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  • 1.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Department of Ecology.
    Ellmer, Maarten
    Lund University, Department of Ecology.
    Jorgensen, Tove, H.
    University of East Anglia, School of Biological Sciences.
    Palmé, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Quantitative genetic effects of bottlenecks: experimental evidence from a wild plant species, Nigella degenii2010In: Journal of Heredity, ISSN 0022-1503, E-ISSN 1465-7333, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 298-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the genetic consequences of changes in population size is fundamental in a variety of contexts, such as adaptation and conservation biology. In the study presented here, we have performed a replicated experiment with the plant Nigella degenii to explore the quantitative genetic effects of a single-founder bottleneck. In agreement with adetive theory, the bottleneck reduced the mean (co)variance within lines and caused stochastic, line-specific changes in the genetic (co)variance structure. However, a significant portion of the (co)variance structure was conserved, and 2 characters—leaf and flower (sepal) size—turned out to be positively correlated in all data sets, indicating a potential for correlated evolution in these characters, even after a severe bottleneck. The hierarchical partitioning of genetic variance for flower size was in good agreement with predictions from additive theory, whereas the remaining characters showed an excess of within-line variance and a deficiency of among-line variance. The latter discrepancies were most likely a result of selection, given the small proportion of lines (23%) that remained viable until the end of the experiment. Our results suggest that bottlenecked populations of N. degenii generally have a lower adaptive potential than the ancentral population but also highlight the idiosyncratic nature of bottleneck effects.

  • 2.
    Charlier, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Palmé, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Andersson, Jens
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Census (NC) and genetically effective (Ne) population size in a lake-resident population of brown trout Salmo trutta2011In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 79, no 7, p. 2074-2082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Census (NC) and effective population size (Ne) were estimated for a lake-resident population of brown trout Salmo trutta as 576 and 63, respectively. The point estimate of the ratio of effective to census population size (Ne:NC) for this population is 0·11 with a range of 0·06–0·26, suggesting that Ne:NC ratio for lake-resident populations agree more with estimates for fishes with anadromous life histories than the small ratios observed in many marine fishes

  • 3.
    Laikre, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Larsson, Lena C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Palmé, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Charlier, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Josefsson, Melanie
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Potentials for monitoring gene level biodiversity: using Sweden as an example2008In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 893-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Programs for monitoring biological diversity over time are needed to detect changes that can constitute threats to biological resources. The convention on biological diversity regards effective monitoring as necessary to halt the ongoing erosion of biological variation, and such programs at the ecosystem and species levels are enforced in several countries. However, at the level of genetic biodiversity, little has been accomplished, and monitoring programs need to be developed. We define “conservation genetic monitoring” to imply the systematic, temporal study of genetic variation within particular species/populations with the aim to detect changes that indicate compromise or loss of such diversity. We also (i) identify basic starting points for conservation genetic monitoring, (ii) review the availability of such information using Sweden as an example, (iii) suggest categories of species for pilot monitoring programs, and (iv) identify some scientific and logistic issues that need to be addressed in the context of conservation genetic monitoring. We suggest that such programs are particularly warranted for species subject to large scale enhancement and harvest—operations that are known to potentially alter the genetic composition and reduce the variability of populations.

  • 4.
    Laikre, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Miller, Loren M.
    University of Minnesota.
    Palmé, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Palm, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Kapuscinski, Anne R.
    University of Minnesota.
    Thoresson, Gunnar
    National Board of Fisheries.
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Spatial genetic structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea2005In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 1955-1964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genetic relationships among 337 northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from the coastal zone of the central Baltic region and the Finnish islands of Åland were analysed using five microsatellite loci. Spatial structure was delineated using both traditional F-statistics and individually based approaches including spatial autocorrelation analysis. Our results indicate that the observed genotypic distribution is incompatible with that of a single, panmictic population. Isolation by distance appears important for shaping the genetic structure of pike in this region resulting in a largely continuous genetic change over the study area. Spatial autocorrelation analysis (Moran’s I) of individual pairwise genotypic data show significant positive genetic correlation among pike collected within geographical distances of less than c. 100–150 km (genetic patch size). We suggest that the genetic patch size may be used as a preliminary basis for identifying management units for pike in the Baltic Sea.

  • 5.
    Laikre, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Palmé, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Internationellt fokus på laxgener2012In: HavsUtsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Laikre, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Palmé, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Josefsson, Melanie
    Department of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
    Utter, Fred
    School of Aquatic and Fisheries Sciences, University of Washington .
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Release of alien populations in Sweden2006In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 255-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction of alien species is a major threat to biological diversity. Although public attention typically focuses on the species level, guidelines from the Convention of Biological Diversity define alien species to include entities below species level. This inclusion recognizes that release of nonlocal populations of native species may also result in negative effects on biodiversity. In practice, little is known about the extent, degree of establishment, or the effects on natural gene pools of such releases. Existing information on the releases in Sweden shows that alien populations are spread to a great extent. The most commonly released species include brown trout, Atlantic salmon, Arctic char, common whitefish, Scots pine, Norway spruce, mallard duck, gray partridge, and pheasant. Although millions of forest trees, fish, and birds are released annually, poor documentation makes the geographic and genetic origin of these populations, as well as the sites where they have been released, largely unclear. We provide recommendations for urgently needed first steps relating to the risks and problems associated with release of alien populations.

