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  • 1. Abernethy, K. E.
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hilly, Z.
    Schwarz, A.
    Two steps forward, two steps back: The role of innovation in transforming towards community-based marine resource management in Solomon Islands2014Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 28, s. 309-321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In many coastal nations, community-based arrangements for marine resource management (CBRM) are promoted by government, advocated for by non-government actors, and are seen by both as one of the most promising options to achieve sustainable use and secure inshore fisheries and aquatic resources. Although there is an abundant literature on what makes CBRM effective, is it less clear how CBRM is introduced or develops as an idea in a community, and the process of how the idea leads to the adoption of a new resource management approach with supporting institutions. Here we aim to address this gap by applying an explicit process-based approach drawing on innovation history methodology by mapping and analysing the initiation and emergence of CBRM in five fishing-dependent communities in Solomon Islands. We use insights from the literatures on diffusion of innovation and transformability to define phases of the process and help guide the inductive analysis of qualitative data. We show the CBRM institutionalisation processes were non-linear, required specific strategies to move from one phase to the next, and key elements facilitated or hindered movement. Building active support for CBRM within communities depended on the types of events that happened at the beginning of the process and actions taken to sustain this. Matching CBRM to known resource management ideas or other social problems in the community, developing legitimate institutions and decision-making processes, strong continual interactions between key actors and the rest of the community (not necessarily NGO actors), and community members witnessing benefits of CBRM, all contributed to the emergence and diffusion of CBRM in the communities, and helped to overcome barriers to transformative change.

  • 2. Bennett, Elena M.
    et al.
    Solan, Martin
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    McPhearson, Timon
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Pereira, Laura
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara
    Biermann, Frank
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Ellis, Erle C.
    Hichert, Tanja
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lahsen, Myanna
    Milkoreit, Manjana
    López, Berta Martin
    Nicholas, Kimberly A.
    Preiser, Rika
    Vince, Gaia
    Vervoort, Joost M.
    Xu, Jianchu
    Bright spots: seeds of a good Anthropocene2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 14, nr 8, s. 441-448Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The scale, rate, and intensity of humans' environmental impact has engendered broad discussion about how to find plausible pathways of development that hold the most promise for fostering a better future in the Anthropocene. However, the dominance of dystopian visions of irreversible environmental degradation and societal collapse, along with overly optimistic utopias and business-as-usual scenarios that lack insight and innovation, frustrate progress. Here, we present a novel approach to thinking about the future that builds on experiences drawn from a diversity of practices, worldviews, values, and regions that could accelerate the adoption of pathways to transformative change (change that goes beyond incremental improvements). Using an analysis of 100 initiatives, or seeds of a good Anthropocene, we find that emphasizing hopeful elements of existing practice offers the opportunity to: (1) understand the values and features that constitute a good Anthropocene, (2) determine the processes that lead to the emergence and growth of initiatives that fundamentally change human-environmental relationships, and (3) generate creative, bottom-up scenarios that feature well-articulated pathways toward a more positive future.

  • 3. Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    et al.
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Kofinas, Gary P.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Abel, Nick
    Clark, William C.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Smith, D. Mark Stafford
    Walker, Brian
    Young, Oran R.
    Berkes, Fikret
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Grove, J. Morgan
    Naylor, Rosamond L.
    Pinkerton, Evelyn
    Steffen, Will
    Swanson, Frederick J.
    Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet2010Inngår i: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 241-249Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster the social ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses; focusing on proactive policies that shape change; and avoiding or escaping unsustainable social ecological traps. As we discuss here, all social ecological systems are vulnerable to recent and projected changes but have sources of adaptive capacity and resilience that can sustain ecosystem services and human well-being through active ecosystem stewardship.

  • 4. Chapin, III F.S.
    et al.
    Kofinas, G.P.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Carpenter, S.R.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Abel, N
    Biggs, Reinette Oonsie
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Naylor, R.L
    Pinkerton, E
    Stafford-Smith, D.M.
    Steffen, W.L.
    Walker, B.H.
    Young, O.R
    Resilience-based stewardship: Strategies for navigating sustainable pathways in a changing world.2009Inngår i: Principles of ecosystem stewardship:: Resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world / [ed] F.S. Chapin, III, G.P. Kofinas and C. Folke, New York: Springer Verlag , 2009, s. 319-337Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerated global changes in climate, environment, and social–ecological systems demand a transformation in human perceptions of our place in nature and patterns of resource use. The biology and culture of Homo sapiens evolved for about 95% of our species’ history in hunting-and-gathering societies before the emergence of settled agriculture. We have lived in complex societies for about 3%, and in industrial societies using fossil fuels for about 0.1% of our history. The pace of cultural evolution, including governance arrangements and resource-use patterns, appears insufficient to adjust to the rate and magnitude of technological innovations, human population increases, and environmental impacts that have occurred. Many of these changes are accelerating, causing unsustainable exploitation of ecosystems, including many boreal and tropical forests, drylands, and marine fisheries. The net effect has been serious degradation of the planet’s life-support system on which societal development ultimately depends (see Chapters 2 and 14.

  • 5. Cumming, Graeme S.
    et al.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Chapin III, F. S.
    Holling, C. S.
    Resilience, experimentation, and scale mismatches in social-ecological landscapes2013Inngår i: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 28, nr 6, s. 1139-1150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing a resilient landscape depends heavily on finding an appropriate match between the scales of demands on ecosystems by human societies and the scales at which ecosystems are capable of meeting these demands. While the dynamics of environmental change and ecosystem service provision form the basis of many landscape ecology studies, enhancing landscape resilience is, in many ways, a problem of establishing relevant institutions that act at appropriate scales to modify and moderate demand for ecosystem services and the resulting exploitation of ecosystems. It is also of central importance for landscape sustainability that institutions are flexible enough to adapt to changes in the external environment. The model provided by natural ecosystems suggests that it is only by encouraging and testing a diversity of approaches that we will be able to build landscapes that are resilient to future change. We advocate an approach to landscape planning that involves growing learning institutions on the one hand, and on the other, developing solutions to current problems through deliberate experimentation coupled with social learning processes.

  • 6.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. North-West University, South Africa.
    Frantzeskaki, Niki
    McPhearson, Timon
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The New School, USA; Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, USA.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gaffney, Owen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Takeuchi, Kazuhiko
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Sustainability and resilience for transformation in the urban century2019Inngår i: Nature Sustainability, ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 267-273Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have entered the urban century and addressing a broad suite of sustainability challenges in urban areas is increasingly key for our chances to transform the entire planet towards sustainability. For example, cities are responsible for 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions and, at the same time, 90% of urban areas are situated on coastlines, making the majority of the world's population increasingly vulnerable to climate change. While urbanization accelerates, meeting the challenges will require unprecedented transformative solutions for sustainability with a careful consideration of resilience in their implementation. However, global and local policy processes often use vague or narrow definitions of the concepts of 'urban sustainability' and 'urban resilience', leading to deep confusion, particularly in instances when the two are used interchangeably. Confusion and vagueness slow down needed transformation processes, since resilience can be undesirable and many sustainability goals contrast, or even challenge efforts to improve resilience. Here, we propose a new framework that resolves current contradictions and tensions; a framework that we believe will significantly help urban policy and implementation processes in addressing new challenges and contributing to global sustainability in the urban century.

