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  • 1. Bergqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Introduktion till svensk politik2017In: Politik och kön: feministiska perspektiv på statsvetenskap / [ed] Lenita Freidenvall, Maria Jansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 89-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2. Bjarnegård, Elin
    et al.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Introduktion till jämförande politik2017In: Politik och kön: feministiska perspektiv på statsvetenskap / [ed] Lenita Freidenvall, Maria Jansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 149-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3. Borchorst, Anette
    et al.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kantola, Johanna
    Reisel, Liza
    Teigen, Mari
    Institutionalizing Intersectionality in the Nordic Countries: Anti-Discrimination and Equality in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden2012In: INSTITUTIONALIZING INTERSECTIONALITY: THE CHANGING NATURE OF EUROPEAN EQUALITY REGIMES / [ed] Andrea Krizsan, Hege Skjeie, Judith Squires, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, p. 59-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Dahlerup, Drude
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Electoral Gender Quota Systems and their implementation in Europe2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The report maps the diffusion of electoral gender quotas in the 30 EU/EEA countries. In 21 of the countries some type of gender quotas are in use, either legislated or voluntary party quotas. The report evaluates the effectiveness of different quota types in different electoral systems. Some gender quotas have resulted in major leaps in women‟s representation, while others had led to almost no change.

    The conclusion is that in order to be effective in changing women‟s historical under-representation electoral gender quotas have to fit the electoral system and should include regulations about the rank order of women and men on the electoral lists as well as sanctions for non-compliance.

    In general, the report reveals a mixed picture in Europe when it comes to women‟s representation. This up-dated version of the 2008-study (PE 408.309) shows that women‟s parliamentary representation increased only from 23.6 % in 2008 to 24.7% in 2011. In the most recent parliamentary election in 13 of the countries as well as in the election to the European Parliament women‟s representation increased, but ten countries experienced stagnation and in seven for the countries women‟s share of the MPs dropped.

    Eight case studies on Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom are included in the report.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Dahlerup, Drude
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Electoral gender Quota Systems and Their Implementation in Europe: Issued in English, French, German, Italian and Spanish2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report has been written by WiP, Women in Politics Research Centre at Stockholm University – in cooperation with International IDEA and 8 case study authors, covering Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

    September 9, 2008 the report was presented to the European Parliament, the Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality, which had requested and financed the study.

  • 6.
    Dahlerup, Drude
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gender quotas in politics2023In: Routledge Handbook of Election Law / [ed] David A. Schultz; Jurij Toplak, London: Routledge, 2023, p. 174-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the slow speed by which women’s representation in political bodies has increased, there have been amplified calls for more effective measures to reach gender balance in political institutions. Gender quotas represent one such measure. In fact, since 1995, gender quotas have rapidly spread across the world (Dahlerup, 2006; Dahlerup & Freidenvall, 2005; Krook, 2009; Lépinard & Rubio-Marín, 2018). Today, more than one hundred countries have adopted gender quotas to “fast-track” women’s representation in elected bodies of governments, ranging from reserved seats, legislated candidate quotas, and party quotas at national and/or subnational levels. While gender quotas vary in terms of design, where they are used, and to what extent they have achieved their objectives, they represent a major electoral reform, changing the dynamics of candidate selection and the traditional norms of politics as a male business.This chapter addresses this global phenomenon – this gender quota revolution – by focusing on three key aspects: What are gender quotas, why are they adopted, and how have they been implemented (effect). The ways in which they have contributed to the diffusion of quotas in other arenas (spill-over) are also addressed. The chapter is based on our extensive research in the field over the past 20 years, as well as additional research by colleagues across the world. In general, gender quotas are a mounting research area and subject to scientific discussions in dissertations, journal articles, and books, as well as at numerous conferences (Dahlerup, 2019).

