicate that, even when prevailing nutrient levels are relatively high and herbivore pressure isrelatively low, continued anthropogenic disturbance results in further ecological responses and increasedreef degradation.

  • 21.
    Norling, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Patches of the mussel Mytilus sp. are islands of high biodiversity in subtidal sediment habitats in the Baltic Sea2008In: Aquatic Biology, ISSN 1864-7782 , Vol. 4, p. 75-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Norling, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Structural and functional effects of Mytilus edulis on diversity of associated species and ecosystem functioning2007In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 351, p. 163-175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Norling, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Eklöf, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    The role of the blue mussel (Mytilus sp.) for ecosystem functioning, generation of ecosystem services and ecological resilience in the Baltic SeaManuscript (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. marin ekotoxikologi.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. marin ekotoxikologi.
    Pihl, L
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Wennhage, H
    Ecosystem goods and services from Swedish coastal habitats: Identification, valuation, and implications of ecosystem shifts2007In: Ambio, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 534-544Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Havets naturkapital: Gratis men livsnödvändigt arbete2007In: Mat, råvaror och energi - en kunskapsresa i Linnés anda, FORMAS , 2007, p. 71-90Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    The natural capital of the sea. Ecosystem services - free of cost but priceless in worth2007In: Food, raw materials and energy: A knowledge journey in the spirit of Linnaeus, FORMAS , 2007, p. 71-90Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Troell, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Naylor, Rosamond L.
    Metian, Marc
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Beveridge, Malcolm
    Tyedmers, Peter H.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Arrow, Kenneth J.
    Barrett, Scott
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Ehrlich, Paul R.
    Gren, Åsa
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Levin, Simon A.
    Nyborg, Karine
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Polasky, Stephen
    Scheffer, Marten
    Walker, Brian H.
    Xepapadeas, Tasos
    de Zeeuw, Aart
    Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, no 37, p. 13257-13263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (similar to 4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  • 28.
    Wikström, Sofia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Hedberg, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Ehrnsten, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Gustafsson, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Norkko, Alf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Stadmark, Johanna
    Letter to editor regarding Kotta et al. 2020: Cleaning up seas using blue growth initiatives: Mussel farming for eutrophication control in the Baltic Sea2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 727, article id 138665Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 28 of 28
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