  • 7. Ely, Adrian
    et al.
    Marin, Anabel
    Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi
    Abrol, Dinesh
    Apgar, Marina
    Atela, Joanes
    Ayre, Becky
    Byrne, Robert
    Choudhary, Bikramaditya K.
    Chengo, Victoria
    Cremaschi, Almendra
    Davis, Rowan
    Desai, Pranav
    Eakin, Hallie
    Kushwaha, Pravin
    Marshall, Fiona
    Mbeva, Kennedy
    Ndege, Nora
    Ochieng, Cosmas
    Ockwell, David
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Oxley, Nathan
    Pereira, Laura
    Priya, Ritu
    Tigabu, Aschalew
    Van Zwanenberg, Patrick
    Yang, Lichao
    Structured Collaboration Across a Transformative Knowledge Network-Learning Across Disciplines, Cultures and Contexts?2020Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 6, artikkel-id 2499Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Realising the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will require transformative changes at micro, meso and macro levels and across diverse geographies. Collaborative, transdisciplinary research has a role to play in documenting, understanding and contributing to such transformations. Previous work has investigated the role of this research in Europe and North America, however the dynamics of transdisciplinary research on 'transformations to sustainability' in other parts of the world are less well-understood. This paper reports on an international project that involved transdisciplinary research in six different hubs across the globe and was strategically designed to enable mutual learning and exchange. It draws on surveys, reports and research outputs to analyse the processes of transdisciplinary collaboration for sustainability that took place between 2015-2019. The paper illustrates how the project was structured in order to enable learning across disciplines, cultures and contexts and describes how it also provided for the negotiation of epistemological frameworks and different normative commitments between members across the network. To this end, it discusses lessons regarding the use of theoretical and methodological anchors, multi-loop learning and evaluating emergent change (including the difficulties encountered). It offers insights for the design and implementation of future international transdisciplinary collaborations that address locally-specific sustainability challenges within the universal framework of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  • 8. Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    Blythe, Jessica L.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Beyond social-ecological traps: fostering transformations towards sustainability2021Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 26, nr 1, artikkel-id 13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This Special Feature is motivated by the rigorous, and growing, theoretical and empirical body of literature on social-ecological traps. Building on the foundational literature, which describes the context in many of the places where we work, we now look forward and ask how we can better understand and enable the breaking and escaping of social-ecological traps. In this Special Feature we focus on this frontier in the field and use the trap metaphor as a unifying framework for collating empirically derived insights on overcoming challenges across diverse geographies, sectors, and social-ecological contexts. We requested contributions to this feature that, as well as possible under each context, explore tangible pathways for disrupting social-ecological traps. Thematic relevance and clear contribution to social-ecological scholarship was emphasized in the invited contributions, but authors were not constrained by methodological approach, context, geographical location, or sector. Our ambition with this editorial is to synthesize the novel insights these papers highlight and situate their contributions within the relevant literature.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Breaking degradation of sea cucumber resources: a social-ecological analysis of the fisheries in Zanzibar and Mayotte Islands in the Western Indian OceanManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite increasing research and management attention to tropical sea cucumber fisheries no apparent successes have been documented. To broaden the perspective of recent advances in management tools this study analyses the social-ecological processes in two contrasting sea cucumber fisheries situations, Zanzibar (Tanzania) and Mayotte (France) in the Western Indian Ocean. Zanzibar has an on-going fishery while the fishery in Mayotte operated approximately 10 years before it was closed in 2004. The study compares how different management strategies in Mayotte and Zanzibar were taken to address increasing fishing effort and a declining sea cucumber population. The comparison provide an opportunity learning and reflection. A visual census of stocks shows that the commercial value is nearly 30 times higher in Mayotte than Zanzibar owing to different fishery and management practices. In Mayotte less than 100 people were engaged in the fishery when it was active and the fishery was a comparatively small enterprise. In contrast, over 1000 people collect sea cucumbers as part of an expansive trade network that has developed in Zanzibar. In addition, in this site fishers are dependent on the resource for livelihood and expanding fishery processes have therefore occurred as a response to declines in catch abundance and value. These responses have taken place in the context of insufficient management and reinforce an unsustainable fishery situation difficult to break – referred to as a social-ecological trap. In contrast, management in Mayotte was receptive and adaptive to changes. The closure of the fishery illustrates the importance and positive outcome of matching the fishery – management temporal scales to avoid reinforcing fishery processes and to maintain ecosystem integrity. The multiple fisheries targeting sea cucumbers documented in this study captures how different management approaches and management plans are required, building on an understanding of the social-ecological context of the fishery. In addition, the comparison illustrates the importance of management systems with adequate resources (e.g. human and economic) and functioning information flows for positive management outcomes.  

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mobility, Expansion and Management of a Multi-Species Scuba Diving Fishery in East Africa2012Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. e35504-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Scuba diving fishing, predominantly targeting sea cucumbers, has been documented to occur in an uncontrolled manner in the Western Indian Ocean and in other tropical regions. Although this type of fishing generally indicates a destructive activity, little attention has been directed towards this category of fishery, a major knowledge gap and barrier to management. 

    Methodology and Principal Findings: With the aim to capture geographic scales, fishing processes and social aspects the scuba diving fishery that operate out of Zanzibar was studied using interviews, discussions, participant observations and catch monitoring. The diving fishery was resilient to resource declines and had expanded to new species, new depths and new fishing grounds, sometimes operating approximately 250 km away from Zanzibar at depths down to 50 meters, as a result of depleted easy-access stock. The diving operations were embedded in a regional and global trade network, and its actors operated in a roving manner on multiple spatial levels, taking advantage of unfair patron-client relationships and of the insufficient management in Zanzibar. Conclusions and

    Significance: This study illustrates that roving dynamics in fisheries, which have been predominantly addressed on a global scale, also take place at a considerably smaller spatial scale. Importantly, while proposed management of the sea cucumber fishery is often generic to a simplified fishery situation, this study illustrates a multifaceted fishery with diverse management requirements. The documented spatial scales and processes in the scuba diving fishery emphasize the need for increased regional governance partnerships to implement management that fit the spatial scales and processes of the operation. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11. Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Purcell, Steven W.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lessons for resource conservation from two contrasting small-scale fisheries2015Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 204-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fisheries present challenges to management due to fishers' dependency on resources and the adaptability of management systems. We compared social-ecological processes in the sea cucumber fisheries of Zanzibar and Mayotte, Western Indian Ocean, to better understand the reasons for resource conservation or collapse. Commercial value of wild stocks was at least 30 times higher in Mayotte than in Zanzibar owing to lower fishing pressure. Zanzibar fishers were financially reliant on the fishery and increased fishing effort as stocks declined. This behavioral response occurred without adaptive management and reinforced an unsustainable fishery. In contrast, resource managers in Mayotte adapted to changing fishing effort and stock abundance by implementing a precautionary fishery closure before crossing critical thresholds. Fishery closure may be a necessary measure in small-scale fisheries to preserve vulnerable resources until reliable management systems are devised. Our comparison highlighted four poignant lessons for managing small-scale fisheries: (1) diagnose the fishery regularly, (2) enable an adaptive management system, (3) constrain exploitation within ecological limits, and (4) share management responsibility.