  • 7.
    Dahlerup, Drude
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gender Quotas in Politics - A Constitutional Challenge2009In: Constituting Equality: Gender Equality and Comparative Constitutional Law / [ed] Susan H. Williams, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009, p. 29-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Dahlerup, Drude
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Judging gender quotas: predictions and results2010In: Policy and politics (Print), ISSN 0305-5736, E-ISSN 1470-8442, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 407-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While electoral gender quotas are rapidly disseminating all over the world, they are also meeting with fierce resistance. A closer look at quota debates reveals that a considerable number of arguments for and against quotas take the form of quotas. This article identifies a number of key predictions from the quota debate in relation to three dimensions: descriptive representation, substantive representation and symbolic representation. Through examples from the growing quota research, the article discusses how nine selected pairs of predictions have been or could be tested empirically. By this we hope to move the discussion of quotas away from the present deadlock between quota proponents and opponents. A central argument made is that the differences in research results do not only derive from variations between the countries, but also from the use of disparate criteria of evaluation. The article points to the need for clarification and the development of common concepts and criteria.

     

  • 9.
    Dahlerup, Drude
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kvotering2008Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Dahlerup, Drude
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Quotas as a 'Fast Track' to Equal Representation for Women: Why Scandinavia is No Longer the Model2005In: International Feminist Journal of Politics, ISSN 1461-6742, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 26-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have witnessed the rapid diffusion of electoral gender quotas. Today, about forty countries around the world have introduced gender quotas for parliamentary elections, either by constitutional amendment or electoral law. Also, quotas for public election have been laid down in major political parties' statutes in more than fifty countries.

    This article, which is based on the first worldwide overview of the use of quotas, presents general trends in quota adoption. It identifies two discourses: the incremental track versus the fast track to women's parliamentary representation, and argues that the Scandinavian countries - which represent the incremental track - many no longer be a valid model for ways to improve women's representation. The article also analyses the implementation process, and concludes that, without specifications of quota provisions that match the electoral system in question, and rules about the rank order of candidates as well as sanctions for non-compliance, quota provisions may be merely symbolic.

  • 11.
    Dahlerup, Drude
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Vägen till varannan damernas: Grindvakter, kvotering och representation2018In: Rösträttens århundrade: kampen, utvecklingen och framtiden för demokratin i Sverige / [ed] Ulrika Holgersson, Lena Wängnerud, Göteborg: Makadam förlag i samarbete med Riksbankens jubileumsfond , 2018, p. 305-325Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Dahlerup, Drude
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Threlfall, Monica
    Fuszara, Malgorzata
    Remaking Political Citizenship in Multucultural Europe: Addressing Citizenship Deficits in the Formal Political Representation System2012In: Remaking Citizenship in Multicultural Europe: Women's Movement, Gender and Diversity / [ed] Beatrice Halsaa, Sasha Roseneil, Sevil Sümer, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, p. 141-165Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter highlights the results from the subproject on political citizenship within the large integrated FEMCIT-project (www.femcit.org). the chapter brings the main results from subprojects on 1) citizens' perspectives on representation, 2)minority women's organizations' perspectives on political inclusion, and 3)women parliamentarians' perspectives on their citizenship practice. Empirical data from research in Poland, UK, Sweden. Macedonia and Spain.

  • 13. Erikson, Josefina
    et al.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    A legislative gender-equality norm as a catalyst for change? Discursive convergence in the case of the Swedish Parliament2021In: European Journal of Politics and Gender, ISSN 2515-1088, E-ISSN 2515-1096, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 403-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the establishment of gender-equality norms in a case often presented as one of the most gender-equal legislatures in the world, namely, the Swedish Parliament (Riksdagen). Based on a series of in-depth interviews between 2005 and 2016 with 90 legislators in the Swedish Parliament, we ask whether there is agreement over gender-equality problems in Parliament that cut across gender and party affiliation, and whether there is convergence over time in this regard. Our findings show that there is a trend of convergence of the gender-inequality framings over time, which indicates the establishment of a shared legislative gender-equality norm. We suggest that a legislative gender-equality norm might work as a catalyst for progressive and continuous work in this area.