  • 7.
    Laikre, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Palmé, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Larsson, Lena C
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Charlier, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Effekter av spridning av genetiskt främmande populationer: en kartläggning av förutsättningarna för uppföljande studier av utsättningar av djur och växter i Sverige2008Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Palmé, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Assessing and monitoring genetic patterns for conservation purposes with special emphasis on Scandinavia2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic variation is essential for biological evolution, for maintaining viability of populations, and to ensure ecosystem resilience. Increased human exploitation and environmental change result in rapid loss of biological variation, including genetic diversity. Measures to halt this trend require that biological diversity is assessed and monitored. Assessment of biodiversity includes identifying patterns of distribution of genetic variation within individual species.

    This thesis focuses on spatial genetic structure and assessment of units for conservation in continuous environments without apparent migration barriers. Empirical data refer to Scandinavia and the model species are northern pike (Esox lucius), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). Questions regarding monitoring genetic diversity and releases of alien populations are also addressed.

     The spatial genetic structure of the northern pike in the Baltic Sea is characterized by isolation by distance and continuous genetic change. Positive genetic correlation was found among pike within geographical distances of less than 150 km. This distance may be used to suggest management units in this area. For the brown trout, genetic monitoring identified two sympatric populations within a small mountain lake system. The situation is characterized by a clear genetic but no apparent phenotypic dichotomy. Scientific support for a genetically distinct Baltic harbour porpoise population is limited, and the spatial genetic structure of the harbour porpoise in Swedish waters needs to be clarified.

    Data for launching conservation genetic monitoring programs is available for only a few Swedish species. Millions of forest trees, fish, and birds are released annually in Sweden and the documentation on these releases is poor. To meet responsibilities of safeguarding biodiversity and surveying biological effects of releases, there is an urgent need for studies aimed at evaluating genetic diversity.

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  • 9.
    Palmé, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Populationsgenetik.
    Detection of spatial genetic structure and identification of conservation units in continuous environments.2007Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Palmé, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Spridning av främmande populationer i Sverige2005Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Palmé, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Genetic monitoring reveals two sympatric brown trout populations in a small mountain lakeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is contentious to what extent sympatric speciation represents a general and taxonomically widespread phenomenon. Documenting the occurrence of multiple, genetically distinct populations within areas lacking barriers to gene flow can increase our understanding of this type of speciation, because such populations are expected to represent the first steps of sympatric speciation. We analyzed the genetic relationships among over 4000 brown trout (Salmo trutta) collected during 19 sampling years from a series of small mountain lakes in northern Scandinavia. Our results clearly indicate the presence of two sympatric populations within these lakes. The populations are characterized by a high degree of genetic divergence coupled with a lack of apparent phenotypic dichotomy. The differentiation pattern appears stable over the two decades monitored, and the exchange of individuals between the two populations appears small. The existence of sympatric populations characterized by substantial genetic divergence may be a much more common phenomenon than anticipated, but difficult to detect in situations where morphological or ecological differentiation is missing. Larger samples than typically collected in a single sampling effort may be needed for revealing situations of sympatry, and for reliable estimation of the number of populations.

  • 12.
    Palmé, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Population genetics of harbour porpoise in Swedish waters - a literature review2004Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Palmé, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Utter, Fred
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Conservation genetics without knowing what to conserve: the case of the Baltic harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena2008In: Oryx, ISSN 0030-6053, E-ISSN 1365-3008, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 305-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective conservation requires that arguments for identifying units for preservation and management are based on scientifically sound information. There is a strong conservation concern for the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena of the Baltic Sea. This concern rests on the assumption that these porpoises represent a genetically distinct population reproductively separated from adjacent populations to the west. We argue that current scientific support for this claim is weak and to a large degree speculative. Current management of Baltic harbour porpoises as a genetically separate conservation unit is premature and we urge that high priority be given towards resolving this issue.

  • 14.
    Palmé, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Utter, Fred
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    The genetic structure of harbour porpoise in the Baltic Sea relative to adjacent waters remains to be clarified: a reply to Berggren & Wang2008In: Oryx, ISSN 0030-6053, E-ISSN 1365-3008, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 490-490Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Palmé, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Wennerström, Lovisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Guban, Peter
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Stopping compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea. Good or bad for Baltic salmon gene pools?: Report from the Baltic Salmon 2012 symposium and workshop, Stockholm university February 9-102012Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Workshop report
  • 16.
    Palmé, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Wennerström, Lovisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Guban, Peter
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity: Conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea2012Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Palmé, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Wennerström, Lovisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Guban, Peter
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Conclusions on conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea.: A brief summary of a synthesis report to the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management.2012Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Summary report
1 - 17 of 17
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