  • 12. Fazey, I.
    et al.
    Schäpke, N.
    Caniglia, G.
    Hodgson, A.
    Kendrick, I.
    Lyon, C.
    Page, G.
    Patterson, J.
    Riedy, C.
    Strasser, T.
    Verveen, S.
    Adams, D.
    Goldstein, B.
    Klaes, M.
    Leicester, G.
    Linyard, A.
    McCurdy, A.
    Ryan, P.
    Sharpe, B.
    Silvestri, G.
    Abdurrahim, A. Y.
    Abson, D.
    Adetunji, O. S.
    Aldunce, P.
    Alvarez-Pereira, C.
    Amparo, J. M.
    Amundsen, H.
    Anderson, L.
    Andersson, L.
    Asquith, M.
    Augenstein, K.
    Barrie, J.
    Bent, D.
    Bentz, J.
    Bergsten, A.
    Berzonsky, C.
    Bina, O.
    Blackstock, K.
    Boehnert, J.
    Bradbury, H.
    Brand, C.
    Böhme (born Sangmeister), J.
    Bøjer, M. M.
    Carmen, E.
    Charli-Joseph, L.
    Choudhury, S.
    Chunhachoti-ananta, S.
    Cockburn, J.
    Colvin, J.
    Connon, I. L. C.
    Cornforth, R.
    Cox, R. S.
    Cradock-Henry, N.
    Cramer, L.
    Cremaschi, A.
    Dannevig, H.
    Day, C. T.
    de Lima Hutchison, C.
    de Vrieze, A.
    Desai, V.
    Dolley, J.
    Duckett, D.
    Durrant, R. A.
    Egermann, M.
    Elsner (Adams), E.
    Fremantle, C.
    Fullwood-Thomas, J.
    Galafassi, D.
    Gobby, J.
    Golland, A.
    González-Padrón, S. K.
    Gram-Hanssen, I.
    Grandin, J.
    Grenni, S.
    Lauren Gunnell, J.
    Gusmao, F.
    Hamann, M.
    Harding, B.
    Harper, G.
    Hesselgren, M.
    Hestad, D.
    Heykoop, C. A.
    Holmén, J.
    Holstead, K.
    Hoolohan, C.
    Horcea-Milcu, A. -I
    Horlings, L. G.
    Howden, S. M.
    Howell, R. A.
    Huque, S. I.
    Inturias Canedo, M. L.
    Iro, C. Y.
    Ives, C. D.
    John, B.
    Joshi, R.
    Juarez-Bourke, S.
    Juma, D. W.
    Karlsen, B. C.
    Kliem, L.
    Kläy, A.
    Kuenkel, P.
    Kunze, I.
    Lam, D. P. M.
    Lang, D. J.
    Larkin, A.
    Light, A.
    Luederitz, C.
    Luthe, T.
    Maguire, C.
    Mahecha-Groot, A. -M
    Malcolm, J.
    Marshall, F.
    Maru, Y.
    McLachlan, C.
    Mmbando, P.
    Mohapatra, S.
    Moore, M. -L
    Moriggi, A.
    Morley-Fletcher, M.
    Moser, S.
    Mueller, K. M.
    Mukute, M.
    Mühlemeier, S.
    Naess, L. O.
    Nieto-Romero, M.
    Novo, P.
    ÓBrien, K.
    O'Connell, D. A.
    O'Donnell, K.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Pearson, K. R.
    Pereira, L.
    Petridis, P.
    Peukert, D.
    Phear, N.
    Pisters, S. R.
    Polsky, M.
    Pound, D.
    Preiser, R.
    Rahman, M. S.
    Reed, M. S.
    Revell, P.
    Rodriguez, I.
    Rogers, B. C.
    Rohr, J.
    Nordbø Rosenberg, M.
    Ross, H.
    Russell, S.
    Ryan, M.
    Saha, P.
    Schleicher, K.
    Schneider, F.
    Scoville-Simonds, M.
    Searle, B.
    Sebhatu, S. P.
    Sesana, E.
    Silverman, H.
    Singh, C.
    Sterling, E.
    Stewart, S. -J
    Tàbara, J. D.
    Taylor, D.
    Thornton, P.
    Tribaldos, T. M.
    Tschakert, P.
    Uribe-Calvo, N.
    Waddell, S.
    Waddock, S.
    van der Merwe, L.
    van Mierlo, B.
    van Zwanenberg, P.
    Velarde, S. J.
    Washbourne, C. -L
    Waylen, K.
    Weiser, A.
    Wight, I.
    Williams, S.
    Woods, M.
    Wolstenholme, R.
    Wright, N.
    Wunder, S.
    Wyllie, A.
    Young, H. R.
    Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there2020Inngår i: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 70, artikkel-id 101724Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.

  • 13. Fazey, Joan
    et al.
    Schäpke, Niko
    Caniglia, Guido
    Patterson, James
    Hultman, Johan
    van Mierlo, Barbara
    Säwe, Filippa
    Wiek, Arnim
    Wittmayer, Julia
    Aldunce, Paulina
    Al Waer, Husam
    Battacharya, Nandini
    Bradbury, Hilary
    Carmen, Esther
    Colvin, John
    Cvitanovic, Christopher
    D'Souza, Marcella
    Gopel, Maja
    Goldstein, Bruce
    Hämäläinen, Timo
    Harper, Gavin
    Henfry, Tom
    Hodgson, Anthony
    Howden, Mark S.
    Kerr, Andy
    Klaes, Matthias
    Lyon, Christopher
    Midgley, Gerald
    Moser, Susanne
    Mukherjee, Nandan
    Müller, Karl
    O'Brien, Karen
    O'Connell, Deborah A.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Page, Glenn
    Reed, Mark S.
    Searle, Beverley
    Silvestri, Giorgia
    Spaiser, Viktoria
    Strasser, Tim
    Tschakert, Petra
    Uribe-Calvo, Natalia
    Waddell, Steve
    Rao-Williams, Jennifer
    Wise, Russell
    Wolstenholme, Ruth
    Woods, Mel
    Wyborn, Carina
    Ten essentials for action-oriented and second order energy transitions, transformations and climate change research2018Inngår i: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 40, s. 54-70Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The most critical question for climate research is no longer about the problem, but about how to facilitate the transformative changes necessary to avoid catastrophic climate-induced change. Addressing this question, however, will require massive upscaling of research that can rapidly enhance learning about transformations. Ten essentials for guiding action-oriented transformation and energy research are therefore presented, framed in relation to second-order science. They include: (1) Focus on transformations to low-carbon, resilient living; (2) Focus on solution processes; (3) Focus on 'how to' practical knowledge; (4) Approach research as occurring from within the system being intervened; (5) Work with normative aspects; (6) Seek to transcend current thinking; (7) Take a multi-faceted approach to understand and shape change; (8) Acknowledge the value of alternative roles of researchers; (9) Encourage second-order experimentation; and (10) Be reflexive. Joint application of the essentials would create highly adaptive, reflexive, collaborative and impact-oriented research able to enhance capacity to respond to the climate challenge. At present, however, the practice of such approaches is limited and constrained by dominance of other approaches. For wider transformations to low carbon living and energy systems to occur, transformations will therefore also be needed in the way in which knowledge is produced and used.

  • 14.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Jansson, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Ebbesson, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen, Stockholms miljörättscentrum (SMC).
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Albaeco, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Walker, Brian
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra, ACT, Australia .
    Reconnecting to the biosphere2011Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, nr 7, s. 719-738Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere, with a significant imprint on the Earth System, challenging social-ecological resilience. This new situation calls for a fundamental shift in perspectives, world views, and institutions. Human development and progress must be reconnected to the capacity of the biosphere and essential ecosystem services to be sustained. Governance challenges include a highly interconnected and faster world, cascading social-ecological interactions and planetary boundaries that create vulnerabilities but also opportunities for social-ecological change and transformation. Tipping points and thresholds highlight the importance of understanding and managing resilience. New modes of flexible governance are emerging. A central challenge is to reconnect these efforts to the changing preconditions for societal development as active stewards of the Earth System. We suggest that the Millennium Development Goals need to be reframed in such a planetary stewardship context combined with a call for a new social contract on global sustainability. The ongoing mind shift in human relations with Earth and its boundaries provides exciting opportunities for societal development in collaboration with the biosphere-a global sustainability agenda for humanity.