  • 14. Erikson, Josefina
    et al.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Exploring Sustainability in Parliamentary Gender Equality Work: Insights from the Swedish Riksdag2023In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has pointed to the need for addressing gender equality in parliaments in a broader perspective, focusing on gender sensitivity in parliaments in relation to structures, operations, methods and work. Up to now, however, the question of what it takes for this work to be long-lasting and sustainable has received limited attention. This article seeks to address this gap through a case study assessing the sustainability of the internal work of the Riksdag (the Swedish Parliament) with regard to gender equality, focusing on the durability and renewal of early initiatives and reforms. On the basis of Riksdag documents and interviews with MPs during the period 1994-2022, we ask: How sustainable is the internal gender equality work of the Riksdag with respect to the three key areas of representation, infrastructure and culture? We find that the Riksdag has managed to conduct sustainable gender equality work over the course of three decades. Major factors in this success are the institutionalization of a Gender Equality Group, the adoption of Action Plans for Gender Equality every parliamentary term and the legitimacy provided by the support of the Speaker of the Riksdag and the Riksdag Board.

  • 15. Folke, Olle
    et al.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Rickne, Johanna
    Gender Quotas and Ethnic Minority Representation: Swedish Evidence from a Longitudinal Mixed Methods Study2015In: Politics & Gender, ISSN 1743-923X, E-ISSN 1743-9248, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 345-381Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    A Discursive Struggle: The Swedish National Federation of Social Democratic Women and Gender Quotas2005In: Nordic Journal of Women's Studies, ISSN 0803-8740, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 175-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1993, the Social Democratic Party in Sweden adopted the zipper system, a gender quota system whereby women and men are placed alternately on party lists. The National Federation of Social Democratic Women had, however, as early as in 1928 proposed that the Social Democratic Party introduce gender quotas so that women would be placed in safe positions on the party lists.

    In this article, the struggle of the National Federation of Social Democratic Women for an increased parliamentary representation of women and its demand for gender quotas during the period 1970-1993 is analysed. Its strategies to put the issue of women's under-representation on the political agenda are outlined as well as the major discursive frames that the debate was embedded within. The article suggests that the discursive controversies over gender quotas can best be understood in the context of competing conceptions regarding historical development, equal opportunity, local autonomy, and cooperation between women and men. One main point is that the zipper system despite its radical effect, can be seen as a discursive solution to the norm of cooperation.

  • 17.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Avoiding Quotas at All Costs: The Swedish Dilemma2022In: Gender Equality and Policy Implementation in the Corporate World: Making Democracy Work in Business / [ed] Isabel Engeli; Amy Mazur, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2022, p. 86-108Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter assesses the adoption and implementation of voluntary measures on gender balance on the boards of listed companies in the Swedish corporate governance code. The self-regulatory approach was advocated by the corporate sector itself in order to avoid legislation on corporate gender quotas. The outcome is rather ambivalent. While the change has resulted in a gradual increase in women’s representation on corporate boards, this increase has been slow and has not yet led to gender balance. Gendered norms of equal representation of women and men in leadership positions in the economic sector have evolved. Challenges remain, and this particularly when it comes to the number of women chairpersons and CEOs. The lack of awareness of gender equality gaps among young business leaders also indicates that automatic and linear progress is not a given.

  • 18.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bakom lyckta dörrar2011In: Politik och kritik: En feministisk guide till statsvetenskap / [ed] Lenita Freidenvall och Maria Jansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, p. 135-156Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Cuotas de género en material electoral como vía rápida a la paridad2014In: Cuotas de Género: Visión comparada / [ed] Lenita Freidenvall, Magda Hinojosa, Jennifer M. Piscopo, Tània Verge, Richard E. Matland, Mexico City: Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación , 2014, p. 19-54Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Equal representation without legislation: gender, power, and institutions in Sweden2021Book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gender Equality without Legislated Quotas in Sweden2018In: Transforming Gender Citizenship: The Irresistible Rise of Gender Quotas in Europe / [ed] Éléonore Lépinard, Ruth Rubio-Marín, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 366-399Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gender knowledge and gender expertise: The implementation of gender mainstreaming in Swedish state agencies2020In: Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, ISSN 1072-4745, E-ISSN 1468-2893, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 742-764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through an analysis of the Swedish government development program for gender mainstreaming in state agencies—the JIM (Jämställdhet i myndigheter)program—this article analyzes how gender equality is constructed (gender knowledge) and what role specialized knowledge (gender expertise) has in policy implementation. The article claims that even in best-case scenarios, such as Sweden, where intensive efforts to integrate a gender perspective have been undertaken, gender knowledge is based on visions and strategies that do not question prevailing policy paradigms. However, cross-cutting and intersectional conceptualizations of gender equality have created epistemic space for transformative interventions on the part of gender experts.