  • 15.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biermann, Frank
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Loorbach, Derk
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Allouche, Jeremy
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Reischl, Gunilla
    'Planetary boundaries' - exploring the challenges for global environmental governance2012Inngår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 80-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of studies from Earth system scientists argue that human activities drive multiple, interacting effects that cascade through the Earth system. Recent contributions state and quantify nine, interacting 'planetary boundaries' with possible threshold effects. This article provides an overview of the global governance challenges that follow from this notion of multiple, interacting and possibly non-linear 'planetary boundaries'. Here we discuss four interrelated global environmental governance challenges, as well as some possible ways to address them. The four identified challenges are related to, first, the interplay between Earth system science and global policies, and the implications of differences in risk perceptions in defining these boundaries; second, the capacity of international institutions to deal with individual 'planetary boundaries', as well as interactions between them; third, the role of international organizations in dealing with 'planetary boundaries' interactions; and fourth, the role of global governance in framing social ecological innovations.

  • 16.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, T
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Can web crawlers revolutionize ecological monitoring?2010Inngår i: Frontiers in ecology and the environment, ISSN 1540-9295, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 99-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite recent advances, ecosystem service monitoring is limited by insufficient data, the complexity of social–ecological systems, and poor integration of information that tracks changes in ecosystems and economic activities. However, new information and communication technologies are revolutionizing the generation of, and access to, such data. Can researchers who are interested in ecological monitoring tap into these increased flows of information by “mining” the internet to detect “early-warning” signs that may signal abrupt ecological changes? Here, we explore the possibility of using web crawlers and internet-based information to complement conventional ecological monitoring, with a special emphasis on the prospects for avoiding “late warnings”, that is, when ecosystems have already shifted to less desirable states. Using examples from coral reef ecosystems, we explore the untapped potential, as well as the limitations, of relying on web-based information to monitor ecosystem services and forewarn us of negative ecological shifts.

  • 17.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Polycentric systems and interacting planetary boundaries: Emerging governance of climate change—ocean acidification—marine biodiversity2012Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 81, s. 21-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Planetary boundaries and their interactions pose severe challenges for global environmental governance due to their inherent uncertainties and complex multi-scale dynamics. Here we explore the global governance challenge posed by planetary boundaries interactions by focusing on the role of polycentric systems and order, a theoretical field that has gained much interest in the aftermath of claims of a stagnant UN-process. In the first part we work toward a clarification of polycentric order in an international context, and develop three propositions. We then present a case study of the emergence of international polycentricity to address interacting planetary boundaries, namely the climate change, ocean acidification and loss of marine biodiversity complex. This is done through a study of the Global Partnership on Climate, Fisheries and Aquaculture (PaCFA) initiative. As the case study indicates, a range of mechanisms of polycentric order (ranging from information sharing to coordinated action and conflict resolution) operates at the international level through the interplay between individuals, international organizations and their collaboration patterns. While polycentric coordination of this type certainly holds potential, it is also vulnerable to internal tensions, unreliable external flows of funding, and negative institutional interactions.

  • 18.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Boin, Arjen
    Ituarte-Lima, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hey, Ellen
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Westley, Frances
    Global Governance Dimensions of Globally Networked Risks: The State of the Art in Social Science Research2017Inngår i: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 4-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Global risks are now increasingly being perceived as networked, and likely to result in large-scale, propagating failures and crises that transgress national boundaries and societal sectors. These so called globally networked risks pose fundamental challenges to global governance institutions. A growing literature explores the nature of these globally networked or systemic risks. While this research has taught us much about the anatomy of these risks, it has consistently failed to integrate insights from the wider social sciences. This is problematic since the prescriptions that result from these efforts flow from naive assumptions about the way real-world state and non-state actors behave in the international arena. This leaves serious gaps in our understanding of whether networked environmental risks at all can be governed. The following essay brings together decades of research by different disciplines in the social sciences, and identifies five multi-disciplinary key insights that can inform global approaches to governing these. These insights include the influence of international institutions; the dynamics and effect of international norms and legal mechanisms; the need for international institutions to cope with transboundary and cross-sectoral crises; the role of innovation as a strategy to handle unpredictable global risks; and the necessity to address legitimacy issues.

  • 19. Gelcich, Stefan
    et al.
    Hughes, Terry P.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Defeo, Omar
    Fernandez, Miriam
    Foale, Simon
    Gunderson, Lance H.
    Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos
    Scheffer, Marten
    Steneck, Robert S.
    Castilla, Juan C.
    Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 107, nr 39, s. 16794-16799Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social-ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world.

  • 20. Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    et al.
    Reyes-Garcia, Victoria
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Montes, Carlos
    Traditional ecological knowledge and community resilience to environmental extremes: a case study in Donana, SW Spain2012Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 640-650Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in the last decade has emphasised the potential contribution of traditional ecological knowledge to cope with challenges from global environmental change. This research examines the role of traditional ecological knowledge and shared systems of beliefs in building long-term social-ecological resilience to environmental extremes. Data were collected from 13 villages of the Donana region, southwestern Spain, through interviews, focus groups, and systematic reviews of historical archives. First, we assess adaptive practices to cope with environmental change. Then, we use historical records of religious ceremonies (1577-1956) to reconstruct collective responses to environmental extremes. Our results (1) show how environmental extremes could induce social and economic crises through declines in ecosystem services and (2) identify practices to cope with recurrent disturbance and institutional devices developed in response to environmental extremes. We conclude that traditional ecological knowledge and shared systems of beliefs can facilitate collective responses to crises and contribute to the maintenance of long-term resilience of social-ecological systems.

  • 21.
    Hahn, T.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, C.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, P.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social Networks as Sources of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems2008Inngår i: Complexity science for a sustainable future, Princeton University Press , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22. Herrfahrdt-Pähle, Elke
    et al.
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Gelcich, Stefan
    Pahl-Wostl, Claudia
    Sustainability transformations: socio-political shocks as opportunities for governance transitions2020Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 63, artikkel-id 102097Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with accelerating environmental challenges, research on social-ecological systems is increasingly focused on the need for transformative change towards sustainable stewardship of natural resources. This paper analyses the potential of rapid, large-scale socio-political change as a window of opportunity for transformative change of natural resources governance. We hypothesize that shocks at higher levels of social organization may open up opportunities for transformation of social-ecological systems into new pathways of development. However, opportunities need to be carefully navigated otherwise transformations may stall or lead the social-ecological system in undesirable directions. We investigate (i) under which circumstances socio-political change has been used by actors as a window of opportunity for initiating transformation towards sustainable natural resource governance, (ii) how the different levels of the systems (landscape, regime and niche) interact to pave the way for initiating such transformations and (iii) which key features (cognitive, structural and agency-related) get mobilized for transformation. This is achieved through analyzing natural resource governance regimes of countries that have been subject to rapid, large-scale political change: water governance in South Africa and Uzbekistan and governance of coastal fisheries in Chile. In South Africa the political and economic change of the end of the apartheid regime resulted in a transformation of the water governance regime while in Uzbekistan after the breakdown of the Soviet Union change both at the economic and political scales and within the water governance regime remained superficial. In Chile the democratization process after the Pinochet era was used to transform the governance of coastal fisheries. The paper concludes with important insight on key capacities needed to navigate transformation towards biosphere stewardship. The study also contributes to a more nuanced view on the relationship between collapse and renewal.

  • 23. Hughes, TP
    et al.
    Gunderson, LH
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Baird, AH
    Bellwood, D
    Berkes, F
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Helfgott, A
    Leslie, H
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Olsson, Per
    Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Scheffer, M
    Schuttenberg, H
    Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef and the Grand Canyon world heritage areas2007Inngår i: Ambio, Vol. 36, nr 7, s. 586-592Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Järnberg, Linn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Enfors Kautsky, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dagerskog, Linus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Green niche actors navigating an opaque opportunity context: Prospects for a sustainable transformation of Ethiopian agriculture2018Inngår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 71, s. 409-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying trajectories of agricultural development that enable substantial increases in food production is of prime importance for food security and human development in Sub-Saharan Africa in general, and Ethiopia in particular. To ensure long-term welfare for people and landscapes, it is imperative that such agricultural transformations sustain and enhance the natural resource base upon which agriculture depends. To understand the prospects for a sustainable transformation of Ethiopian agriculture we develop a new conceptual framework for sustainability transformations that combines insights from the social-ecological transformations literature with research on socio-technical transitions and institutional entrepreneurship. Using this framework, we analyse the agricultural development trajectory currently envisaged by the government, as expressed in policy narratives and public institutions. We also explore the opportunity context facing non-state actors who promote sustainable intensification (referred to as green niche actors), as well as the strategies they employ to navigate this context and lever change in the direction they perceive as desirable. We find that current policies for agricultural development are primarily dominated by a narrative of Agriculture as an engine for growth, which focuses on the role of external inputs and commercialisation in boosting agricultural production so as to drive economic growth. While another narrative of Natural resource rehabilitation exists in policy, it sees natural resource management as a means of reducing degradation rather than a crucial component of enhanced and sustainable agricultural production, and the policies largely decouple issues of natural resources from issues of agricultural production. Institutional structures in the agricultural sector are found to reflect these discursive patterns. Further, the general institutional context in the country is characterised by strong government domination and rigid structures, which indicates an opaque opportunity context with limited opportunities for niche actors to have an impact. Given these challenging conditions, green niche actors adapt their strategies to fit the existing opportunity context and choose to collaborate closely with the government and the extension system. While this strategy offers the possibility of a direct impact at potentially large scale, it also leads to a range of trade-offs for the green niche actors and ultimately reduces the prospects for a sustainable agricultural transformation. In conclusion, an adaptation of the regime's proposed development trajectory for Ethiopian agriculture is, under current conditions, a more likely scenario than a more fundamental sustainability transformation, although options remain for more transformative action. Through the case of Ethiopian agriculture, this study adds insights into how transformation processes could play out in non-Western contexts where a strong state plays a dominant role, thus broadening the scope of empirical applications of the emerging research field on social-ecological transformations. We also demonstrate how the multilevel perspective from the transition literature and the concepts of opportunity context and situated agency from the literature on institutional entrepreneurship can be fruitfully merged with the social-ecological transformations literature, thereby moving towards a more comprehensive conceptual framework for analysing sustainability transformations.

  • 25. Lam, David P. M.
    et al.
    Jiménez Aceituno, Amanda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Leuphana University Lüneburg, Germany.
    Lara, Leonie Guerrero
    Sellberg, My M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moore, Michele-Lee
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Victoria, Canada.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Amplifying actions for food system transformation: insights from the Stockholm region2022Inngår i: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 2379-2395Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food is essential to people and is one of the main ways in which people are connected to the world’s ecosystems. However, food systems often cause ecosystem degradation and produce ill-health, which has generated increasing calls to transform food systems to be more sustainable. The Swedish food system is currently undergoing substantial change. A varied set of local actors have created alternative sustainability initiatives that enact new ways of doing, thinking, and organizing. These actors can increase the transformative impact of their initiatives through multiple actions and a variety of amplification processes. We analyzed the actions adopted by 29 food initiatives active in the Stockholm region using information available online. We conducted 11 interviews to better understand the amplification processes of speeding up (i.e., accelerating impact), scaling up (i.e., influencing higher institutional levels), and scaling deep (i.e., changing values and mind-sets). Our results indicated that the initiatives mainly seek to stabilize and grow their impact while changing the awareness, values, and mind-sets of people concerning the food they consume (scaling deep). However, these approaches raise new questions about whether these actions subvert or reinforce current unsustainable and inequitable system dynamics. We suggest there are distinct steps that local and regional governments could take to support these local actors via collaborations with coordinated forms of initiatives, and fostering changes at the municipality level, but these steps require ongoing, adaptive approaches given the highly complex nature of transformative change and the risks of reinforcing current system dynamics. 

  • 26.
    Merrie, Andrew
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    An innovation and agency perspective on the emergence and spread of Marine Spatial Planning2014Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 44, s. 366-374Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The roles of governance and technological innovation have been widely recognized as important parts of sustainability transitions. However, less attention has been paid to understanding the mechanisms of the emergence and spread of innovative ideas for stewardship of social-ecological systems. This study considers how theories of innovation and agency are able to provide explanatory power regarding the spread and impact of such ideas. This includes how innovations may contribute to resolving the mismatches between the scale of ecological processes and the scale of governance of ecosystems. The emergence and spread of Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is used as an illustrative case study. The study shows that individuals embedded in informal networks have played a key role in driving the emergence of MSP across scales and in constantly re-framing the tool in order to overcome obstacles to adoption and implementation. In a number of cases, MSP has been decoupled from the ecosystem despite being framed as a tool for ecosystem-based management. Finally, this study is important to understand the process of emergence of new integrated tools for ecosystem stewardship at the global level.

  • 27.
    Moore, Michele-Lee
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Victoria, Canada.
    Hermanus, Lauren
    Drimie, Scott
    Rose, Loretta
    Mbaligontsi, Mandisa
    Musarurwa, Hillary
    Ogutu, Moses
    Oyowe, Khanyisa
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Disrupting the opportunity narrative: navigating transformation in times of uncertainty and crisis2023Inngår i: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 1649-1665Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    COVID-19 posed threats for health and well-being directly, but it also revealed and exacerbated social–ecological inequalities, worsening hunger and poverty for millions. For those focused on transforming complex and problematic system dynamics, the question was whether such devastation could create a formative moment in which transformative change could become possible. Our study examines the experiences of change agents in six African countries engaged in efforts to create or support transformative change processes. To better understand the relationship between crisis, agency, and transformation, we explored how they navigated their changed conditions and the responses to COVID-19. We document three impacts: economic impacts, hunger, and gender-based violence and we examine how they (re)shaped the opportunity contexts for change. Finally, we identify four kinds of uncertainties that emerged as a result of policy responses, including uncertainty about the: (1) robustness of preparing a system to sustain a transformative trajectory, (2) sequencing and scaling of changes within and across systems, (3) hesitancy and exhaustion effects, and (4) long-term effects of surveillance, and we describe the associated change agent strategies. We suggest these uncertainties represent new theoretical ground for future transformations research.

  • 28.
    Moore, Michele-Lee
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nilsson, Warren
    Rose, Loretta
    Westley, Frances R.
    Navigating emergence and system reflexivity as key transformative capacities: experiences from a Global Fellowship program2018Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, nr 2, artikkel-id 38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The distinction between adaptive and transformative capacities is still not well understood, and in this study we aimed to build a transformative learning space to strengthen transformative capacities. We proposed that two capacities will be essential to transformation: the capacity to navigate emergence and cross-scale systems reflexivity. We outline our efforts to design and deliver a Global Fellowship program in social innovation, intended to strengthen these two capacities among practitioners already engaged in socially innovative work. Results indicated that the concepts, frameworks, and experiences introduced through the Fellowship led to four key insights about these capacities. Firstly, individual Fellows and their organizations were able to see some complex system dynamics that were previously invisible, which in turn, allowed Fellows to see the distribution of resources and agency across the system in new ways. Secondly, engaging with diversity is essential in social innovation and transformative change processes, and system reflexivity aided in doing this. Additionally, Fellows indicated they were able to identify different kinds of opportunities and the generative potential that can lie within social-ecological systems. Lastly, the findings demonstrate the challenging nature of crossing scales and how a transformative space, such as a Fellowship, helps to practice the experience of contestation, unpredictability, and the uncontrollable dynamics of transformation and social innovation.