  • 23.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University.
    Guidelines on Political Party Regulation2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    In Pursuit of Bodily Integrity in Sweden2015In: European Women’s Movements and Body Politics: The Struggle for Autonomy / [ed] Joyce Outshoorn, Radka Dudova, Anna Prata, Lenita Freidenvall, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 118-152Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Institutionaliseringen av svensk jämställdhet: Lager-på-lager-processer och fokusförflyttningar2019In: Europeisering av nordisk likestillingspolitikk / [ed] Caroline Holst, Hege Skeije, Mari Teigen, Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk, 2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Intersectionality and candidate selection in Sweden2016In: Politics, ISSN 0263-3957, E-ISSN 1467-9256, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 355-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses how intersectionality can be applied to studies of candidate selection. Based on empirical examples on the three stages of candidate selection in Sweden, it concludes that intersectionality is of importance not only in addressing the intersections between different forms of inequality and the resulting hierarchies between them, but also in drawing attention to dominant categories in any given context. By asking which women' and which men' are included as aspirants, candidates, and/or elected representatives, the mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in candidate selection can be brought to the fore, particularly the ways in which the norm' (usually white privileged men) remains in power.

  • 27.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Intersektionalitet och feminism – en komplicerad kombination?2016In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, E-ISSN 2002-3383, Vol. 20, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    På senare år har intersektionalitet vunnit gehör i såväl akademin som den politiska debatten. Förenklat kan intersektionalitet definieras som ett begrepp som fokuserar på hur ojämlika förhållanden skapas och upprätthålls till följd av skärningspunkterna av och det komplexa samspelet mellan olika maktordningar som baseras på kategorier som kön, etnicitet, sexualitet m.m. Denna utveckling väcker flera frågor, t.ex. vad händer med feminismen och dess kärna när andra maktordningar tas med i analysen? Finns det en risk att betydelsen av kön kommer att tonas ned till förmån för andra kategorier som upplevs som mer centrala? Och hur kan man förklara det ökade intresset för intersektionalitet?

    Ambitionen med detta bidrag är att beskriva och kritiskt diskutera framväxten av intersektionalitet och vad den innebär för feminismen. Finns det någon inneboende konflikt mellan feminism och intersektionalitet och hur kan den i så fall överbryggas? Till min hjälp använder jag både gammal och ny litteratur på fältet. Jag konkluderar med att argumentera för att intersektionalitet erbjuder feminism en möjlighet att problematisera processerna som ligger till grund för upprätthållandet av ojämlikheter och maktrelationer i samhället. Genom en precisering av feminismens kärna kan intersektionalitet erbjuda feminismen ytterligare ett verktyg för att nå sitt mål, emancipation.

  • 28.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Introduktion till jämförande politik och utländska politiska system2011In: Politik och kritik: En feministisk guide till statsvetenskap / [ed] Lenita Freidenvall och Maria Jansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, p. 159-172Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Introduktion till svensk politik2011In: Politik och kritik: En feministisk guide till statsvetenskap / [ed] Lenita Freidenvall och Maria Jansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, p. 63-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kvinnors väg in i politiken2005Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Medborgarskap2017In: Politik och kön: feministiska perspektiv på statsvetenskap / [ed] Lenita Freidenvall, Maria Jansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 167-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University.
    Promoting Inclusive and Gender Sensitive Parliaments: Regional report (Europe)2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University.
    Regeringsformen ur ett könsperspektiv: En övergripande genomgång2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Riksdagen ur ett genusperspektiv: En forskningsöversikt2005Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sweden: An Incremental Process2018In: The Palgrave Handbook of Women’s Political Rights / [ed] Susan Franceschet, Mona Lena Krook, Netina Tan, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 455-466Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freidenvall focuses on the case of Sweden, the first country in the world to elect more than 40% women to parliament in 1994. She argues that Sweden has followed an incremental track, characterized by gradual, step-by-step growth in the share of women in parliament. This was not the result of legislative quotas, but rather of sustained pressure by organized women, including women’s party federations and the autonomous women’s movement. Some male supporters also played an important role changing norms and functioning as the major force behind the introduction of soft quotas and party quotas. These measures, which have been introduced step-by-step in a process of layering, have contributed to, and served to stabilize, the high proportion of women in Swedish politics.