  • 29. Moore, Michele-Lee
    et al.
    Tjornbo, Ola
    Enfors, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Knapp, Corrie
    Hodbod, Jennifer
    Baggio, Jacopo A.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biggs, Duan
    Studying the complexity of change: toward an analytical framework for understanding deliberate social-ecological transformations2014Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 54-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES) that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.

  • 30.
    Norström, Albert V.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Graham, Nicholas A. J.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Williams, Gareth J.
    Guiding coral reef futures in the Anthropocene2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 14, nr 9, s. 490-498Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic changes to the Earth now rival those caused by the forces of nature and have shepherded us into a new planetary epoch - the Anthropocene. Such changes include profound and often unexpected alterations to coral reef ecosystems and the services they provide to human societies. Ensuring that reefs and their services endure during the Anthropocene will require that key drivers of coral reef change fishing, water quality, and anthropogenic climate change - stay within acceptable levels or safe operating spaces. The capacity to remain within these safe boundaries hinges on understanding the local, but also the increasingly global and cross-scale, socioeconomic causes of these human drivers of change. Consequently, local and regional management efforts that are successful in the short term may ultimately fail if current decision making and institution-building around coral reef systems remains fragmented, poorly coordinated, and unable to keep pace with the escalating speed of social, technological, and ecological change.

  • 31.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Beijer Institute.
    Building transformative capacity for ecosystem stewardship in social-ecological systems2010Inngår i: Adaptive Capacity and Environmental Governance / [ed] Armitage, D. and Plummer, R., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, s. 263-285Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Building transformative capacity in social-ecological systems: insights and challenges2010Inngår i: Adaptive Capacity and Environmental Governance / [ed] Derek Armitage, Ryan Plummer, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, s. 263-285Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a “resilience lens” to identify gaps in the understanding of capacity to transform social-ecological systems’ (SES) trajectories toward ecosystem stewardship and highlight some challenges that need to be addressed. We draw on the organizational evolution literature in combination with the latest insights on SES transformations to give a more detailed understanding of what constitute transformative capacity. Two case studies illustrate the possibilities and challenges. SES transformations require knowledge and skills that can link ecosystem and social system dynamics, and develop strategies to overcome barriers and enable institutional changes that foster transformations. We identify some criteria that seem important for developing a framework for analyzing transformations and assessing transformative capacity in social-ecological systems. These criteria include experimentation and innovation, agency and social networks, opportunity context, diversity, boundaries, and collaboration.

  • 33.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. naturresurshushållning.
    Galaz, Viktor
    Hahn, Thomas
    Schultz, Lisen
    Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. naturresurshushållning.
    Enhancing the fit through adaptive comanagement: creating and maintaining bridging functions for matching scales in the Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve Sweden2007Inngår i: Ecology and Society, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 28-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 34.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hughes, Terry P.
    Navigating the transition to ecosystem-based management of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 105, nr 28, s. 9489-9494Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the strategies and actions that enable transitions toward ecosystem-based management using the recent governance changes of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park as a case study. The interplay among individual actors, organizations, and institutions at multiple levels is central in such transitions. A flexible organization, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, was crucial in initiating the transition to ecosystem-based management. This agency was also instrumental in the subsequent transformation of the governance regime and provided leadership throughout the process. Strategies involved internal reorganization and management innovation, leading to an ability to coordinate the scientific community, to increase public awareness of environmental issues and problems, to involve a broader set of stakeholders, and to maneuver the political system for support at critical times. The transformation process was induced by increased pressure on the Great Barrier Reef (from terrestrial runoff, over-harvesting, and global warming) that triggered a new sense of urgency to address these challenges. The focus of governance shifted from protection of selected individual reefs to stewardship of the larger-scale seascape. The study emphasizes the significance of stewardship that can change patterns of interactions among key actors and allow for new forms of management and governance to emerge in response to environmental change. This example illustrates that enabling legislations or other social bounds are essential, but not sufficient for shifting governance toward adaptive comanagement of complex marine ecosystems.

  • 35.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-ecological innovation and transformation2011Inngår i: Social innovation: blurring boundaries to reconfigure markets / [ed] Alex Nicholls and Alex Murdoch, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, s. 223-Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moore, Michele-Lee
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Victoria, Canada.
    A resilience-based transformations approach to peacebuilding and transformative justice2024Inngår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 66, artikkel-id 101392Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving from a state of war or violent conflict will require a transformation, but there are no guarantees that transformations automatically lead to peace, sustainability, and justice. This review focuses on the temporary phase when a system is in limbo between the existing, dominant state and a new alternative state. We combine insights from a resilience approach to transformations with peacebuilding and transformative justice studies to focus on three roles that hybrid approaches to transformative and transitional justice may play in this phase, including 1) addressing ‘backlash’ dynamics, 2) strengthening the capacities needed to navigate cross-scale dynamics of conflict, and 3) responding to additional shocks, crises, and disturbances beyond the primary conflicts. Together, these findings advance the theoretical foundations for understanding peacebuilding as a transformative change process.

  • 37.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moore, Michele-Lee
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Victoria, Canada.
    Westley, Frances R.
    McCarthy, Daniel D. P.
    The concept of the Anthropocene as a game-changer: a new context for social innovation and transformations to sustainability2017Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, nr 2, artikkel-id 31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    After tracing the antecedents of the concept and considering its intersection in social innovation research, we put forward the argument that the Anthropocene concept points to three areas of thought that are strategically imperative and must be accelerated if social innovation theory and practice is to prove transformative and respond to the challenges associated with the Anthropocene. First, we contend that the current debate on social innovation for sustainability lacks a deeper focus on human-environmental interactions and the related feedbacks, which will be necessary to understand and achieve large-scale change and transformations to global sustainability. Many innovations focus on only the social or the ecological, and we believe a more integrated approach will be needed moving forward. Second, social innovation research must confront the path-dependencies embedded within systems, and we propose that the act of "bricolage," which recombines existing elements in novel ways, will be essential, rather than single variable solutions, which currently dominate social innovation discussions. Finally, we put forward the idea that confronting the cross-scalar nature of the Anthropocene requires revisiting both the scope and temporal nature of social innovations that are most typically focused upon by scholars and funders alike. We believe the concept of the Anthropocene creates new opportunities for social innovation scholars to imagine new possibilities.

  • 38.
    Pereira, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa; City University of London, UK.
    Frantzeskaki, Niki
    Hebinck, Aniek
    Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi
    Drimie, Scott
    Dyer, Michelle
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. James Cook University, Australia.
    Eakin, Hallie
    Galafassi, Diego
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Karpouzoglou, Timos
    Marshall, Fiona
    Moore, Michele-Lee
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mario Siqueiros-García, J.
    van Zwanenberg, Patrick
    Vervoort, Joost M.
    Transformative spaces in the making: key lessons from nine cases in the Global South2020Inngår i: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 161-178Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Creating a just and sustainable planet will require not only small changes, but also systemic transformations in how humans relate to the planet and to each other, i.e., social-ecological transformations. We suggest there is a need for collaborative environments where experimentation with new configurations of social-ecological systems can occur, and we refer to these as transformative spaces. In this paper, we seek a better understanding of how to design and enable the creation of transformative spaces in a development context. We analyse nine case studies from a previous special issue on Designing Transformative Spaces that aimed to collect examples of cutting-edge action-oriented research on transformations from the Global South. The analysis showed five design phases as being essential: Problem Definition Phase; Operationalisation Phase; Tactical Phase; Outcome Phase; and Reflection Phase. From this synthesis, we distilled five key messages that should be considered when designing research, including: (a) there are ethical dilemmas associated with creating a transformative space in a system; (b) it is important to assess the readiness of the system for change before engaging in it; (c) there is a need to balance between 'safe' and 'safe-enough' spaces for transformation; (d) convening a transformative space requires an assemblage of diverse methodological frameworks and tools; and (e) transformative spaces can act as a starting point for institutionalising transformative change. Many researchers are now engaging in transdisciplinary transformations research, and are finding themselves at the knowledge-action interface contributing to transformative space-making. We hope that by analysing experiences from across different geographies we can contribute towards better understanding of how to navigate the processes needed for the urgent global transformations that are being called for to create a more equitable and sustainable planet Earth.

  • 39. Pereira, Laura M.
    et al.
    Karpouzoglou, Timothy
    Frantzeskaki, Niki
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Designing transformative spaces for sustainability in social-ecological systems2018Inngår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, nr 4, artikkel-id 32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformations toward sustainability have recently gained traction, triggered in part by a growing recognition of the dramatic socio-cultural, political, economic, and technological changes required to move societies toward more desirable futures in the Anthropocene. However, there is a dearth of literature that emphasizes the crucial aspects of sustainability transformations in the diverse contexts of the Global South. Contributors to this Special Feature aim to address this gap by weaving together a series of case studies that together form an important navigational tool on the how to as well as the what and the where to of sustainability transformations across diverse challenges, sectors, and geographies. They propose the term transformative space as a safe-enough collaborative process whereby actors invested in sustainability transformations can experiment with new mental models, ideas, and practices that can help shift social-ecological systems onto more desirable pathways. The authors also highlight the challenges posed to researchers as they become transformative space-makers, navigating the power dynamics inherent in these processes. Because researchers and practitioners alike are challenged to provide answers to complex and often ambiguous or incomplete questions around sustainability, the ideas, reflections and learning gathered in this Special Feature provide some guidance on new ways of engaging with the world.

  • 40. Raudsepp-Hearne, C.
    et al.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bennett, E. M.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Pereira, L.
    Vervoort, J.
    Iwaniec, D. M.
    McPhearson, Timon
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The New School, USA.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hichert, T.
    Falardeau, M.
    Jiménez Aceituno, Amanda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Seeds of good anthropocenes: developing sustainability scenarios for Northern Europe2020Inngår i: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 605-617Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scenario development helps people think about a broad variety of possible futures; however, the global environmental change community has thus far developed few positive scenarios for the future of the planet and humanity. Those that have been developed tend to focus on the role of a few common, large-scale external drivers, such as technology or environmental policy, even though pathways of positive change are often driven by surprising or bottom-up initiatives that most scenarios assume are unchanging. We describe an approach, pioneered in Southern Africa and tested here in a new context in Northern Europe, to developing scenarios using existing bottom-up transformative initiatives to examine plausible transitions towards positive, sustainable futures. By starting from existing, but marginal initiatives, as well as current trends, we were able to identify system characteristics that may play a key role in sustainability transitions (e.g., gender issues, inequity, governance, behavioral change) that are currently under-explored in global environmental scenarios. We suggest that this approach could be applied in other places to experiment further with the methodology and its potential applications, and to explore what transitions to desirables futures might be like in different places.

  • 41.
    Rosen, Franciska
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Institutional entrepreneurs, global networks, and the emergence of international institutions for ecosystem-based management: The Coral Triangle Initiative2013Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 38, s. 195-204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the role of institutional entrepreneurship in the creation of an international agreement to radically transform management of coastal and marine resources in the Coral Triangle. It analyzes how institutional entrepreneurs develop strategies to overcome barriers to change and navigate opportunity contexts to mobilize support for ecosystem-based management. The analysis shows that institutional change depends on collaboration among several institutional entrepreneurs that have access to different networks and are supported by different types of organizations. It also shows that interplay between institutional entrepreneurship and high-level political leadership plays a critical role in institution building. Institutional entrepreneurs must therefore align their ideas of ecosystem-based management to multiple political priorities and transfer experience and social capital from previous multilateral projects. By supporting the development of new governance arenas for deliberation, institutional entrepreneurs may enhance the fit between domestic and multilateral policy making. Lastly, institutional entrepreneurship may raise critical questions about legitimacy, accountability and ownership.

  • 42.
    Schultz, Lisen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Olsson, Per
    Enhancing ecosystem management through social-ecological inventories: lessons from Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden2007Inngår i: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 140-152Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policy increasingly emphasizes involvement of local users and land owners in ecosystem management, but conservation planning is still largely a bureaucratic-scientific endeavour of identifying biological values for protection. Neither biological inventories nor stakeholder analyses, that tend to focus on conflicting interests, capture human resources in the landscape or the social structures and processes underlying biological conservation values. Social-ecological inventories are therefore proposed during the preparation phase of conservation projects as a means to identify people with ecosystem knowledge that practise ecosystem management. The method presented here focuses on local steward groups acting outside official management plans. In a social-ecological inventory of a river basin of southern Sweden, local steward groups, their ecosystem management activities, motives and links to other actors involved in ecosystem management were identified through interviews, participatory observations and a review of documents and other written material. Several hundred active local stewards were organized in 10 local steward groups that managed and monitored a range of ecosystem services at different spatial scales. Contributions of local stewards included on-site ecosystem management, long-term and detailed monitoring of species and ecosystem dynamics, local ecological knowledge, public support for ecosystem management and specialized networks. Two conservation projects are used to illustrate how local steward groups came together in multi-level networks and collaborated around specific conservation issues. The projects have been linked to ecosystem management at the landscape level through a flexible municipality organization, the Ecomuseum Kristianstads Vattenrike (EKV). EKV has acted as a ‘bridging organization’, coordinating and connecting many of the local steward groups to organizations and institutions at other levels. The process has been guided by social capital and shared visions for the whole landscape. The study shows that ecosystem management likely relies on multi-level collaboration and social-ecological inventories may help identify actors that are fundamental in such management systems. Social-ecological inventories should be employed in any attempt to develop and implement ecosystem management.

  • 43.
    Schultz, Lisen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden; Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, nr 24, s. 7369-7374Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives.

  • 44. Schäpke, Niko
    et al.
    Stelzer, Franziska
    Caniglia, Guido
    Bergmann, Matthias
    Wanner, Matthias
    Singer-Brodowski, Mandy
    Loorbach, Derk
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Baedeker, Carolin
    Lang, Daniel J.
    Jointly Experimenting for Transformation? Shaping Real-World Laboratories by Comparing Them2018Inngår i: GAIA, ISSN 0940-5550, E-ISSN 2625-5413, Vol. 27, s. 85-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-world laboratories (RwLs, German Reallabore) belong to a family of increasingly popular experimental and transdisciplinary research approaches at the science-society interface. As these approaches in general, and RwLs in particular, often lack clear definitions of key characteristics and their operationalization, we make two contributions in this article. First, we identify five core characteristics of RwLs: contribution to transformation, experimental methods, transdisciplinary research mode, scalability and transferability of results, as well as scientific and societal learning and reflexivity. Second, we compare RwLs to similar research approaches according to the five characteristics. In this way, we provide an orientation on experimental and transdisciplinary research for societal transformations, and reveal the contributions of this type of research in supporting societal change. Our findings enable learning across the different approaches and highlight their complementarities, with a particular focus on RwLs.