  • 36.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sweden: Step by Step - Women’s Inroads into Parliamentary Politics2013In: Breaking male dominance in old democracies / [ed] Drude Dahlerup, Monique Leijenaar, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 1, p. 97-123Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In worldwide comparisons of women in national parliaments, Sweden is regularly ranked at the top of the lists. Since universal suffrage was introduced in 1921, the proportion of women parliamentarians has gradually increased to the current level, with a take-off phase in the 1970s when the 20 per cent threshold was passed. Thus, the development can be characterized as incremental. The chapter analyses women’s access to power and influence in the Swedish parliament in three stages, which can be seen as critical junctures representing crucial institutional and discursive changes. The three stages identified are: ‘the obligatory woman’ (1921–1971), ‘the 51% minority’ (1972–1993), and ‘every other one for the ladies’ (1994–2012). This chapter argues that in order to explain women’s inroads into Swedish politics, one must pay close attention to institutions, actors, and discourses shaping the outcome. Key actors analysed are political parties including party leaders, women’s federations, and the autonomous women’s movement.

  • 37.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Women’s Descriptive and Substantive Representation in Nordic Politics2020In: Women, Policy and Political Leadership: Regional Perspectives / [ed] Christian Echle, Magma Sarmah, Singapore: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung , 2020, p. 169-179Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ändrar kvotering ojämlika maktförhållanden?2013In: Statsvetenskapens frågor / [ed] Li Bennich-Björkman, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1:1, p. 118-131Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Borchorst, Anette
    Parental Leave Reforms in Denmark and Sweden: Similar and Different2012In: Comparisons, Quotas and Critical Change: in Honor of Drude Dahlerup / [ed] Lenita Freidenvall, Michele Micheletti, Stockholm: Department of Political Science, Stockholm University , 2012, p. 38-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Borchorst, Anette
    Kantola, Johanna
    Teigen, Mari
    Reisel, Liza
    Institutionalising Intersectionality in the Nordic Countries: Anti-Discrimination and Equality in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden2012In: Institutionalising Intersectionality: The Changing Nature of European Equailty Regimes / [ed] Andrea Krizsan, Hege Skjeie, Judith Squires, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, p. 59-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Dahlerup, Drude
    Den politiska representationens intersektionalisernig2011In: Kön, makt, nation: tillägnad Maud Eduards / [ed] Diane Sainsbury och Maritta Soininen, Stockholm: Statsvetenskapliga institutionen , 2011, p. 86-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Dahlerup, Drude
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Electoral Gender Quota Systems and their Implementation in Europe: Update 20132013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The note is an updated version of the 2011 study Electoral Gender Quotas and Their Implementation in Europe (PE 408.309), and it maps the diffusion of electoral gender quotas in the 30 EU/EEA countries and evaluates the effectiveness of different quota types in different electoral systems. The note shows that legislated quotas are implemented in eight countries and party quotas in 14 (additional) countries. It also shows that some gender quotas have resulted in major leaps in women’s representation, while others had led to almost no change.

    In general, the note reveals a mixed picture in Europe when it comes to women’s representation. It shows that women’s parliamentary representation only increased from 23.6 per cent in 2008 to 24.7 per cent in 2011 to 25.6 per cent in 2013. In the most recent parliamentary election in 19 of the countries as well as in the election to the European Parliament women’s representation increased. Four countries experienced stagnation, and in seven of the countries women’s share of the MPs dropped.

  • 43.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Dahlerup, Drude
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gender, ethnicity, and political inclusion: intersectionalizing representation2019In: Borderlands in European gender studies: beyond the East-West frontier / [ed] Teresa Kulawik, Zhanna Kravchenko, Routledge, 2019, p. 230-251Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores a critical perspective on today’s diverse processes of rebordering within Europe, with a specific focus on the unfulfilled goal of full and gender-fair political citizenship. A West-centric skew has permeated feminist knowledge production within a geopolitical space in which Central and Eastern Europe has been transformed from the Second World to the second Other of Europe. Political citizenship, or equal representation of citizens in elected decision-making bodies, is a central pillar of modern democracy. The point of departure in the quota debate is the social composition of elected assemblies, i.e., the descriptive representation. The Communist parties mobilized separate women’s organizations, which in some countries, for instance in the German Democratic Republic, were guaranteed a certain number of seats alongside trade unions and youth organizations. The political parties were asked about their general positions on the importance of gender in candidate selection.