  • 45. Scoones, Ian
    et al.
    Stirling, Andrew
    Abrol, Dinesh
    Atela, Joanes
    Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi
    Eakin, Hallie
    Ely, Adrian
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Pereira, Laura
    Priya, Ritu
    van Zwanenberg, Patrick
    Yang, Lichao
    Transformations to sustainability: combining structural, systemic and enabling approaches2020Inngår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 42, s. 65-75Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The imperatives of environmental sustainability, poverty alleviation and social justice (partially codified in the Sustainable Development Goals or SDGs) call for ambitious societal transformations. As such, few aspects of actionable knowledge for sustainability are more crucial than those concerning the processes of transformation. This article offers a brief overview of different conceptualisations of transformation, and outlines a set of practical principles for effective research and action towards sustainability. We review three approaches to transformations, labelled: 'structural', 'systemic' and 'enabling'. We show how different ways of understanding what we mean by transformations can affect what actions follow. But these approaches are not mutually exclusive. We use an international set of examples on low carbon economy transformations, seed systems, wetland conservation and peri-urban development to show how they can be complementary and reinforcing. We describe three cross-cutting practical considerations that must be taken seriously for effective transformations to sustainability: diverse knowledges, plural pathways and the essentially political nature of transformation. Realizing the ambitions of the SDGs, we conclude, requires being clear about what we mean by transformation, and recognizing these basic methodological principles for action.

  • 46.
    Sellberg, My M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norrby, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nowak, Aleksander
    Rönnquist, Linnéa
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Alvsilver, Alexander
    Rapid Transition Lab: Navigating transformations in times of crises towards healthy, sustainable and just Swedish and planetary food systems2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The centrality of food to human flourishing combined with how food is currently a source of many social and environmental problems means that many of the broader sustainability challenges can be addressed by fundamental changes to the production, distribution, and consumption of food. Such changes are central to what has been referred to as food system transformations. Transformations require significant changes in multiple dimensions of society. History shows us that crises can create openings for transformation. This project aims to learn from the Covid-19 crisis and support the enabling of capacities for transforming Swedish food systems to promote health, equity, sustainability and resilience of people and the planet. We did this through a Rapid Transition Lab. The lab identified risks and opportunities emerging in the Swedish food systems due to the Covid-19 pandemic through a co-creative process with public, private and civil food system actors. Since the war in Ukraine started, the initial focus on the pandemic expanded during the project to encompass multiple crises. The lab has developed understanding and articulated strategic options for Swedish food system actors to engage in a rapid transition, while navigating multiple crises.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Stange, Kari
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Managing organizational change in an international scientific network: a study of ICES reform processes2012Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 681-688Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations involved in the governance of natural resources are challenged to adjust to the call for more holistic management approaches. This often necessitates organizational change. Here change processes in the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) during the years 1998–2009 are investigated using semi-structured interviews combined with observations and review of documents. Several organizational reforms were implemented during the time period studied. The major drivers were the need to improve efficiency and a striving for better integration between different components within the organization. The reform processes were driven forward by individuals who navigated between opportunities and constrains embedded in the network structure of ICES. This required good leadership and communication skills. Broad consultations were important to ensure support within the ICES community. By increasing the understanding of the dynamics of change in organizations, which operate at the science–policy interface developments in desired directions can be facilitated.

  • 48. Steneck, R. S.
    et al.
    Hughes, T. P.
    Cinner, J. E.
    Adger, W. N.
    Arnold, S. N.
    Berkes, F.
    Boudreau, S. A.
    Brown, K.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gunderson, L.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Scheffer, M.
    Stephenson, E.
    Walker, B.
    Wilson, J.
    Worm, B.
    Creation of a Gilded Trap by the High Economic Value of the Maine Lobster Fishery2011Inngår i: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 904-912Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Unsustainable fishing simplifies food chains and, as with aquaculture, can result in reliance on a few economically valuable species. This lack of diversity may increase risks of ecological and economic disruptions. Centuries of intense fishing have extirpated most apex predators in the Gulf of Maine (United States and Canada), effectively creating an American lobster (Homarus americanus) monoculture. Over the past 20 years, the economic diversity of marine resources harvested in Maine has declined by almost 70%. Today, over 80% of the value of Maine's fish and seafood landings is from highly abundant lobsters. Inflation-corrected income from lobsters in Maine has steadily increased by nearly 400% since 1985. Fisheries managers, policy makers, and fishers view this as a success. However, such lucrative monocultures increase the social and ecological consequences of future declines in lobsters. In southern New England, disease and stresses related to increases in ocean temperature resulted in more than a 70% decline in lobster abundance, prompting managers to propose closing that fishery. A similar collapse in Maine could fundamentally disrupt the social and economic foundation of its coast. We suggest the current success of Maine's lobster fishery is a gilded trap. Gilded traps are a type of social trap in which collective actions resulting from economically attractive opportunities outweigh concerns over associated social and ecological risks or consequences. Large financial gain creates a strong reinforcing feedback that deepens the trap. Avoiding or escaping gilded traps requires managing for increased biological and economic diversity. This is difficult to do prior to a crisis while financial incentives for maintaining the status quo are large. The long-term challenge is to shift fisheries management away from single species toward integrated social-ecological approaches that diversify local ecosystems, societies, and economies.

  • 49.
    Søgaard Jørgensen, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Avila Ortega, Daniel Itzamna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Blasiak, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Cornell, Sarah E.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The lure of novel biological and chemical entities in food-system transformations2022Inngår i: One Earth, ISSN 2590-3330, E-ISSN 2590-3322, Vol. 5, nr 10, s. 1085-1088Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic chemicals and biologically engineered materials are major forces in today's food systems, but they are also major drivers of the global environmental changes and health challenges that characterize the Anthropocene. To address these challenges, we will need to increase assessment activity, promote alternative production practices with less reliance on such technologies, and regulate social campaigns and experiments. 

  • 50.
    Søgaard Jørgensen, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jansen, Raf E. V.
    Avila Ortega, Daniel Itzamna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Bolincentret för klimatforskning (tills m KTH & SMHI). Member of the Leibnitz Association, Potsdam, Germany.
    Donges, Jonathan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Member of the Leibnitz Association, Potsdam, Germany.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lade, Steven J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evolution of the polycrisis: Anthropocene traps that challenge global sustainability2023Inngår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 379, nr 1893, artikkel-id 20220261Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Anthropocene is characterized by accelerating change and global challenges of increasing complexity. Inspired by what some have called a polycrisis, we explore whether the human trajectory of increasing complexity and influence on the Earth system could become a form of trap for humanity. Based on an adaptation of the evolutionary traps concept to a global human context, we present results from a participatory mapping. We identify 14 traps and categorize them as either global, technology or structural traps. An assessment reveals that 12 traps (86%) could be in an advanced phase of trapping with high risk of hard-to-reverse lock-ins and growing risks of negative impacts on human well-being. Ten traps (71%) currently see growing trends in their indicators. Revealing the systemic nature of the polycrisis, we assess that Anthropocene traps often interact reinforcingly (45% of pairwise interactions), and rarely in a dampening fashion (3%). We end by discussing capacities that will be important for navigating these systemic challenges in pursuit of global sustainability. Doing so, we introduce evolvability as a unifying concept for such research between the sustainability and evolutionary sciences.

12 1 - 50 of 54
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