  • 44.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Erikson, Josefina
    The speaker's gender equality group in the Swedish parliament - a toothless tiger?2020In: Politics, Groups, and Identities, ISSN 2156-5503, E-ISSN 2156-5511, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 627-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent wave of research has engaged with gender-focused bodies within parliament studying their status, organization, and function. One type of body scarcely studied is issue-based parliamentary groups such as the Speaker's Gender Equality Group in the Swedish Parliament. This article focuses on the form and function of this body, as well as its potentials and pitfalls. On the basis of secondary sources, two waves of interviews with men parliamentarians (MPs) and inside observations the Speaker's gender equality group is analyzed from the 1990s until today. We conclude that despite lacking formal legislative power, this body has a key symbolic and informal role, manifested in the political will and engaged leadership to ensure that equal working conditions for women and men MPs are promoted. We also find constraints in terms of the limited and general (rather than expert) administrative support as well as the need for consistent authorization.

  • 45.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Hallonsten, Hanna
    Why not corporate gender quotas in Sweden?2013In: Representation: Journal of Representative Democracy, ISSN 0034-4893, E-ISSN 1749-4001, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 467-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has for a long time been in the forefront internationally when it comes to equal representation of women and men in politics. In the economic sphere, however, male dominance persists. Even though Swedish governments have for more than 12 years argued for increased representation of women on company boards to address unequal representation, corporate gender quotas have not been adopted. This article examines the ways in which Swedish governments have perceived the issue of women's under-representation on company boards during the period 2000–12 and analyses the implications these perceptions have had for the solutions governments have presented to increase representation. Using empirical data consisting of government bills, reports and answers by ministers to interpellations, the article demonstrates how the identification and diagnosis of the problem affect which solutions seem rational and legitimate and, in the end, opened up different opportunities for change. The article also shows that the discursive development concerning women's representation in politics has taken a different path than the one on company boards, a path that opened up the possibility for solutions such as quotas and the potential for a faster increase in the representation of women.

  • 46.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jansson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Introduktion2017In: Politik och kön: Feministiska perspektiv på statsvetenskap / [ed] Lenita Freidenvall, Maria Jansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 17-32Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jansson, MariaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Politik och kritik: En feministisk guide till statsvetenskap2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jansson, MariaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Politik och kön: Feministiska perspektiv på statsvetenskap2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok är en ovärderlig introduktion till feministisk statsvetenskaplig forskning. Här presenteras feministiska teorier och empiriska analyser som tillsammans tecknar en bild av ett kreativt forskningsfält som samlas kring vikten av att använda kön som analytiskt verktyg, och som rymmer både konstruktiva teoretiska debatter och intressanta empiriska resultat.

    Boken innehåller introduktioner till feministisk forskning inom de statsvetenskapliga subdisciplinerna politisk teori, svensk politik, jämförande politik och internationella relationer samt fördjupningar i de för fälten centrala begreppen kön, representation, medborgarskap och säkerhet.  Dessutom presenteras exempel på empirisk forskning. Läsaren får här veta mer om hur närbyråkrater för omsorgsetiska resonemang, hur svensk familjepolitik drabbar ensamstående mödrar, vad som karaktäriserar olika typer av könskvotering och hur ritualerna kring begravningar av kvinnliga soldater som har dött i striderna i Afghanistan återskapar den manliga soldaten som norm.

  • 49.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Krook, Mona Lena
    Department of Political Science, Washington University in St. Louis, USA.
    Discursive Strategies for Institutional Reform: Gender Quotas in Sweden and France2010In: Gender, Politics, and Institutions: Towards a Feminist Institutionalism / [ed] Mona Lena Krook and Fiona Mackay, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, 1, p. 42-57Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Micheletti, MicheleStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Comparisons, Quotas and Critical Change: in honor of Drude Dahlerup2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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